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The Industrial Revolution
Section 1: Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Section 2: The Factory System
Section 3: New Methods and Business Organizations
Section 4: Living and Working Conditions
Section 5: Socialism
Ch 13.5 Bell Ringer:
What are some examples of
ideas that arose out of
(create a bubble map)
The increasing wealth of the nation has little or no tendency to
better the conditions of the labouring poor.”
1798 Essay on Population
As the Industrial Revolution
progressed, a growing number of
people became concerned with
the economic and social
injustice. Many believed that the
interests of employers naturally
conflicted with those of workers.
Distribution of Wealth
Before the industrial revolution of the late-eighteenth
century, living standards had advanced little since the
invention of agriculture.
With the Industrial
Revolution, a FEW people
became enormously rich –
MOST remained poor …
including the workers.
Reformers argued that the only way to distribute wealth more
evenly was to change the ownership and operation of the means
Means of Production?
…things used by human laborers to create
So … who should control this stuff
if not the owners?
• A political and economic system
• Gov’ts own the means of production
• Operate them for the benefit of ALL people – rich
• Does away with the profit motive and competition
• EVERYONE - not just the owners – had a right to
share in the profits!
• Small cooperative
• Everyone would work for the
• Together they would own the
means of production and
share the products
Robert Owen – most influential utopian socialist
…believed that people who lived in a good environment would
food & clothing
Marx and Engels
Believed entire capitalist system should be destroyed
Published The Communist Manifesto 1848
owners = “bourgeoisie”
workers = “proletariat”
Argued all wealth is created by labor but
that the workers only receive a small
fraction of the wealth it creates – most of it goes to the owners!
This will continue until the proletariat unite and seize power!
Dictatorship of the proletariat
“From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.”
Political parties that influenced by Marx & Engels …
Communism = authoritarian socialism
Governments own the means of production and control ALL
elect socialist representatives
People would retain partial control through election of officials
…may own private property but gov’t owns at least some of the
means of production
Marx believed that workers had to unite to fight capitalism.
International Working Men’s
International Workers' Association (IWA)
arose out of capitalism abolished
governments own means of
production and control all
educated people representatives
peaceful takeover of means owners paid for
their property have partial control of
of production to benefit all economic planning