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  1. J.C.B Training 2016 Raj Sons Auto Pvt. Ltd Present By Vishal Singh
  2. Engine • Any device which can convert heat energy of fuel into mechanical energy is known as engine or heat engine. • Engine is widely used in automobile industries or we can say that engine is the heart of an automobile.
  3. Specification F.I.P Sump Fan Pulley Water Pulley Crankshaft Pulley Idler Pulley Auto Tensioner Pulley Inlet Manifold
  4. Types Of Engine Basically engine may be classified into two types. 1. External combustion (E.C.) Engine It is an engine in which combustion of fuel take place outside of the engine. In this type of engine heat, which is generated by burning of fuel is use to convert the water or other low boiling temperature fluid into steam. This high pressure steam used to rotate a turbine. In this engine we can use all solid, liquid and gases fuel. These engines are generally used in driving locomotive, ships, generation of electric power etc. • Advantages of E.C. engine-  In these engines starting torque is generally high.  Because of external combustion we can use cheaper fuels as well as solid fuel.  They are more flexible compare to internal combustion engines.
  5. 2. Internal Combustion (I.C.) Engine • It is an engine in which combustion of fuel take place inside the engine. When the fuel burns inside the engine cylinder, it generates a high temperature and pressure. This high pressure force is exerted on the piston (A device which free to moves inside the cylinder and transmit the pressure force to crank by use of connecting rod), which used to rotate the wheels of vehicle. In these engines we can use only gases and high volatile fuel like petrol, diesel. These engines are generally used in automobile industries, generation of electric power etc. • Advantages of I.C. engine- • It has overall high efficiency over E.C. engine. • These engines are compact and required less space. • Initial cost of I.C. engine is lower than E.C. engine. • This engine easily starts in cold because of it uses high volatile fuel.
  6. Types of I.C. Engine I.C. engine is widely used in automobile industries so it is also known as automobile engine. An automobile engine may be classified in many manners. Today I am going to tell you some important classification of an automobile engine. • According to number of stroke: 1. Two stroke engine In a two stroke engine a piston moves one time up and down inside the cylinder and complete one crankshaft revolution during single time of fuel burn. This type of engine has high torque compare to four stroke engine. These are generally used in scooters, pumping sets etc. 2. Four stroke engine In a four stroke engine piston moves two times up and down inside the cylinder and complete two crankshaft revolutions during single time of fuel burn. This type of engines has high average compare to two stroke engine. These are generally used in bikes, cars, truck etc.
  7. According to design of engine: 1. Reciprocating engine (piston engine) In reciprocating engine the pressure force generate by combustion of fuel exerted on the piston (A device which free to move in reciprocation inside the cylinder). So the piston starts reciprocating motion (too and fro motion). This reciprocating motion converts into rotary motion by use of crank shaft. So the crank shaft starts to rotate and rotate the wheels of vehicle. These are generally used in all automobile. 2. Rotary engine (Wankel engine) In rotary engine there is a rotor which frees to rotate. The pressure force generate by burning of fuel is exerted on this rotor so the rotor rotate and starts to rotate the wheels of vehicle. This engine is developed by Wankel in 1957. This engine is not used in automobile in present days.
  8. According to method of ignition 1. Compression ignition engine In these types of engines, there is no extra equipment to burn the fuel. In these engines burning of fuel starts due to temperature rise during compression of air. So it is known as compression ignition engine. 2. Spark ignition engine In these types of engines, ignition of fuel start by the spark, generate inside the cylinder by some extra equipment. So it is known as spark ignition engine.
  9. According to number of cylinder 1. Single cylinder engine In this type of engines have only one cylinder and one piston connected to the crank shaft. 2. Multi-cylinder engine In this type of engines have more than one cylinder and piston connected to the crank shaft.
  10. According to arrangement of cylinder 1. In-line engine In this type of engines, cylinders are positioned in a straight line one behind the other along the length of the crankshaft.
  11. 2. V-type engine An engine with two cylinder banks inclined at an angle to each other and with one crankshaft known as V-type engine.
  12. 3. Opposed cylinder engine An engine with two cylinders banks opposite to each other on a single crankshaft (V-type engine with 180o angle between banks).
  13. 4. Radial engine It is an engine with pistons positioned in circular plane around the central crankshaft. The connecting rods of pistons are connected to a master rod which, in turn, connected to the crankshaft.
  14. Diesel Engine The Diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine) is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the high temperature which a gas achieves when greatly compressed (adiabatic compression). The diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency (engine efficiency) of any practical internal or external combustion engine due to its very high expansion ratio and inherent lean burn which enables heat dissipation by the excess air. A small efficiency loss is also avoided compared to two- stroke non-direct-injection gasoline engines since unburnt fuel is not present at valve overlap and therefore no fuel goes directly from the intake/injection to the exhaust
  15. Diesel Engine Components Main parts – structural parts (stationary part.) – running parts
  16. Structural parts PURPOSE: - to support running parts - to keep them in position and line - to provide jackets and passages for cooling water, sumps, for lube oil - to form protective casing for running parts - to support auxiliaries (valves, camshaft, turbo blowers)
  17. Running parts PURPOSE - to convert the power of combustion in the cylinders to mechanical work
  18. Systems PURPOSE - Supply of air - Removal of exhaust - Turbocharging - Supply and injection of fuel - Lubrication - Cooling
  19. Structural parts Bedplate Frame or column Engine or cylinder block Cylinder liners Cylinder head or cover
  20. Bedplate • foundation on which the engine is built • must be rigid enough to support the rest of the engine and hold the crankshaft which sits on the bearing housing in alignment with transverse girders • at the same time, the bedplate has to be flexible enough to hog and sag with the foundation plate to which it is attached and which forms part of the ship structure
  21. Bedplate
  22. Frame • load-carrying part of an engine • it may include parts as the cylinder block,base, sump and end plates • in two-stroke engines, frames are sometimes known as A-frames
  23. Frame
  24. Cylinder Block =engine block • part of the engine frame that supports the engine cylinder liners, heads and crankshafts • cylinder blocks for most large engines are made of castings and plates that are welded horizontally and vertically for strength and rigidity (stiffener) • entablature = cylinder block which incorporates the scavenge air spaces in two-stroke engines
  25. Cylinder block
  26. Cylinder liner • A bore in which an engine piston moves back and forth replaceable • the material of the liner must withstand extreme heat and pressure developed within the combustion space at the top of the cylinder, and at the same time must permit the piston and its sealing rings to move with a minimum of friction
  27. Major running parts Piston Piston rod Crosshead Connecting rod Crankshaft & its bearings
  28. Piston • one of the major moving parts • crown • skirt • must be designed to withstand extreme heat and combustion pressure • made of cast iron or aluminium (to reduce weight)
  29. Piston
  30. The piston transform the energy of the expanding gases into mechanical energy. The piston rides in the cylinder liner or sleeve. Piston are commonly made of aluminum and cast iron alloy. The rings are usually made of cast iron and coated with chrome or molybdenum. Most Diesel engine pistons have several rings ,with each ring performing a distinct function. • The top ring act as the pressure seal. • The intermediate ring act as a wiper ring to remove and control the amount of oil film on the cylinder walls. • The bottom ring is an oiler ring and ensures that a supply of lubrication oil is evenly deposited on cylinder walls.
  31. Connecting rod • It is fitted between the crosshead and the crankshaft • It transmits the firing force, and together with the crankshaft converts the reciprocating motion to a rotary motion
  32. Connecting Rod
  33. Crankshaft & its Bearings • One of the largest moving parts • It consists of a series of cranks formed in a shaft • Converts reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion • Counterweights for balancing purposes
  34. Crankshaft
  35. Bearings
  36. Major running parts
  37. Arrangements for the air supply and gas exhaust: Valves (inlet & exhaust) Valve gear (camshaft & camshaft drive, push rod, rocker arm, spring) Manifolds, scavenging and supercharging (Turbo blower systems)
  38. Engine Lubrication Basics Lubrication plays a key role in the life expectancy of an engine. Without oil, an engine would succumb to overheating and seizing very quickly. Lubricants help mitigate this problem, and if properly monitored and maintained, can extend the life of your motor.
  39. Where Engine Lubrication Begins The process of lubrication in an internal combustion engine begins in the sump, commonly referred to as the oil pan. From here, the oil is pulled through a strainer, by the oil pump, removing larger contaminants from the mass of the fluid. The oil then goes through the oil filter. It is important to note that not all filters perform the same. A filter’s ability to remove particles is dependent upon many factors, including the media material (pore size, surface area and depth of filter), the differential pressure across the media, and the flow rate across the media. Oil is pumped through passageways to the various components of the engine such as the cam, main bearings, rod, pistons, etc. Gravity then pulls the oil back down to the bottom of the motor to drain back into the sump, and the cycle repeats.
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