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Tallinn summerschool 21.07.2015

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Universal Design lecture in Tallinn Summer School 2015

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Tallinn summerschool 21.07.2015

  1. 1. Universal Design Principles Summer school July 23, 2015 Tallinn University Vladimir Tomberg, Ph.D.
  2. 2. About myself • BSc and MSc in Informatics • PhD in Education Sciences • Design team leader in Learning Layers FP7 project • Teaching Design for All and Accessibility Workshop in TLU HCI master curricula
  3. 3. One Size Fits All “… the human interface of some software applications gives the impression that the designer’s model of the user was a 25-year-old male with a doctorate in computer science who is besotted with technology and is more interested in playing with a computer than in completing useful job of work!” Alistair D. N. Edwards Design for ALL 3
  4. 4. Typical Persona: no Data About Personal Abilities Design for ALL 4Image courtesy of
  5. 5. What is the difference? Dependency and Autonomy During Life Design for ALL 5Image courtesy of Design For All Foundation
  6. 6. Functions that Participate in Interaction and Affect Design Vision Hearing Thinking Communication Locomotion Reach & stretch Dexterity Design for ALL 6User capabilities from inclusive design toolkit
  7. 7. Set of Personas in Design for ALL 7
  8. 8. Persona with Important Personal Factors Listed • Rose is an 83 year old great grandmother. Although fiercely independent, she struggles with everyday tasks like shopping, cooking and housework. Carol and David need to come round most days to help. • She still greatly enjoys an active social life - including her regular bridge and quiz night every week and going out for meals with the whole family. • Unlike David, Rose has come to accept her hearing aid as a necessity. She has worn reading glasses for many years and always carries them with her. Design for ALL 8
  9. 9. Good Design Addresses Multitude of Abilities 9
  10. 10. How to address needs of everyone? The answer is − Universal Design
  11. 11. The History of Design by Sooshin Choi Design for ALL 11 Source:
  12. 12. The Classic UD Example − a Ramp or Curb Cut Design for ALL 12Source:
  13. 13. The Origins of Influences and Ideas Design for ALL 13 John Clarkson, P., Coleman, R., History of Inclusive Design in the UK, Applied Ergonomics (2013)
  14. 14. Universal Design Example Design for ALL 14Image:
  15. 15. Another Example Design for ALL 15Image:
  16. 16. One More Example Design for ALL 16Image:
  17. 17. The hierarchical structure of the universal design principles Transcending principles •Equity Process related principles •Flexibility •Error-management •Efficiency •Stability/predictability Human factors principles •Ergonomic •Perception •Cognition Design for ALL 17 Higherlevelplacesdesignconstraintsonthe lowerlevel More general More encompa- ssing More detailed More narrowly defined More specific
  18. 18. Universal Design Strategies
  19. 19. Equitable Use Design for ALL 19Source:
  20. 20. Stable and Predictable Principle Design for ALL 20 Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press.
  21. 21. Stable and Predictable Principle Design for ALL 21 Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press.
  22. 22. Stable and Predictable Principle Design for ALL 22 Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press.
  23. 23. Efficiency Design Strategies Design for ALL 23 Reduce or eliminate non-value-added activity (NVAA)
  24. 24. Error-Managed (Proofed) Principle Design for ALL 24 My favorite example!
  25. 25. Error-Managed Design Strategies Design for ALL 25 Prevent errors at the source Image source:
  26. 26. Cognition Principle Example: Color coding in Wal-Mart Design for ALL 26 Image: Source:
  27. 27. Feedback Use feedback to keep the user informed as to the status of the entity’s operations and the entity’s response to user inputs Design for ALL 27
  28. 28. Perception Principle Design for ALL 28Source: somewhere in Internet
  29. 29. Something about Memory and Universal Design Design for ALL 29Source: Facebook
  30. 30. To make really Universal Design think about diverse audience!
  31. 31. Empathic Modeling by Wiseman (1996) “A concept analysis of empathy” • See the world as others see it; • Be nonjudgmental; • Understand another's feelings; • Communicate the understanding
  32. 32. Case of Empathic Modeling in TLU • The experimental DfA course (16 hours in class, four home tasks); • 16 HCI curricula master students; • 8 women and 8 men; • Software developers (3 persons), usability engineers (3), designers (5), QA specialists (2), marketing (3) or HR (1) specialists and managers (4), no previous ICT education (2)
  33. 33. The Task: Go from point A to point B by simulating some form of deterioration
  34. 34. Chosen Disabilities • Person in a wheelchair; • With a pushchair; • With limited vision; • With limited dexterity; • With osteoporosis; • With broken leg; • Without arms; • Foreigner
  35. 35. A student with tied arms simulating a person without arms (left) and a student with a handicap in a backpack simulating osteoporosis (right)
  36. 36. Identified Obstacles In a wheelchair With a pushchair Limited vision Limited dexterity Broken leg Without arms Foreigner Heavy doors, difficult to open X X X X Dustbins under Elevator Button X X X Buttons are too close to each other X X X Security button in an elevator is located too high X Absence of lifts X X X X Confusing navigation x X X X X X X Absence of ramps X X X Understanding the instructions and signs X
  37. 37. Student One "This exercise was a new experience for me, because I have never put myself in the position of an old or disabled person before and have not thought of all the possible constraints and obstacles that they may meet on their way"
  38. 38. Student Two "For me this exercise was very useful and engaging. I could never imagine how really hard it can be for a person that is limited in motion to get from point A to B in our university. After walking around the university I really understood how necessary it is to communicate to people, while designing for them and to test the creations with them in order to make the design actually usable. Apparently, this principle is fair for every design field, including HCI”
  39. 39. Student Three "When analyzing HCI examples I can’t stop thinking of user-centered design as the primary criteria of assessment. Essentially it is about the same things in the real life defined by Don Norman: the affordances must be clear, there must be clear indication of the state of the system, the error messages must be understandable and the feedback must be relevant, etc"
  40. 40. Write to me: Connect with me on LinkedIn: rg/