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Design for All
Lecture One
Vladimir Tomberg, PhD

Design for ALL

1
What is the Course About?
•
•
•
•
•

It is not about Graphic Design
It is not about Web Design
It is about Awareness
It is...
Evaluation Criteria
• Practice workshops – 20%
• Essay – 30%
• The Individual Design Project – 50%

Design for ALL

3
Some Tools and Resources

Design for ALL

4
LePress
http://lepress.net/vladimir/

Design for ALL

5
Pinterest

http://www.pinterest.com/vtomberg/universal-design/
Design for ALL

6
Recommended Reading

The Accessible Home Facebook Page
https://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Accessible-Home
Design for ALL

...
Lesson Agenda
•
•
•
•

Definitions
Why Design for All?
Personal Human Characteristics
Homework assignments
“We must become the
change we want to see in the
world.”
Image courtesy to http://www.wikipedia.org/
– Ghandi
Design for A...
A Soup of the Terms:

Inclusive Design
Design for All
Universal Design
Accessibility

Design for ALL

10
Geography of the Terms

Design for ALL

11
Inclusive Design
• Defined in 2000 by the UK Government as
"products, services and environments that
include the needs of ...
Design For All
• Closely related to Inclusive Design, Design for All
started by looking at barrier-free accessibility for
...
Universal Design
• This term originated in the USA and is now
adopted by Japan and the Pacific Rim. It started
with a stro...
Classical Example of Universal Design:
Curb Cut
(Dropped Kerb in UK)

Image: courtesy to DINF
Design for ALL

15
Example: Oxo Good Grips

• In 1990, Oxo International introduced its Good
Grips kitchen utensils for people who were
limit...
Accessible Design
• Accessible design is a design process in which
the needs of people with disabilities are
specifically ...
Difference Between UD and
Accessibility
• Universal design strives to integrate people with
disabilities into the mainstre...
Other terms that are sometimes used
with varying relevance:
Co-design
People-centered Design
User-focused Design
Transgene...
Why Design for All?
Easiness of Use
Only a small proportion of users find
products easy to use

Product Experience

Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit....
Only a small proportion of users find
products easy to use

Product Experience

Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit....
Only a small proportion of users find
products easy to use

Product Experience

Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit....
Only a small proportion of users find
products easy to use

Product Experience
“2 out of 3 Americans report having lost in...
Features and Complexity
In Microsoft Word 1.0 there were about 100 features.
Word 2003 has over 1500
9 out of 10 features ...
Features and Complexity Example

Mouse with a label printer on the side
Design for ALL

27
Design can improve product usability
and experience

Design for ALL

28
Demographic Changes
Impact of ageing

Design for ALL

29
The Future’s Bright, the Future’s Grey
In 1950 there were
200 Million over 65’s
worldwide

In 2005
673 Million

By 2050
2 ...
Potential Support Ratio
• Potential Support Ratio (PSR) is the ratio of
the number of 15-64 year olds who could
support on...
The changing world
In 1950 the PSR
was 12:1

Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
The changing world
In 2000 the PSR
was 9:1

Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
The changing world
In 2050 the PSR
will be 4:1

Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
The changing world
In 2050 for the
developed world
it will be 2:1

Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
Estimated Population for 2020

Image: courtesy to Design for All Foundation

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36
Estimated Population for 2050

Image: courtesy to Design for All Foundation

Design for ALL

37
The impact of age
How many people have less than “Full ability”?

Source: 1996/97 Disability follow-up survey
Old People are not the Same
Old People yesterday
≠
Old People today
≠
Old People tomorrow (you)

Design for ALL

39
The impact of age
Money to spend and time to spend it

Source: 1996 Family expenditure survey
Personal Human Characteristics
Ordinary Person
• “In the great majority of cases, humancomputer interface research seems to assume
that “the user” will b...
One Size Fits All
“… the human interface of
some software applications
gives the impression that
the designer’s model of t...
Typical Persona: no Data About
Personal Abilities

Image courtesy of http://barnabasnagy.net/

Design for ALL

44
Set of Personas in
http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com

Design for ALL

45
Dependency and Autonomy
During Life

Image courtesy of Design For All Foundation

Design for ALL

46
Persona with Important Personal
Factors Listed
• Rose is an 83 year old great
grandmother. Although fiercely
independent, ...
Diversity of Personal Abilities

WHO International Classification of Functioning,
Disability and Health (ICF)

Design for ...
Main Body Functions
(according to WHO Classification)
•
•
•
•

•
•
•
•

Mental functions
Sensory functions and pain
Voice ...
A Model Of Product Interaction
An interaction with a
product involves a cycle
where the user’s
capabilities are used to
pe...
Functions that Participate in
Interaction and Affect Design
Vision

Hearing
Thinking
Communication
Locomotion
Reach & stre...
Understanding Vision

We use information from the visual sense in order to move around and
interact with objects and envir...
Four Functions of Visual System that are
Discussed in the Context of Designing Products
1. Visual acuity — the ability to ...
Visual functions: Visual acuity

Different combinations of font size and style — the
top line is a serif font, the middle ...
Visual functions: Visual acuity

The same images viewed with reduced
visual clarity
User capabilities from inclusive desig...
Visual functions:
Contrast sensitivity

In order to determine which color combinations are
most effective, try viewing thi...
Visual functions:
Contrast sensitivity

The same image viewed with reduced
brightness contrast
User capabilities from incl...
Visual functions:
Usable visual field

A ticket machine that has poor clarity of layout
viewed with normal vision, and the...
Visual functions:
Usable visual field

This shows a redesigned layout for the same
machine, which enables the overall layo...
Distribution of Vision Ability (UK)
V1 - Cannot tell by the light where the windows are
V2 - Cannot see the shapes of furn...
Understanding hearing

User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit

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61
Major Hearing Functions that are
Considered in Design Applications
1. Sound detection — the ability to detect
beeps, tones...
Sound detection

Design inclusion can be maximized by allowing the user to
customize the type and volume of the sounds emi...
Speech discrimination

Following a conversation is more difficult in a noisy
environment, especially for those with reduce...
Speech discrimination

Products with speech output can be difficult to
understand if the ambient noise levels are loud
Use...
Sound localization

Reduced sound localization ability could lead to fatal
consequences in busy environments
User capabili...
Environmental context

The ability to understand announcements and
speech depends on the background noise level
User capab...
Environmental context

Reverberation in large halls and public spaces can
make speech unintelligible
User capabilities fro...
Distribution of Hearing Ability (UK)
H1 - Cannot hear sounds at all
H2 - Cannot follow a TV programme with the volume
turn...
Sensory capability

Prevalence of the population with less than full ability in vision
and hearing, where the overlapping ...
Cognitive processes
1. Perceiving involves processing to convert low-level
senses, such as light, shade and color into hig...
Cognitive processes
4. Attention can consciously direct the focus of working
memory towards specific things in the
environ...
How the Different Processes Involved with Thinking
Relate to Each Other and to a Product in the World

User capabilities f...
Perceiving

The face on this mould is actually sticking out backwards from the
page, but visual processing misinterprets t...
Working memory

Working memory is involved in the awareness of where objects are in
relation to each other, and in the tem...
Long-term Memory

The shape and form of these doors suggests how
they should be opened
User capabilities from inclusive de...
Long-term Memory

People of different ages have different experience
backgrounds, and in most cases the user's past
experi...
Attention

Using products such as car stereos while driving
imposes additional load onto attention resources
User capabili...
Attention

Driving a car adds time pressure to crucial
decisions, such as whether to turn off on a slip road
User capabili...
Visual Thinking

Careful inspection of this cooker top shows a subtle visual link
between each knob and the corresponding ...
Verbal Thinking

The icons on the fax machine are reinforced by
accompanying text, whereas those on the photocopier
are no...
Verbal Thinking

A message that uses simple language and gives
information in multiple forms is preferable to one that
ass...
Thinking Disabilities
• Often loses track of what is being said in the middle of a
conversation
• Thoughts tend to be mudd...
The thinking Ability Level (UK)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

T1 - 11 disabilities
T2 - 10 disabilities
T3 - 9 disabilities
T4 ...
Communication
•

A product interface makes a communication demand
on the user. Text and speech can describe what
controls ...
Communication ability level
(in increasing order) (UK)
•
•

•

•

•
•

C1
Finds it impossible to
understand people who kno...
Cognitive capability

Prevalence of the population with less than full ability in intellectual
function and communication,...
Homeworks
1. Observation (two weeks)
2. Essay (Deadline – December 10, 2013)
3. The Individual Design Project – Opportunit...
End of the Lesson

Design for ALL

89
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Design for all. Lecture 1

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Design for all. Lecture 1

  1. 1. Design for All Lecture One Vladimir Tomberg, PhD Design for ALL 1
  2. 2. What is the Course About? • • • • • It is not about Graphic Design It is not about Web Design It is about Awareness It is about Design Thinking It is about Tools and Methods Design for ALL 2
  3. 3. Evaluation Criteria • Practice workshops – 20% • Essay – 30% • The Individual Design Project – 50% Design for ALL 3
  4. 4. Some Tools and Resources Design for ALL 4
  5. 5. LePress http://lepress.net/vladimir/ Design for ALL 5
  6. 6. Pinterest http://www.pinterest.com/vtomberg/universal-design/ Design for ALL 6
  7. 7. Recommended Reading The Accessible Home Facebook Page https://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Accessible-Home Design for ALL 7
  8. 8. Lesson Agenda • • • • Definitions Why Design for All? Personal Human Characteristics Homework assignments
  9. 9. “We must become the change we want to see in the world.” Image courtesy to http://www.wikipedia.org/ – Ghandi Design for ALL 9
  10. 10. A Soup of the Terms: Inclusive Design Design for All Universal Design Accessibility Design for ALL 10
  11. 11. Geography of the Terms Design for ALL 11
  12. 12. Inclusive Design • Defined in 2000 by the UK Government as "products, services and environments that include the needs of the widest number of consumers". • The social ideals include healthcare and housing for everyone. Inclusive Design is used within Europe and goes beyond older and disabled people to focus on other excluded groups to deliver mainstream solutions. Design for ALL 12
  13. 13. Design For All • Closely related to Inclusive Design, Design for All started by looking at barrier-free accessibility for people with disabilities but has become a strategy for mainstream, inclusive solutions. • As highlighted by the European Commission, it is about ensuring that environments, products, services and interfaces work for people of all ages and abilities in different situations and under various circumstances. • This term is used in continental Europe and Scandinavia. Design for ALL 13
  14. 14. Universal Design • This term originated in the USA and is now adopted by Japan and the Pacific Rim. It started with a strong focus on disability and the built environment. • It was defined by The Center for Universal Design at North Carolina State University as "the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design" Design for ALL 14
  15. 15. Classical Example of Universal Design: Curb Cut (Dropped Kerb in UK) Image: courtesy to DINF Design for ALL 15
  16. 16. Example: Oxo Good Grips • In 1990, Oxo International introduced its Good Grips kitchen utensils for people who were limited by arthritis • Oxo International grew at a 40% to 50% annual rate from 1990 to 1995, to $20 million a year Image courtesy of www.phaidon.com Design for ALL 16
  17. 17. Accessible Design • Accessible design is a design process in which the needs of people with disabilities are specifically considered. • Accessibility sometimes refers to the characteristic that products, services, and facilities can be independently used by people with a variety of disabilities. Design for ALL 17
  18. 18. Difference Between UD and Accessibility • Universal design strives to integrate people with disabilities into the mainstream and assistive technology attempts to meet the specific needs of individuals • Accessibility is only slightly different to Universal Design, describing the degree to which a product, service, and/or environment is made available to everyone. • So whereas the former is a design methodology (similar to user-centered design), the latter is its most commonly associated metric Design for ALL 18
  19. 19. Other terms that are sometimes used with varying relevance: Co-design People-centered Design User-focused Design Transgenerational Design Design for ALL 19
  20. 20. Why Design for All?
  21. 21. Easiness of Use
  22. 22. Only a small proportion of users find products easy to use Product Experience Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com Design for ALL 22
  23. 23. Only a small proportion of users find products easy to use Product Experience Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com Design for ALL 23
  24. 24. Only a small proportion of users find products easy to use Product Experience Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com Design for ALL 24
  25. 25. Only a small proportion of users find products easy to use Product Experience “2 out of 3 Americans report having lost interest in a technology products because it seemed too complex to set up or operate.” - Philips Index (2004) Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com Design for ALL 25
  26. 26. Features and Complexity In Microsoft Word 1.0 there were about 100 features. Word 2003 has over 1500 9 out of 10 features that customers wanted added to Office were already in the program. "They simply don't know it's there" Chris Capossela, Microsoft VP Only 13% of the public believes that in general technology products are “easy to use” Phillips Index Study 2004 Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com Design for ALL 26
  27. 27. Features and Complexity Example Mouse with a label printer on the side Design for ALL 27
  28. 28. Design can improve product usability and experience Design for ALL 28
  29. 29. Demographic Changes Impact of ageing Design for ALL 29
  30. 30. The Future’s Bright, the Future’s Grey In 1950 there were 200 Million over 65’s worldwide In 2005 673 Million By 2050 2 Billion
  31. 31. Potential Support Ratio • Potential Support Ratio (PSR) is the ratio of the number of 15-64 year olds who could support one person 65+ Image: courtesy to Youth Connection Design for ALL 31
  32. 32. The changing world In 1950 the PSR was 12:1 Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  33. 33. The changing world In 2000 the PSR was 9:1 Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  34. 34. The changing world In 2050 the PSR will be 4:1 Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  35. 35. The changing world In 2050 for the developed world it will be 2:1 Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  36. 36. Estimated Population for 2020 Image: courtesy to Design for All Foundation Design for ALL 36
  37. 37. Estimated Population for 2050 Image: courtesy to Design for All Foundation Design for ALL 37
  38. 38. The impact of age How many people have less than “Full ability”? Source: 1996/97 Disability follow-up survey
  39. 39. Old People are not the Same Old People yesterday ≠ Old People today ≠ Old People tomorrow (you) Design for ALL 39
  40. 40. The impact of age Money to spend and time to spend it Source: 1996 Family expenditure survey
  41. 41. Personal Human Characteristics
  42. 42. Ordinary Person • “In the great majority of cases, humancomputer interface research seems to assume that “the user” will be an ordinary person with average abilities” Alistair D. N. Edwards Extra-ordinary Human-computer Interaction: Interfaces for Users with Disabilities, 1995 Design for ALL 42
  43. 43. One Size Fits All “… the human interface of some software applications gives the impression that the designer’s model of the user was a 25-year-old male with a doctorate in computer science who is besotted with technology and is more interested in playing with a computer than in completing useful job of work!” Alistair D. N. Edwards Design for ALL 43
  44. 44. Typical Persona: no Data About Personal Abilities Image courtesy of http://barnabasnagy.net/ Design for ALL 44
  45. 45. Set of Personas in http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com Design for ALL 45
  46. 46. Dependency and Autonomy During Life Image courtesy of Design For All Foundation Design for ALL 46
  47. 47. Persona with Important Personal Factors Listed • Rose is an 83 year old great grandmother. Although fiercely independent, she struggles with everyday tasks like shopping, cooking and housework. Carol and David need to come round most days to help. • She still greatly enjoys an active social life - including her regular bridge and quiz night every week and going out for meals with the whole family. • Unlike David, Rose has come to accept her hearing aid as a necessity. She has worn reading glasses for many years and always carries them with her. Design for ALL 47
  48. 48. Diversity of Personal Abilities WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Design for ALL 48
  49. 49. Main Body Functions (according to WHO Classification) • • • • • • • • Mental functions Sensory functions and pain Voice and speech functions Functions of the cardiovascular, hematological, immunological and respiratory systems Functions of the digestive, metabolic and endocrine systems Genitourinary and reproductive functions Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Functions of the skin and related structures Design for ALL 49
  50. 50. A Model Of Product Interaction An interaction with a product involves a cycle where the user’s capabilities are used to perceive, think and then act User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 50
  51. 51. Functions that Participate in Interaction and Affect Design Vision Hearing Thinking Communication Locomotion Reach & stretch Dexterity User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 51
  52. 52. Understanding Vision We use information from the visual sense in order to move around and interact with objects and environments. The effective design of any product or environment should take into account the range of human visual abilities User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 52
  53. 53. Four Functions of Visual System that are Discussed in the Context of Designing Products 1. Visual acuity — the ability to see fine details of objects; 2. Contrast sensitivity — the ability to discriminate between different brightness levels 3. Color perception — the ability to distinguish between different colors 4. Usable visual field — the ability to use the whole of the visual field to perceive detail in the area being looked at and the surrounding area User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 53
  54. 54. Visual functions: Visual acuity Different combinations of font size and style — the top line is a serif font, the middle line a sans serif font, and bottom line a decorative font User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 54
  55. 55. Visual functions: Visual acuity The same images viewed with reduced visual clarity User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 55
  56. 56. Visual functions: Contrast sensitivity In order to determine which color combinations are most effective, try viewing this image at various distances from your eyes and squinting as you read it User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 56
  57. 57. Visual functions: Contrast sensitivity The same image viewed with reduced brightness contrast User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 57
  58. 58. Visual functions: Usable visual field A ticket machine that has poor clarity of layout viewed with normal vision, and the same ticket machine viewed with poor peripheral vision User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 58
  59. 59. Visual functions: Usable visual field This shows a redesigned layout for the same machine, which enables the overall layout to be perceived, even with a peripheral vision loss User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 59
  60. 60. Distribution of Vision Ability (UK) V1 - Cannot tell by the light where the windows are V2 - Cannot see the shapes of furniture in a room V3 - Cannot see well enough to recognize a friend if close to his face V4 - Cannot see well enough to recognize a friend who is at arm's length away V5 - Cannot see well enough to read a newspaper headline V6 - Cannot see well enough to read a large print book V7 - Cannot see well enough to recognize a friend across a room V8 - Has difficulty recognizing a friend across the road V9 - Has difficulty reading ordinary newspaper print V10 - Full vision ability (not shown) User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 60
  61. 61. Understanding hearing User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 61
  62. 62. Major Hearing Functions that are Considered in Design Applications 1. Sound detection — the ability to detect beeps, tones and other sound output from various products 2. Speech discrimination — the ability to detect and understand speech in quiet and noisy environments 3. Sound localization — the ability to tell which direction a sound is coming from User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 62
  63. 63. Sound detection Design inclusion can be maximized by allowing the user to customize the type and volume of the sounds emitted User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 63
  64. 64. Speech discrimination Following a conversation is more difficult in a noisy environment, especially for those with reduced ability to discriminate speech User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 64
  65. 65. Speech discrimination Products with speech output can be difficult to understand if the ambient noise levels are loud User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 65
  66. 66. Sound localization Reduced sound localization ability could lead to fatal consequences in busy environments User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 66
  67. 67. Environmental context The ability to understand announcements and speech depends on the background noise level User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 67
  68. 68. Environmental context Reverberation in large halls and public spaces can make speech unintelligible User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 68
  69. 69. Distribution of Hearing Ability (UK) H1 - Cannot hear sounds at all H2 - Cannot follow a TV programme with the volume turned up H3 - Has difficulty hearing someone talking in a loud voice in a quiet room H4 - Cannot hear a doorbell, alarm clock or telephone bell H5 - Cannot use the telephone H6 - Cannot follow a TV programme at a volume others find acceptable H7 - Has difficulty hearing someone talking in a normal voice in a quiet room H8 - Has great difficulty following a conversation against background noise H9 - Full hearing ability (not shown) User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 69
  70. 70. Sensory capability Prevalence of the population with less than full ability in vision and hearing, where the overlapping circles indicate the population that has capability losses in both categories User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 70
  71. 71. Cognitive processes 1. Perceiving involves processing to convert low-level senses, such as light, shade and color into high-level perceptions such as objects, faces, and an overall understanding of the environment 2. Working memory describes the temporary storage used to process and rearrange all information with reference to perceptions of the current environment and long-term stored memories 3. Long-term memory describes the processes through which information encountered repeatedly in working memory can be learnt, stored indefinitely, and retrieved User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 71
  72. 72. Cognitive processes 4. Attention can consciously direct the focus of working memory towards specific things in the environment, and affects awareness of the environment by filtering out non-attended things; yet salient or intrusive events can also "grab" attention unconsciously 5. Visual thinking is the ability to perceive and think about visual objects and spatial relationships in two and three dimensions 6. Verbal thinking refers to the conversion of speech, words and symbols into language, and the use of language to store and categorize memories as linked episodes User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 72
  73. 73. How the Different Processes Involved with Thinking Relate to Each Other and to a Product in the World User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 73
  74. 74. Perceiving The face on this mould is actually sticking out backwards from the page, but visual processing misinterprets the light and shadow to form a mental construction where the face sticks out forwards. Image source: Wikimedia commons User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 74
  75. 75. Working memory Working memory is involved in the awareness of where objects are in relation to each other, and in the temporary storage of numbers User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 75
  76. 76. Long-term Memory The shape and form of these doors suggests how they should be opened User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 76
  77. 77. Long-term Memory People of different ages have different experience backgrounds, and in most cases the user's past experiences will be different to the designers User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 77
  78. 78. Attention Using products such as car stereos while driving imposes additional load onto attention resources User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 78
  79. 79. Attention Driving a car adds time pressure to crucial decisions, such as whether to turn off on a slip road User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 79
  80. 80. Visual Thinking Careful inspection of this cooker top shows a subtle visual link between each knob and the corresponding burner, thereby reducing the spatial ability required to use it User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 80
  81. 81. Verbal Thinking The icons on the fax machine are reinforced by accompanying text, whereas those on the photocopier are not User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 81
  82. 82. Verbal Thinking A message that uses simple language and gives information in multiple forms is preferable to one that assumes a high level of language skills User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 82
  83. 83. Thinking Disabilities • Often loses track of what is being said in the middle of a conversation • Thoughts tend to be muddled or slow • Often gets confused about what time of day it is • Cannot watch a 30 minute TV programme all the way through, and tell someone what it was about • Cannot read a short newspaper article • Cannot write a short letter to someone without help • Cannot count well enough to handle money • Cannot remember a message and pass it on correctly • Often forgets to turn things off, such as fires, cookers or taps • Often forgets the names of friends and family that are seen regularly • Often forgets what was supposed to be doing in the middle of something User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 83
  84. 84. The thinking Ability Level (UK) • • • • • • • • • • • • T1 - 11 disabilities T2 - 10 disabilities T3 - 9 disabilities T4 - 8 disabilities T5 - 7 disabilities T6 - 6 disabilities T7 - 5 disabilities T8 - 4 disabilities T9 - 3 disabilities T10 - 2 disabilities T11 - 1 disability T12 - Full thinking ability (not shown) User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 84
  85. 85. Communication • A product interface makes a communication demand on the user. Text and speech can describe what controls do, provide feedback, issue warnings or commands, and provide detailed instructions. Usability is therefore dependent on the capability to: 1. Perceive and understand written words and sentences on their own or in the context of a more complex environment 2. Perceive and understand spoken words and sentences in both quiet and noisy environments 3. Educational levels and social skills will influence a person's communication ability, and therefore affect product interaction. User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 85
  86. 86. Communication ability level (in increasing order) (UK) • • • • • • C1 Finds it impossible to understand people who know him/her well and vice-versa C2 Is impossible for strangers to understand. Is very difficult for people who know him/her well to understand and vice-versa C3 Is very difficult for strangers to understand. Is quite difficult for people who know him/her well to understand and vice-versa C4 Is quite difficult for strangers to understand. Finds it quite difficult to understand strangers and viceversa C5 Other people have some difficulty understanding him/her and vice-versa C6 Full communication ability User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 86
  87. 87. Cognitive capability Prevalence of the population with less than full ability in intellectual function and communication, where the overlapping circles indicate the population that has capability losses in both categories User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit Design for ALL 87
  88. 88. Homeworks 1. Observation (two weeks) 2. Essay (Deadline – December 10, 2013) 3. The Individual Design Project – Opportunities and Threats workshop (Deadline – December 10, 2013) Design for ALL 88
  89. 89. End of the Lesson Design for ALL 89

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