2. Man by nature is a fighting animal hence to
think of a crimeless society is a myth.
Emile Durkheim in his treaties ' Crime as a
Social Phenomenon' says a society composed
of persons with angelic qualities would not be
free from violation of the norms of the
3. During 12th & 13th centuries included only
those acts as crime which were committed
against the state or religion.
Treason, rape & blasphemy were treated as
crime whereas murder was not a crime.
Primitive societies did not recognise any
distinction between the law of crime and tort.
The wrongdoer was supposed to offer
compensation to the person wronged.
4. The quantum of which
depended on the extent of
the wrong caused and the
status of the sufferer,
known as bot.
There were certain botless
offences for there was no
wrongdoer had to undergo
harbouring the outlaws,
refuse to serve in the army
and breach of peace were
some botless offences
5. From the botless offence the modern concept
of crime emerged.
6. Cross & Jones defines crime as a legal wrong
the remedy for which is punishment of the
offender at the instance of the state.
Blackstone & Stephan define that crime are
breaches of those laws which injure the
7. I. Legal Crimes
II. Political Crimes
IV. Social Crimes
8. Legal crimes can be termed as a traditional
Legal crimes includes Theft, robbery, dacoity,
rape, hurt and rioting etc.
9. Political offences which are motivated
politically or committed in violation of the
election laws or norms set out for the
politician in course of their political actvities,
such as booth capturing, restraining person
from voting etc.
10. under this catogory various offences comes
which are related with the economy.
In economic offences the persons who are
having a high social status are envolved.
Under this classification tax evasion,
smuggling, prostitution, gambling, foreign
exchange violation comes.
11. Social crimes which are committed under
social legislation such as
Child Marriage Restraint Act1978
Dowry Prohibition Act 1961
Juvenile Justice(Care and Protection) Act 2000
SC & ST Prevention of Atrocities Act 1989
12. All other remaining crime which are
committed under local or special Acts are
termed as misclleneous crimes.
For example, offences under Prevention of
Food Adulteration Act 1954
Consumer Protection Act 1986.
14. Crime always have a harmfull impact on
society may it be social, personal, emotional
Act (Actus Reus)
There should be an act or omissionnto
constitute a crime
Intentiin or mens rea alone shall not
constitute a crime, unless it is followed by some
externel or over act.
15. Mens rea implies that there must be a state of
mind with respect to a actus reus i.e intention
to act in the prescribed fashion.
There is difference betn Mens rea and motive.
Steal a peace of bread; motive may be
hounrable &understandable but the mens rea
being to commit the theft.
16. The act which is commited by the person
must be prohibited by law.
Punishment is also one of the characteristics
of the crime.
If there is no punishment there is no use of
17. Sin Crime
Concept of sin emanates
Sin results in violation of
rules of religion.
A sinner is punished by
There is no direct injury
or harm in case of a sin.
The remedy for sin is
Crime is a legal
Crime is always envolves
a breach of law.
Criminal is punished by
involves some kind of
the remedy for crime is
18. Broadly speaking, criminology deals with the
legal psychiatric aspect or the medico,
psychological, biological, padagogical or
sociological aspect of criminality and the
factors related there with.
Prof W. A. Bonger preferred to study
theoritical criminology under the following
19. It seeks to understand the personality of the
offenders in physical terms.
Cesare Lombroso emphasised that criminal
were different physically from normal person.
20. It is based on Sutherlands theory of differntial
Sutterlands theory explains criminal
behaviour as a process of learning through
association with other criminals.
21. It seeks to co-relate criminalty to emotional
aspect of human nature.
22. This branch of criminology attributes
criminality to functional deviation and mental
conflicts in the personality of offender.
The factors such as inferiority complex,
frustration, depression, anxiety etc. may lead
a person to commit crime.