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Ultrasonograpgy

  1. 1. ULTRASOU ND PRESENTED BY: • TOOBA TASNEEM (BM- 15030) • MEHWISH JALIL (BM- 15036) • SHAHBAZ SHOUKAT (BM- 15033) • WAJHEE UDDIN (BM- 15038)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Ultrasound is a sound energy in the form of waves with a frequency higher then the human Audible range(20Hz- 20kHz). • Ultrasound is a way of using sound waves to look inside the Body • Use for diagnosis and treatment
  3. 3. WORKING PRINCIPLE • Ultrasound waves generates by vibrating crystal inside ceramic probe • Sound waves that travels towards tissue are partly reflected at each tissue interface • Piezo-electric principle: current cause crystal to vibrate, returning waves create electric current • Following phenomenon occur when ultrasound propagates for imaging  Reflection  Refraction  Diffraction  Scattering  attenuation
  4. 4. MODES OF ULTRASOUND A-mode (A=Amplitude) The amplitude of reflected sound is displayed on an oscilloscope screen M-mode (M=Motion) It reflects the motion of the organ's structure e.g. heart over time due to its excellent temporal resolution. M mode is the most accurate mode among all
  5. 5. MODES OF ULTRASOUND B-mode (B=Brightness) Essential imaging modality in the diagnostic ultrasound. An amplitude of the reflected ultrasound signal is converted into a gray scale image D- mode (D=Doppler) This imaging mode is based on doppler's effect, change in frequency caused by the reciprocal movements of sound generator and the observer
  6. 6. GENERAL PROBLEMS • Probes problem • Ambient Temperature issue • Software issues • Sensitive to Noisy environment
  7. 7. MAINTENANCE • Preventive maintenance is not a big deal in this type of imaging modality as it is standalone system • It is good practice to properly calibrate after every six month • Clean all external surface and filters • Check system and power supply fans • Inspect system controls, power cords and cables for crack, cuts and wear
  8. 8. SAFETY AND PRECAUTIONS • Ultrasound is safe and painless • To minimize potential adverse health effects the operator should use minimum patient exposure required to achieve desired benefits • The transducer is to be at 90' during use and has to slowly move in order to minimize the risk of causing hot spots • If feel any pain during application remove the probe, it is due to over heartiness of tissues • Use the power source that has mentioned on
  9. 9. ANY QUESTION ? Think before speak, words can hurt!!
  10. 10. REFERENCES • MEDICAL IMGING BYHARRY LEVINE • https://www.slideshare.net/tharanathpp/ultrasound-imaging • https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/ultrasound-scan/ • FUNDAMENTAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING BY PAUL SUETENS • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/245491.php • https://www.captubes.com/safety.html

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