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Fire, Safety & First Aid
By Vipul Saxena
WHAT IS FIRE
Each of these three elements must be present at the same time to have
a fire. A fire will burn until one or m...
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF FIRE
 Class A:
It consist of ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, fabric,
plastic, and most k...
HOW TO CONTROL ON FIRE
 Class A Fire: Water, Oxygen reducing Agent, DCP, Fire reducing Path.
 Class B Fire: Water, Foam,...
 Pull the pin.
This will allow you to discharge the extinguisher.
 Aim at the base of the fire.
If you aim at the flames...
 Squeeze the top handle or lever.
This depresses a button that releases the pressurized extinguishing agent in the
exting...
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
There are three types:
1. L Types: Design to protect the life.
2. P Type: Design to protect the Building...
FIRE DETECTOR
 Heat Detectors:
Heat detectors are the oldest type of automatic fire detection
device. Heat detectors feat...
FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM
 Sprinkler systems are basically a chain of water pipes that are provided with a
dependable water s...
 WET SPRINKLER SYSTEM:
A wet fire sprinkler system is one which is continuously charged with water under force
and that c...
 DRY FIRE SYSTEMS:
These types of sprinkler systems are continuously charged with dense air,
holding the fire sprinkler r...
 PRE ACTION FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM
These types of sprinkler systems are a combination of electrical/mechanical sensing
sys...
 Deluge fire sprinkler systems
These types of sprinkler systems are also a combination of electrical/mechanical sensing
s...
Philosophy of fire and Approach to fire fighting
Every fire needs to have following component
1. Inflammable Material
2. A...
PREVENTIVE MEASURE TO AVOID FIRE
 Class A:
 Keep storage and working areas free of trash.
 Place oily rags in covered c...
BE PREPARED FOR FIRE EMERGENCY
 Periodically check the location of fire alarms and know how they
work.
 Learn your build...
When you notice a fire:
 Pull the nearest fire alarm “pull station” while exiting the floor.
 If there is no pull statio...
WHAT IS SAFETY
 The condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual,
financial, political, emotional, oc...
HOW SAFETY CAN AVOID THE HAZZARDS
 By Using PPE
 Implementing Safety rules & regulation to own employee, contract
employ...
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
 Helmet
 Goggle
 Ear Defender
 Mask
 Hand Gloves
 Apron
 Safety Shoe
SAFETY RULES & REGULATION
 For Own Employee:
 Process personnel should follow manufacturing instruction systematically.
...
SAFETY COMMITTEE
 Appointment of Safety Committee as per requirement of sec. 61 m of
Maharashtra factory rule 1963.
 Mem...
SAFETY TRAINING & AWARENESS
 Training:
 Safety Induction
 Mock Drill.
 Fire Fighting.
 First Aid.
 Hazardous waste m...
SAFETY WORK PERMIT
 There are two type of Classes and separate proforma used for each class.
 Class I: Hot Job
 Class I...
EXCAVATION WORK
 Injury and / or property damage and / or production interruption are not
uncommon in any industry whethe...
VESSEL ENTRY PERMIT
 Before taking up any maintenance work on vessels / equipment's. It is very essential to
check the ve...
Accident / Incident Investigation & Reporting
Accident: An undesired event that gives to death, ill health, injury, damage...
Chief Inspector of Factories authorities
 If accident or incident is serious in nature then unit head inform within 4
hou...
5. Corrective action are taken to eliminate the root causes of accident or incident.
6. Preventive Action:
 Prevention of...
FIRST AID
 First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a
sudden illness or injury, with care provided to pr...
FIRST AID BOX
 AS PER FACTORY ACT SCHEDULE (VI) [REGULATION 101 (3)] FIR AID
BOX CONTAIN FOLLOWING ITEM.
 First-aid manu...
WHY FIRST AID TRAINING
 If your employees aren't prepared to handle the injuries like shock, bleeding,
poisonings, burns,...
LEGAL OBLIGATION TO EMPLOYER
RELATED TO FIRE, SAFETY & FIRST AID
FIRE:
1. Before installing the factory, building plan re...
FIRST AID & SAFETY
1. Sufficient PPE provide to workers.
2. Drafting safety policy, rules & regulation. Display it in prom...
Fire safety first aid
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Presenatation on Industrial Fire & Safety written in simple language which can be used even for Domestic purpose also.

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Fire safety first aid

  1. 1. Fire, Safety & First Aid By Vipul Saxena
  2. 2. WHAT IS FIRE Each of these three elements must be present at the same time to have a fire. A fire will burn until one or more of the elements is removed.
  3. 3. WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF FIRE  Class A: It consist of ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, fabric, plastic, and most kinds of trash.  Class B: Flammable liquid & Gases flammable liquid such as gasoline (Diesel, petrol etc.) Flammable gases such as Natural Gas (Butane, Propane, Methane, LPG, CNG)  Class C: Electrical This sort of fire may be caused by short-circuiting machinery or overloaded electrical cables.  Class D: Metal Alkali & Alkaline Earth Metal (Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ti Zr etc)  Class K or Class F: (kitchen fires) Cooking oils and fats
  4. 4. HOW TO CONTROL ON FIRE  Class A Fire: Water, Oxygen reducing Agent, DCP, Fire reducing Path.  Class B Fire: Water, Foam, Sand, DCP  Class C Fire: Removal of Electricity, Sand.  Class D Fire: Depend on Metal.  Class K Fire: Removal of electricity, Co2 cylinder, Sand
  5. 5.  Pull the pin. This will allow you to discharge the extinguisher.  Aim at the base of the fire. If you aim at the flames (which is frequently the temptation), the extinguishing agent will fly right through and do no good. It should be used at 45 Degree Angle and into the wind.
  6. 6.  Squeeze the top handle or lever. This depresses a button that releases the pressurized extinguishing agent in the extinguisher  Sweep from side to side. Start using the extinguisher from a safe distance away, then move forward. Until the fire is completely extinguished.
  7. 7. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM There are three types: 1. L Types: Design to protect the life. 2. P Type: Design to protect the Building & Asset. 3. M Type: Design for Manual System
  8. 8. FIRE DETECTOR  Heat Detectors: Heat detectors are the oldest type of automatic fire detection device. Heat detectors feature a detecting element inside the unit that activates when it reaches a predetermined fixed temperature or when a specific increase in temperature has occurred. Heat detectors are best suited where fire detection is not prime concern.  Smoke Alarms: Smoke alarms will detect most fires more rapidly than heat detectors. There are currently three types of smoke alarms 1. Ionization: Detect smoke & radiation. 2. Photoelectric: Detect Smoke & light source. 3. combination (ionization/photoelectric ): Both
  9. 9. FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM  Sprinkler systems are basically a chain of water pipes that are provided with a dependable water supply. The responsibility of the sprinkler is to distribute water on the fire. The majority of the fire sprinkler systems also include a warning device to alarm residents and the disaster response force when a sprinkler activates (meaning when a fire occurs). The different kinds of fire sprinkler systems are 1. Wet System 2. Dry System 3. Pre-action System 4. Deluge System
  10. 10.  WET SPRINKLER SYSTEM: A wet fire sprinkler system is one which is continuously charged with water under force and that contains the fire sprinkler valves in the shut down posture. Water immediately flows on to the fire when the sprinkler head is triggered. Such kinds of sprinkler systems are normally set up in regions where the surrounding temperature is more than 32o F.
  11. 11.  DRY FIRE SYSTEMS: These types of sprinkler systems are continuously charged with dense air, holding the fire sprinkler regulator in closed position. When the head is set off, the air pressure drops, resulting in the opening of the valve, and water runs into the system and over the fire. Such kind of sprinkler systems are used at places where a frost possibility may occur and the ambient temperature is equal to or less than 32o F.
  12. 12.  PRE ACTION FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM These types of sprinkler systems are a combination of electrical/mechanical sensing systems. They are charged with dense air and are automatically filled up with water on electrical exposure to keep off unintentional water damage. They are set up in high risk regions like data processing installations or cold storages.
  13. 13.  Deluge fire sprinkler systems These types of sprinkler systems are also a combination of electrical/mechanical sensing systems. The pipes are not pressurized in these sprinkler systems. When the system is triggered water flows through all the sprinkler heads contained in the system. They are normally set up in high-risk regions like power plants, air docks, and chemical storeroom or treating installations. If you want to know about different brands and working of automatic sprinkler systems then look here.
  14. 14. Philosophy of fire and Approach to fire fighting Every fire needs to have following component 1. Inflammable Material 2. Air / Oxygen Content / Inflammable gas 3. Heat / Spark of fire Approach to Fire Fighting: To handle the fire in most efficient manner generally following actions in the given chronological order give better results. A) Contain the fire: Stop the fire from spreading Simultaneous Action 1. Switch of power supply. 2. Stop air intake to cut oxygen supply to fire. 3. Increase ventilation. 4. Evacuate the people. 5. Remove other material not yet catch fire. B) Cooling the adjacent compartment Simultaneous Action 1. Fight the fire with appropriate apparatus. 2. Remove all half burnt items. 3. Inform the fire station.
  15. 15. PREVENTIVE MEASURE TO AVOID FIRE  Class A:  Keep storage and working areas free of trash.  Place oily rags in covered containers.  Class B:  Don’t refuel gasoline-powered equipment (e.g. DG set) in a confined space, in the presence of an open flame, or while the equipment is hot.  Keep flammable liquids stored in a tightly closed container and away from spark producing sources.  Use flammable liquids only in well ventilated areas.  Class C:  Never install a fuse rated higher than specified for the circuit.  Investigate any appliance or electrical equipment that smells strange. Unusual odors can be the first sign of a potential fire.  Utility lights should always have some type of wire guard over them.  Class D  Knowledge of the properties of the metals and using good judgment and common sense will assist you in controlling or avoiding potential fires/reactions.
  16. 16. BE PREPARED FOR FIRE EMERGENCY  Periodically check the location of fire alarms and know how they work.  Learn your building evacuation plan (Emergency Exit).  Know where your two nearest exits are located. Learn how doors swing and where stairs lead.  Make sure nothing blocks fire pulls, extinguishers and emergency exits.  Learn the sound of your building fire alarm.  Post emergency numbers (including security and first aid) near your telephone.  Make sure you know what to do if the fire alarm sounds. Plan your escape.
  17. 17. When you notice a fire:  Pull the nearest fire alarm “pull station” while exiting the floor.  If there is no pull station:  Do not assume that anyone else has already called the fire department.  Stay calm and be prepared to answer the operator’s questions regarding the emergency.  EVACUATE ! Dial 022-22611942 Emergency Number For Mumbai Fort Area OR Alternate Emergency Number
  18. 18. WHAT IS SAFETY  The condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be considered non-desirable.  Safety can also be defined to be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk.
  19. 19. HOW SAFETY CAN AVOID THE HAZZARDS  By Using PPE  Implementing Safety rules & regulation to own employee, contract employees and visitors.  Safety Committee.  Safety Training & Awareness.  Safety Work Permit systems.  Accident/Incident Investigation System.
  20. 20. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT  Helmet  Goggle  Ear Defender  Mask  Hand Gloves  Apron  Safety Shoe
  21. 21. SAFETY RULES & REGULATION  For Own Employee:  Process personnel should follow manufacturing instruction systematically.  Ensure no skip & short cuts.  Maintain good housekeeping to avoid accident due to slip & fall.  Follow work permit system.  Always keep exits, staircases, fire points switch board & aisles from obstruction.  For Contract Labor :  While at work in factory contractor work must be carried out under guidance of particular department.  While handling material Contractor must know flammable & toxic property of material.  Before doing digging job by labor department take care of under ground cable & pipeline.  First aid facility available in factory. While it is contractor responsibility for providing further medical treatment.  For Visitors:  Do not entre in factory premises without permission of factory head.  Deposit matchbox, lighter, mobile phone, camera with security personnel.  Know your safety & escape route.  Do not entre in shop floor without consent of HOD.  Use PPE.
  22. 22. SAFETY COMMITTEE  Appointment of Safety Committee as per requirement of sec. 61 m of Maharashtra factory rule 1963.  Members:  Factory Manager- Chairman  Safety Manager- Secretary  All department HOD & Executive  Workers representative  Security Officer  Contractor  Safety committee should meet at least once in quarter.
  23. 23. SAFETY TRAINING & AWARENESS  Training:  Safety Induction  Mock Drill.  Fire Fighting.  First Aid.  Hazardous waste management.  Work Permit System.  Implementation of OSHA .  Awareness:  Celebration of Safety week.  Slogan & Poster Presentation Competition.  Display of Safety instruction in prominent location.  Safety Audit
  24. 24. SAFETY WORK PERMIT  There are two type of Classes and separate proforma used for each class.  Class I: Hot Job  Class II: Cold Job  Hot Job involves following work. 1. The work in which flame is used. 2. Excavation work, Vessel entry Work 3. Work on electrical system above 440 volt. 4. Ensure Fire extinguisher is available next to hot work spot 5. Only Blue colour Industrial gas cylinder should be used.  Cold Job involves following work. 1. Gland Packing jobs on valve & pump, changing of gasket, removal of flanges. 2. Cleaning of plant & idle equipment. 3. Working on electrical system below 440 volt. 4. Working on building & structure. 5. Painting work. 6. In case of any work being done at height 5ft & above safety lines are to be used and one security person should be available for alerting. Note : In both the cases Dispensary / Ambulance should be avaiable,
  25. 25. EXCAVATION WORK  Injury and / or property damage and / or production interruption are not uncommon in any industry whether during construction or after construction while carrying out excavations. Common causes for such incidents are as follows:- 1. Fall back of material. 2. Damage of electrical cable. 3. Damage of telephone cable. 4. Puncture of process lines. 5. Collapse of adjacent structure. 6. Damage of building equipment. 7. Release of toxic gases from the soil. 8. Scattering of the excavated material on to the roads / aisles / walkways etc. One or more of the above situations may arise in carrying out excavation operation. To prevent occurrence or reoccurrence of such incidents, excavation permit is required. Which will serve as a check against such mishaps.
  26. 26. VESSEL ENTRY PERMIT  Before taking up any maintenance work on vessels / equipment's. It is very essential to check the vessel / equipment thoroughly to free it from hazardous substance.  Once analysis is show favorable results the equipment vessel handed over to maintenance crew against vessel entry permit. Particular precaution are taken to be taken against 1. Oxygen Deficiency 2. Ventilation and illumination by 24 volts only.  Recommissioning After completion of work all the tools are removed, All illumination and ventilating accessories are removed. Permit is withdrawn and then only allow the system to be boxed up.
  27. 27. Accident / Incident Investigation & Reporting Accident: An undesired event that gives to death, ill health, injury, damage or other losses. Incident: An event that gives rise to an accident or has the potential to lead to an accident. Types of Injury/Disability: 1. First Aid Injury 2. Temporary Disability 3. Partial Disability 4. Total/Permanent Disability 5. Death Accident / Incident Reporting: If accident or incident is serious in nature then unit head inform within 4 hours by telephone, telegram or special messenger to Factory inspector & also inform to The District Magistrate or Sub Divisional Magistrate. The office in charge of the nearest Police Station and The nearest relatives of the injure or deceased person.
  28. 28. Chief Inspector of Factories authorities  If accident or incident is serious in nature then unit head inform within 4 hours by telephone, telegram or special messenger to Factory inspector and then confirmation of the same in prescribed Form No 18-A within 12 hours.  In case of poisoning or occupational disease send notice in Form No 19 to Medical Inspector of Factories Industrial Safety & Health.  The accident & incident also recorded in in the Register of Accident & Dangerous Occurrence maintained by the Form 26 & 26 A.  All the major & minor accident within the factory must be recorded in form 24. Accident / Incident Investigation: The prime purpose of such investigation is to prevent further accident / Incident. Therefore to find out why accident or incident happened. Procedure for Investigation: 1. Appoint investigation committee. 2. Gather facts but make no judgments or statements 3. Be friendly but professional 4. Interview all supervisors.
  29. 29. 5. Corrective action are taken to eliminate the root causes of accident or incident. 6. Preventive Action:  Prevention of accident required whole hearted cooperation of all employees. Capable mentally alert employee will avoid accidents.  A careless man is liability of the organization. He is dangerous to himself, his fellow workers, the public and the organization.  Accident do not just happen. Accident are the result of unsafe acts or unsafe condition or combination of both. Unsafe Act:  Not using PPE.  Not following SOP  Making safety device inoperative.  Using unsafe equipment wrong tools. Unsafe Condition:  Unguarded floor opening & excavation, exposed live circuit.  Improper illumination, insufficient light unsuitable location producing glare or shadow.  Unsafe design & construction, structure.
  30. 30. FIRST AID  First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, and/or promote recovery. THE UNIVERSAL FIRST AID SYMBOL
  31. 31. FIRST AID BOX  AS PER FACTORY ACT SCHEDULE (VI) [REGULATION 101 (3)] FIR AID BOX CONTAIN FOLLOWING ITEM.  First-aid manual  Sterile gauze pads of different sizes  Adhesive tape  Adhesive bandages in several sizes  Elastic bandage  Antiseptic wipes  Soap  Antibiotic ointment  Antiseptic solution (like H2O2)  Hydrocortisone cream (1%)  Acetaminophen and ibuprofen  Sharp scissors  Safety pins  Disposable instant cold packs  Calamine lotion  Alcohol wipes or ethyl alcohol  Thermometer
  32. 32. WHY FIRST AID TRAINING  If your employees aren't prepared to handle the injuries like shock, bleeding, poisonings, burns, temperature extremes, musculoskeletal injuries, bites and stings, in all shifts and their coworkers are left untreated until an ambulance arrives, a victim's condition may worsen and injuries can become far more debilitating, which leads to greater medical costs and lost productivity.  SOME FIRST AID TRAINING INSTITUTE IN MUMBAI  Green world group  St. John Ambulance  Blue marine group  Safepro Industrial solution.
  33. 33. LEGAL OBLIGATION TO EMPLOYER RELATED TO FIRE, SAFETY & FIRST AID FIRE: 1. Before installing the factory, building plan related to safety must be approved by state fire department. 1. Periodical inspection/maintenance of all fire equipment, fire extinguisher refilling and keep in working condition. 2. Proper Accident investigation system and submit information to factory inspector in prescribed format (Form 24)
  34. 34. FIRST AID & SAFETY 1. Sufficient PPE provide to workers. 2. Drafting safety policy, rules & regulation. Display it in prominent location. 3. Formation of Safety Committee. 4. Emergency contact details display in prominent location. 5. Periodical inspection/examination of tools, tackles, material handling equipment, pressure vessel, lift, conveyor, pulley by authorized person . 6. Safety Audit of premises by authorized external agency. 7. Fire, First Aid & safety training given to employees. 8. Periodical examination of factory by authorized agency.  Weather Monitoring report.  Work Place Air Quality Report.  Noise Analysis Report.  Effluent Analysis. 9. Medical checkup of all employees once in year by certified surgeon (form 7B)
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Presenatation on Industrial Fire & Safety written in simple language which can be used even for Domestic purpose also.

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