2. Film Censorship
• Government and organizations’ duties to
prevent the material which is not appropriate.
Say for example: In war time informations
about troop activities, battles, quarrels and
• In peace time it becomes more problematic.
3. • In central board of film certification , the
regulatory film body of India orders directors to
remove anything if is seems offensive including
sex, unnecessary conflicts, violence.
• In 2002, the film “War and Peace” depicting
scenes of nuclear testing, 2001 attacks created by
Anand Patwardhan, was asked to make 21 cuts
before it was allowed to have the certificate for
• Patwardhan objected, saying “ The cuts they
asked for are so ridiculous. They won’t hold up in
court but if these cuts do make it, it will be the
end of freedom of expression!
4. Central Board of Film Certification
• The Central Board of Film Certification (often
referred to as the Censor Board) is a
statutory censorship and classification body
under the Ministry of Information and
Broadcasting, Government of India. It is tasked
with "regulating the public exhibition of films
under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act
1952". It assigns certifications to films, television
shows, television ads, and publications for
exhibition, sale or hire in India. Films can be
publicly exhibited in India only after they are
certified by the Board.
5. Theatrical Release Certificates
(1) Certificate: U ( Universal)
Unrestricted Public Exhibition throughout India, suitable for all
age groups. Films under this category should not upset children
over 4. Such films may contain educational, social or family-
oriented themes. Films under this category may also contain
fantasy violence,very mild sex scenes and/or mild bad language.
(2) Certificate : UA (Parental Guidance)
All ages admitted, but it is advised that children below 12
be accompanied by a parent as the theme or content may
be considered intense or inappropriate for young children.
Films under this category may contain mature
themes, sexual references, mild sex scenes, violence with
brief gory images and/or infrequent use of crude language.
6. (3) Certificate: A (Adults only)
Restricted to adult audiences (18 years or over).
Nobody below the age of 18 may buy/rent an A-
rated DVD, VHS,UMD or watch a film in the cinema with
this rating. Films under this category may contain
adult/disturbing themes, frequent crude language,
brutal violence with blood and gore, strong sex scenes
and/or scenes of drug abuse which is considered
unsuitable for minors.
(4) Certificate: S (Restricted to any special class of
This rating signifies that the film is meant for a
7. • The newly released SLB’s movie Ram-Leela was held in a
controversy the court banned the release of the movie. The Court
feels that the title Ram-Leela allegedly hurt Hindu sentiments.
• Rajputs in Rajasthan have blocked the screening of
Jodha Akbar, the big budget film, accusing Gowarikar
of distorting history. According to them, Jodhaa was
the daughter of Udai Singh of Marwar and was
married to Salim, Akbar's son.
8. • Higly acclaimed in the international film festivals “Bandit Queen'
received as many interpretations as it faced criticism. The movie
is based on the life of a dacoit Phoolan Devi. However excess
nudity, sex and violence lead the movie to Indian censor board,
which was then banned. Meanwhile, Phoolan Devi herself tried to
get a stay order to prevent the movie's release.
Deepa Mehta’s fire was ahead of time movie when homosexuality
was not easily talked. The audiences went into frenzy at this first
mainstream portrayal of a lesbian relationship - and protests and
the usual drama by Shiv Sena supporters. There was a massive
uproar throughout the nation between the protesters and the
supporters of this path-breaking movie.
9. Film Review and Criticism
• Evaluation and analysis of the films
• Journalistic criticism which appears in daily
news papers, magazines, journals.
• Academic criticism by scholars.
• Artistic merit or public appeal
• Filmgoers’ attention on reviews
• Film companies saw profits profits decrese
across a broader number of films.
• In order to develop film studioos incresed
marketing to create more interest.
10. Discussion of films on television is focused on the
amount of box office business a film does,
Financial success is prioritized.
A CRITIC is anyone who expresses a value
It can be either positive or negative.
Criticism should have purpose.
Critic is supposed to be definable.
He should have constructive or deconstructive view.
11. • An academic approach.
• It is known as film theory or film study.
• Questions of why, what, when, how, are to be
taken into consideration!
• Imagination or realism.
• Effects on people.