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Design for All
Lecture One
Vladimir Tomberg, PhD
Design for ALL 1
About myself
• BSc and MSc in
Informatics;
• PhD in Education Sciences;
• Researcher and designer
in Learning Layers FP7
p...
Let’s Meet!
Couple words about yourself:
• Your background ── education, interests
• Your motivation ── what you would lik...
What is the Course About?
• It is not about Graphic Design
• It is not about Web Design
• It is about Awareness
• It is ab...
Evaluation Criteria
• Practice workshops – 20%
• Essay – 30%
• The Individual Design Project – 50%
Design for ALL 5
Some Tools and Resources
Design for ALL 6
Slideshare
http://www.slideshare.net/vtomberg
Design for ALL 7
Pinterest
http://www.pinterest.com/vtomberg/universal-design/
Design for ALL 8
Recommended Reading
Design for ALL 9
The Accessible Home Facebook Page
https://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Accessible-Home
Lesson Agenda
• Definitions
• Why Design for All?
• Personal Human Characteristics
• Homework assignments
“We must become the change we want
to see in the world.”
Ghandi
Design for ALL 11Image courtesy to http://www.wikipedia.or...
A Soup of the Terms:
Inclusive Design
Design for All
Universal Design
Accessibility
Design for ALL 12
Geography of the Terms
Design for ALL 13
Inclusive Design
• Defined in 2000 by the UK Government as
"products, services and environments that
include the needs of ...
Design For All
• Closely related to Inclusive Design, Design for All
started by looking at barrier-free accessibility for
...
Universal Design
• This term originated in the USA and is now
adopted by Japan and the Pacific Rim. It started
with a stro...
Classical Example of Universal Design:
Curb Cut
(‘Dropped Kerb’ in UK)
Design for ALL 17
Image: courtesy to DINF
Example: Oxo Good Grips
Design for ALL 18
• In 1990, Oxo International introduced its Good
Grips kitchen utensils for peop...
Accessible Design
Design for ALL 19
• Accessible design is a design process in which
the needs of people with disabilities...
Difference Between UD and
Accessibility
• Universal design strives to integrate people with
disabilities into the mainstre...
Other terms that are sometimes used
with varying relevance:
People-centered Design
User-focused Design
Transgenerational D...
Why Design for All?
Easiness of Use
Only a small proportion of users find
products easy to use
Product Experience
Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.co...
Only a small proportion of users find
products easy to use
Product Experience
25Design for ALLSource: http://www.inclusive...
Only a small proportion of users find
products easy to use
Product Experience
26Design for ALLSource: http://www.inclusive...
Only a small proportion of users find
products easy to use
Product Experience
“2 out of 3 Americans report having lost int...
Features and Complexity
Design for ALL 28
In Microsoft Word 1.0 there were about 100 features.
Word 2003 has over 1500
Onl...
Features and Complexity Example
Mouse with a label printer on the side
Design for ALL 29
Design can improve product usability
and experience
30Design for ALL
Demographic Changes
Impact of ageing
Design for ALL 31
The Future’s Bright, the Future’s Grey
By 2050
2 Billion
In 2005
673 Million
In 1950 there were
200 Million over 65’s
worl...
Potential Support Ratio
• Potential Support Ratio (PSR) is the ratio of
the number of 15-64 year olds who could
support on...
The changing world
• In 1950 the PSR was 12:1
Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com 34Prototyping
The changing world
• In 1950 the PSR was 12:1
• In 2000 the PSR was 9:1
Prototyping 35Source: http://www.inclusivedesignto...
The changing world
• In 1950 the PSR was 12:1
• In 2000 the PSR was 9:1
• In 2050 the PSR will be 4:1
Prototyping 36Source...
The changing world
• In 1950 the PSR was 12:1
• In 2000 the PSR was 9:1
• In 2050 the PSR will be 4:1
• In 2050 for the de...
Estimated Population for 2020
Design for ALL 38Image: courtesy to Design for All Foundation
Estimated Population for 2050
Design for ALL 39Image: courtesy to Design for All Foundation
The impact of age
How many people have less than “Full ability”?
Source: 1996/97 Disability follow-up survey
Old People are not the Same
Old People yesterday
≠
Old People today
≠
Old People tomorrow (you)
Design for ALL 41
Wellness and Exceptions
• That is Rene Kari
• He is 64 years old
(almost 65 already)
• Obviously, he doesn’t
need any supp...
Money to spend and time to spend it
Source: 1996 Family expenditure survey
The impact of age
Personal Human Characteristics
Ordinary Person
• “In the great majority of cases, human-
computer interface research seems to assume
that “the user” will...
One Size Fits All
“… the human interface of
some software applications
gives the impression that
the designer’s model of t...
Typical Persona: no Data About
Personal Abilities
Design for ALL 47Image courtesy of http://barnabasnagy.net/
Set of Personas in
http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
Design for ALL 48
Dependency and Autonomy
During Life
Design for ALL 49Image courtesy of Design For All Foundation
Persona with Important Personal
Factors Listed
• Rose is an 83 year old great
grandmother. Although fiercely
independent, ...
Diversity of Personal Abilities
Design for ALL 51WHO International Classification of Functioning,
Disability and Health (I...
Main Body Functions
(according to WHO Classification)
• Mental functions
• Sensory functions and pain
• Voice and speech f...
A Model Of Product Interaction
An interaction with a
product involves a cycle
where the user’s
capabilities are used to
pe...
Functions that Participate in
Interaction and Affect Design
Vision
Hearing
Thinking
Communication
Locomotion
Reach & stret...
Understanding Vision
We use information from the visual sense in order to move around and
interact with objects and enviro...
Four Functions of Visual System that are
Discussed in the Context of Designing Products
1. Visual acuity — the ability to ...
Visual functions: Visual acuity
Different combinations of font size and style — the
top line is a serif font, the middle l...
Visual functions: Visual acuity
The same images viewed with reduced
visual clarity
Design for ALL 58User capabilities from...
Visual functions:
Contrast sensitivity
In order to determine which color combinations are
most effective, try viewing this...
Visual functions:
Contrast sensitivity
The same image viewed with reduced
brightness contrast
Design for ALL 60User capabi...
Visual functions:
Usable visual field
A ticket machine that has poor clarity of layout
viewed with normal vision, and the ...
Visual functions:
Usable visual field
This shows a redesigned layout for the same
machine, which enables the overall layou...
Distribution of Vision Ability (UK)
Design for ALL 63User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
V1 - Cannot tell by t...
Understanding hearing
Design for ALL 64User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
Major Hearing Functions that are
Considered in Design Applications
1. Sound detection — the ability to detect
beeps, tones...
Sound detection
Design inclusion can be maximized by allowing the user to
customize the type and volume of the sounds emit...
Speech discrimination
Following a conversation is more difficult in a noisy
environment, especially for those with reduced...
Speech discrimination
Products with speech output can be difficult to
understand if the ambient noise levels are loud
Desi...
Sound localization
Reduced sound localization ability could lead to fatal
consequences in busy environments
Design for ALL...
Environmental context
The ability to understand announcements and
speech depends on the background noise level
Design for ...
Environmental context
Reverberation in large halls and public spaces can
make speech unintelligible
Design for ALL 71User ...
Distribution of Hearing Ability (UK)
Design for ALL 72User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
H1 - Cannot hear sou...
Sensory capability
Prevalence of the population with less than full ability in vision
and hearing, where the overlapping c...
Cognitive processes
1. Perceiving involves processing to convert low-level
senses, such as light, shade and color into hig...
Cognitive processes
4. Attention can consciously direct the focus of working
memory towards specific things in the environ...
How the Different Processes Involved with Thinking
Relate to Each Other and to a Product in the World
Design for ALL 76Use...
Perceiving
The face on this mould is actually sticking out backwards from the
page, but visual processing misinterprets th...
Working memory
Working memory is involved in the awareness of where objects are in
relation to each other, and in the temp...
Long-term Memory
The shape and form of these doors suggests how
they should be opened
Design for ALL 79User capabilities f...
Long-term Memory
People of different ages have different experience
backgrounds, and in most cases the user's past
experie...
Attention
Using products such as car stereos while driving
imposes additional load onto attention resources
Design for ALL...
Attention
Driving a car adds time pressure to crucial decisions,
such as whether to turn off on a slip road
Design for ALL...
Visual Thinking
Careful inspection of this cooker top shows a subtle visual link
between each knob and the corresponding b...
Verbal Thinking
The icons on the fax machine are reinforced by
accompanying text, whereas those on the photocopier
are not...
Verbal Thinking
A message that uses simple language and gives
information in multiple forms is preferable to one that
assu...
Thinking Disabilities
• Often loses track of what is being said in the middle of a
conversation
• Thoughts tend to be mudd...
The thinking Ability Level (UK)
• T1 - 11 disabilities
• T2 - 10 disabilities
• T3 - 9 disabilities
• T4 - 8 disabilities
...
Communication
• A product interface makes a communication demand
on the user. Text and speech can describe what
controls d...
Communication ability level
(in increasing order) (UK)
• C1 Finds it impossible to
understand people who know
him/her well...
Cognitive capability
Prevalence of the population with less than full ability in intellectual
function and communication, ...
Home work 1 (long)
• Essay (Deadline – December 10, 2015)
• Task description: https://goo.gl/b5vO8S
Design for ALL 91
Home work 2
• Observation (one month)
• Deadline – October 15th (next lecture)
• Task description: https://goo.gl/Skjscz
D...
End of the Lesson One
Design for ALL 93
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Design for all 1

  1. 1. Design for All Lecture One Vladimir Tomberg, PhD Design for ALL 1
  2. 2. About myself • BSc and MSc in Informatics; • PhD in Education Sciences; • Researcher and designer in Learning Layers FP7 project; • Teaching Design for All and Accessibility Workshop in HCI master curricula in TLU Prototyping 2
  3. 3. Let’s Meet! Couple words about yourself: • Your background ── education, interests • Your motivation ── what you would like to achieve in learning? Prototyping 3
  4. 4. What is the Course About? • It is not about Graphic Design • It is not about Web Design • It is about Awareness • It is about Design Thinking • It is about Tools and Methods Design for ALL 4
  5. 5. Evaluation Criteria • Practice workshops – 20% • Essay – 30% • The Individual Design Project – 50% Design for ALL 5
  6. 6. Some Tools and Resources Design for ALL 6
  7. 7. Slideshare http://www.slideshare.net/vtomberg Design for ALL 7
  8. 8. Pinterest http://www.pinterest.com/vtomberg/universal-design/ Design for ALL 8
  9. 9. Recommended Reading Design for ALL 9 The Accessible Home Facebook Page https://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Accessible-Home
  10. 10. Lesson Agenda • Definitions • Why Design for All? • Personal Human Characteristics • Homework assignments
  11. 11. “We must become the change we want to see in the world.” Ghandi Design for ALL 11Image courtesy to http://www.wikipedia.org/
  12. 12. A Soup of the Terms: Inclusive Design Design for All Universal Design Accessibility Design for ALL 12
  13. 13. Geography of the Terms Design for ALL 13
  14. 14. Inclusive Design • Defined in 2000 by the UK Government as "products, services and environments that include the needs of the widest number of consumers" • The social ideals include healthcare and housing for everyone. Inclusive Design is used within Europe and goes beyond older and disabled people to focus on other excluded groups to deliver mainstream solutions Design for ALL 14
  15. 15. Design For All • Closely related to Inclusive Design, Design for All started by looking at barrier-free accessibility for people with disabilities but has become a strategy for mainstream, inclusive solutions; • As highlighted by the European Commission, it is about ensuring that environments, products, services and interfaces work for people of all ages and abilities in different situations and under various circumstances; • This term is used in continental Europe and Scandinavia Design for ALL 15
  16. 16. Universal Design • This term originated in the USA and is now adopted by Japan and the Pacific Rim. It started with a strong focus on disability and the built environment • Defined by The Center for Universal Design at North Carolina State University as "the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design" Design for ALL 16
  17. 17. Classical Example of Universal Design: Curb Cut (‘Dropped Kerb’ in UK) Design for ALL 17 Image: courtesy to DINF
  18. 18. Example: Oxo Good Grips Design for ALL 18 • In 1990, Oxo International introduced its Good Grips kitchen utensils for people who were limited by arthritis • Oxo International grew at a 40% to 50% annual rate from 1990 to 1995, to $20 million a year Image courtesy of www.phaidon.com
  19. 19. Accessible Design Design for ALL 19 • Accessible design is a design process in which the needs of people with disabilities are specifically considered • Accessibility sometimes refers to the characteristic that products, services, and facilities can be independently used by people with a variety of disabilities
  20. 20. Difference Between UD and Accessibility • Universal design strives to integrate people with disabilities into the mainstream and assistive technology attempts to meet the specific needs of individuals • Accessibility is only slightly different to Universal Design, describing the degree to which a product, service, and/or environment is made available to everyone. • So whereas the former is a design methodology (similar to user-centered design), the latter is its most commonly associated metric Design for ALL 20
  21. 21. Other terms that are sometimes used with varying relevance: People-centered Design User-focused Design Transgenerational Design Design for ALL 21
  22. 22. Why Design for All?
  23. 23. Easiness of Use
  24. 24. Only a small proportion of users find products easy to use Product Experience Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com 24Design for ALL
  25. 25. Only a small proportion of users find products easy to use Product Experience 25Design for ALLSource: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  26. 26. Only a small proportion of users find products easy to use Product Experience 26Design for ALLSource: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  27. 27. Only a small proportion of users find products easy to use Product Experience “2 out of 3 Americans report having lost interest in a technology products because it seemed too complex to set up or operate.” - Philips Index (2004) 27Design for ALLSource: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  28. 28. Features and Complexity Design for ALL 28 In Microsoft Word 1.0 there were about 100 features. Word 2003 has over 1500 Only 13% of the public believes that in general technology products are “easy to use” Phillips Index Study 2004 9 out of 10 features that customers wanted added to Office were already in the program. "They simply don't know it's there" Chris Capossela, Microsoft VP Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  29. 29. Features and Complexity Example Mouse with a label printer on the side Design for ALL 29
  30. 30. Design can improve product usability and experience 30Design for ALL
  31. 31. Demographic Changes Impact of ageing Design for ALL 31
  32. 32. The Future’s Bright, the Future’s Grey By 2050 2 Billion In 2005 673 Million In 1950 there were 200 Million over 65’s worldwide
  33. 33. Potential Support Ratio • Potential Support Ratio (PSR) is the ratio of the number of 15-64 year olds who could support one person 65+ Design for ALL 33Image: courtesy to Youth Connection
  34. 34. The changing world • In 1950 the PSR was 12:1 Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com 34Prototyping
  35. 35. The changing world • In 1950 the PSR was 12:1 • In 2000 the PSR was 9:1 Prototyping 35Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  36. 36. The changing world • In 1950 the PSR was 12:1 • In 2000 the PSR was 9:1 • In 2050 the PSR will be 4:1 Prototyping 36Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  37. 37. The changing world • In 1950 the PSR was 12:1 • In 2000 the PSR was 9:1 • In 2050 the PSR will be 4:1 • In 2050 for the developed world it will be 2:1 Prototyping 37Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com
  38. 38. Estimated Population for 2020 Design for ALL 38Image: courtesy to Design for All Foundation
  39. 39. Estimated Population for 2050 Design for ALL 39Image: courtesy to Design for All Foundation
  40. 40. The impact of age How many people have less than “Full ability”? Source: 1996/97 Disability follow-up survey
  41. 41. Old People are not the Same Old People yesterday ≠ Old People today ≠ Old People tomorrow (you) Design for ALL 41
  42. 42. Wellness and Exceptions • That is Rene Kari • He is 64 years old (almost 65 already) • Obviously, he doesn’t need any support http://www.renekari.com/index.php Design for ALL 42
  43. 43. Money to spend and time to spend it Source: 1996 Family expenditure survey The impact of age
  44. 44. Personal Human Characteristics
  45. 45. Ordinary Person • “In the great majority of cases, human- computer interface research seems to assume that “the user” will be an ordinary person with average abilities” Alistair D. N. Edwards Extra-ordinary Human-computer Interaction: Interfaces for Users with Disabilities, 1995 Design for ALL 45
  46. 46. One Size Fits All “… the human interface of some software applications gives the impression that the designer’s model of the user was a 25-year-old male with a doctorate in computer science who is besotted with technology and is more interested in playing with a computer than in completing useful job of work!” Alistair D. N. Edwards Design for ALL 46
  47. 47. Typical Persona: no Data About Personal Abilities Design for ALL 47Image courtesy of http://barnabasnagy.net/
  48. 48. Set of Personas in http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com Design for ALL 48
  49. 49. Dependency and Autonomy During Life Design for ALL 49Image courtesy of Design For All Foundation
  50. 50. Persona with Important Personal Factors Listed • Rose is an 83 year old great grandmother. Although fiercely independent, she struggles with everyday tasks like shopping, cooking and housework. Carol and David need to come round most days to help. • She still greatly enjoys an active social life - including her regular bridge and quiz night every week and going out for meals with the whole family. • Unlike David, Rose has come to accept her hearing aid as a necessity. She has worn reading glasses for many years and always carries them with her. Design for ALL 50
  51. 51. Diversity of Personal Abilities Design for ALL 51WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)
  52. 52. Main Body Functions (according to WHO Classification) • Mental functions • Sensory functions and pain • Voice and speech functions • Functions of the cardiovascular, hematological, immunological and respiratory systems • Functions of the digestive, metabolic and endocrine systems • Genitourinary and reproductive functions • Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions • Functions of the skin and related structures Design for ALL 52
  53. 53. A Model Of Product Interaction An interaction with a product involves a cycle where the user’s capabilities are used to perceive, think and then act Design for ALL 53 User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  54. 54. Functions that Participate in Interaction and Affect Design Vision Hearing Thinking Communication Locomotion Reach & stretch Dexterity Design for ALL 54User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  55. 55. Understanding Vision We use information from the visual sense in order to move around and interact with objects and environments. The effective design of any product or environment should take into account the range of human visual abilities Design for ALL 55User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  56. 56. Four Functions of Visual System that are Discussed in the Context of Designing Products 1. Visual acuity — the ability to see fine details of objects; 2. Contrast sensitivity — the ability to discriminate between different brightness levels 3. Color perception — the ability to distinguish between different colors 4. Usable visual field — the ability to use the whole of the visual field to perceive detail in the area being looked at and the surrounding area Design for ALL 56User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  57. 57. Visual functions: Visual acuity Different combinations of font size and style — the top line is a serif font, the middle line a sans serif font, and bottom line a decorative font Design for ALL 57User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  58. 58. Visual functions: Visual acuity The same images viewed with reduced visual clarity Design for ALL 58User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  59. 59. Visual functions: Contrast sensitivity In order to determine which color combinations are most effective, try viewing this image at various distances from your eyes and squinting as you read it Design for ALL 59User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  60. 60. Visual functions: Contrast sensitivity The same image viewed with reduced brightness contrast Design for ALL 60User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  61. 61. Visual functions: Usable visual field A ticket machine that has poor clarity of layout viewed with normal vision, and the same ticket machine viewed with poor peripheral vision Design for ALL 61User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  62. 62. Visual functions: Usable visual field This shows a redesigned layout for the same machine, which enables the overall layout to be perceived, even with a peripheral vision loss Design for ALL 62User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  63. 63. Distribution of Vision Ability (UK) Design for ALL 63User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit V1 - Cannot tell by the light where the windows are V2 - Cannot see the shapes of furniture in a room V3 - Cannot see well enough to recognize a friend if close to his face V4 - Cannot see well enough to recognize a friend who is at arm's length away V5 - Cannot see well enough to read a newspaper headline V6 - Cannot see well enough to read a large print book V7 - Cannot see well enough to recognize a friend across a room V8 - Has difficulty recognizing a friend across the road V9 - Has difficulty reading ordinary newspaper print V10 - Full vision ability (not shown)
  64. 64. Understanding hearing Design for ALL 64User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  65. 65. Major Hearing Functions that are Considered in Design Applications 1. Sound detection — the ability to detect beeps, tones and other sound output from various products 2. Speech discrimination — the ability to detect and understand speech in quiet and noisy environments 3. Sound localization — the ability to tell which direction a sound is coming from Design for ALL 65User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  66. 66. Sound detection Design inclusion can be maximized by allowing the user to customize the type and volume of the sounds emitted Design for ALL 66User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  67. 67. Speech discrimination Following a conversation is more difficult in a noisy environment, especially for those with reduced ability to discriminate speech Design for ALL 67User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  68. 68. Speech discrimination Products with speech output can be difficult to understand if the ambient noise levels are loud Design for ALL 68User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  69. 69. Sound localization Reduced sound localization ability could lead to fatal consequences in busy environments Design for ALL 69User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  70. 70. Environmental context The ability to understand announcements and speech depends on the background noise level Design for ALL 70User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  71. 71. Environmental context Reverberation in large halls and public spaces can make speech unintelligible Design for ALL 71User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  72. 72. Distribution of Hearing Ability (UK) Design for ALL 72User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit H1 - Cannot hear sounds at all H2 - Cannot follow a TV programme with the volume turned up H3 - Has difficulty hearing someone talking in a loud voice in a quiet room H4 - Cannot hear a doorbell, alarm clock or telephone bell H5 - Cannot use the telephone H6 - Cannot follow a TV programme at a volume others find acceptable H7 - Has difficulty hearing someone talking in a normal voice in a quiet room H8 - Has great difficulty following a conversation against background noise H9 - Full hearing ability (not shown)
  73. 73. Sensory capability Prevalence of the population with less than full ability in vision and hearing, where the overlapping circles indicate the population that has capability losses in both categories Design for ALL 73User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  74. 74. Cognitive processes 1. Perceiving involves processing to convert low-level senses, such as light, shade and color into high-level perceptions such as objects, faces, and an overall understanding of the environment 2. Working memory describes the temporary storage used to process and rearrange all information with reference to perceptions of the current environment and long-term stored memories 3. Long-term memory describes the processes through which information encountered repeatedly in working memory can be learnt, stored indefinitely, and retrieved Design for ALL 74User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  75. 75. Cognitive processes 4. Attention can consciously direct the focus of working memory towards specific things in the environment, and affects awareness of the environment by filtering out non-attended things; yet salient or intrusive events can also "grab" attention unconsciously 5. Visual thinking is the ability to perceive and think about visual objects and spatial relationships in two and three dimensions 6. Verbal thinking refers to the conversion of speech, words and symbols into language, and the use of language to store and categorize memories as linked episodes Design for ALL 75User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  76. 76. How the Different Processes Involved with Thinking Relate to Each Other and to a Product in the World Design for ALL 76User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  77. 77. Perceiving The face on this mould is actually sticking out backwards from the page, but visual processing misinterprets the light and shadow to form a mental construction where the face sticks out forwards. Image source: Wikimedia commons Design for ALL 77User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  78. 78. Working memory Working memory is involved in the awareness of where objects are in relation to each other, and in the temporary storage of numbers Design for ALL 78User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  79. 79. Long-term Memory The shape and form of these doors suggests how they should be opened Design for ALL 79User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  80. 80. Long-term Memory People of different ages have different experience backgrounds, and in most cases the user's past experiences will be different to the designers Design for ALL 80User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  81. 81. Attention Using products such as car stereos while driving imposes additional load onto attention resources Design for ALL 81User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  82. 82. Attention Driving a car adds time pressure to crucial decisions, such as whether to turn off on a slip road Design for ALL 82User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  83. 83. Visual Thinking Careful inspection of this cooker top shows a subtle visual link between each knob and the corresponding burner, thereby reducing the spatial ability required to use it Design for ALL 83User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  84. 84. Verbal Thinking The icons on the fax machine are reinforced by accompanying text, whereas those on the photocopier are not Design for ALL 84User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  85. 85. Verbal Thinking A message that uses simple language and gives information in multiple forms is preferable to one that assumes a high level of language skills Design for ALL 85User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  86. 86. Thinking Disabilities • Often loses track of what is being said in the middle of a conversation • Thoughts tend to be muddled or slow • Often gets confused about what time of day it is • Cannot watch a 30 minute TV programme all the way through, and tell someone what it was about • Cannot read a short newspaper article • Cannot write a short letter to someone without help • Cannot count well enough to handle money • Cannot remember a message and pass it on correctly • Often forgets to turn things off, such as fires, cookers or taps • Often forgets the names of friends and family that are seen regularly • Often forgets what was supposed to be doing in the middle of something Design for ALL 86User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  87. 87. The thinking Ability Level (UK) • T1 - 11 disabilities • T2 - 10 disabilities • T3 - 9 disabilities • T4 - 8 disabilities • T5 - 7 disabilities • T6 - 6 disabilities • T7 - 5 disabilities • T8 - 4 disabilities • T9 - 3 disabilities • T10 - 2 disabilities • T11 - 1 disability • T12 - Full thinking ability (not shown) Design for ALL 87User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  88. 88. Communication • A product interface makes a communication demand on the user. Text and speech can describe what controls do, provide feedback, issue warnings or commands, and provide detailed instructions. Usability is therefore dependent on the capability to: 1. Perceive and understand written words and sentences on their own or in the context of a more complex environment 2. Perceive and understand spoken words and sentences in both quiet and noisy environments 3. Educational levels and social skills will influence a person's communication ability, and therefore affect product interaction. Design for ALL 88User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  89. 89. Communication ability level (in increasing order) (UK) • C1 Finds it impossible to understand people who know him/her well and vice-versa • C2 Is impossible for strangers to understand. Is very difficult for people who know him/her well to understand and vice-versa • C3 Is very difficult for strangers to understand. Is quite difficult for people who know him/her well to understand and vice-versa • C4 Is quite difficult for strangers to understand. Finds it quite difficult to understand strangers and vice- versa • C5 Other people have some difficulty understanding him/her and vice-versa • C6 Full communication ability Design for ALL 89User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  90. 90. Cognitive capability Prevalence of the population with less than full ability in intellectual function and communication, where the overlapping circles indicate the population that has capability losses in both categories Design for ALL 90User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  91. 91. Home work 1 (long) • Essay (Deadline – December 10, 2015) • Task description: https://goo.gl/b5vO8S Design for ALL 91
  92. 92. Home work 2 • Observation (one month) • Deadline – October 15th (next lecture) • Task description: https://goo.gl/Skjscz Design for ALL 92
  93. 93. End of the Lesson One Design for ALL 93

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