Más contenido relacionado


Introduction to The World of Work

  2. OVERVIEW: INDUSTRIAL/ ORGANIZATIONAL (I/O) PSYCHOLOGY What is I/O Psychology? I/O Psychology as a Career History of I/O Psychology
  3. INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY  I/O psychology examines how individual behavior affects, and is affected by, the physical environment and the organizational structure of the workplace  Human factors psychology: how to improve machine design and function  Personnel psychology: worker recruitment, testing, and training  Organizational psychology: managerial style
  4. The application of psychological principles to the workplace (anywhere people work) Help people do their jobs help employers treat employees fairly help make jobs more interesting and satisfying help workers be more productive What is I/O psychology?
  5. TREAT EMPLOYEES FAIRLY Treat people from diverse backgrounds fairly select people for jobs provide training reward promotions/raises address harassment What is I/O psychology?
  6. MAKE JOBS MORE INTERESTING/SATISFYING Design jobs people will find satisfying rewarding work safe, efficient work areas (Human Factors) Motivate employees to perform Create teams that work well together combine diverse talents and perspectives What is I/O psychology?
  7. HELP WORKERS BE MORE PRODUCTIVE Design work patterns that enhance efficiency Provide skills training and development Help to meet the challenges of competition Move past downsizing What is I/O psychology?
  8. I/O PSYCHOLOGY: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE As a SCIENCE, I/O psychology uses scientific methodology to research and advance knowledge about people at work And as a PRACTICE, I/O psychology is a profession concerned with the application of psychological knowledge to solve real-life problems in the world of work
  9. Science and Practice Scientist-Practitioner Model: Interaction of scientific knowledge and application Practitioner: Create Plan Problem Science: Turnover Theories Past Empirical Studies A call center has a three week training program for new employees. The average employee quits after three months.
  10. THE MOST POPULAR I/O RESEARCH TOPICS IN EIGHT COUNTRIES Country Topics Canada Career development, Employee selection, job stress, leadership England Employee selection, gender, job stress, leadership, turnover Germany Job Stress, motivation, training, work environment India Job satisfaction, job stress, motivation, organizational level Israel Career development, job satisfaction, motivation, performance appraisal, values Japan Career development, job stress, leadership, motivation Scandinavia Gender, job stress, shift work, unemployment United States Career development, employee selection, leadership, performance appraisal
  11. MAIN JOURNAL FOR I/O PSYCHOLOGY  I/O main journal: Journal of Applied Psychology  Other top journals (NFE)  Personnel Journal  Academy of Management Journal  Academy of Management Review  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes  Administrative Science Quarterly  Journal of Management  Journal of Organizational Behavior  Organizational Research Methods  Journal of Vocational Behavior (very little cross-fertilization OBM/IO, JOBM missing from top ten journals - recognized; rankings in IO)
  12. Industrial/Organizational Psychology Industrial Recruitment Selection Classification Compensation Performance Appraisal Training Organizational Socialization Motivation Occupational Stress Leadership Group Performance Organizational Development 12 Organizational Psychology is part of a broader field of Industrial/Organizational Psychology. I/O Psychology
  13. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY/HUMAN FACTORS Person-machine systems Working conditions Equipment, tool, and machine design and function in recognition of operator limitations in strength, perception, reaction-time, etc. I/O Psychology
  14. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS Labor-union relations Employee/employer relations Cooperation & conflict resolution Arbitration, negotiation & bargaining I/O Psychology
  15. VOCATIONAL & CAREER COUNSELING Career choice, change, and retirement CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY Consumer choice and preference for products Purchasing behavior & decision making I/O Psychology
  16.  Activities and work settings of I/O psychologists  Employment in I/O psychology (salary surveys)  Training for I/O psychology  Professional involvement of I/O psychologists  Licensure 16 Overview: Professional Life of the I/O Psychologist
  17. I/O PSYCHOLOGY AROUND THE WORLD At one time I/O was almost entirely American I/O interest has exploded over the past 10-15 years and accelerating American consulting firms have become international, reflected in names  DDI--Developmental Decisions Inc. to International  PDI--Personnel Decisions Inc. to International Number of graduate programs increasing rapidly around the world
  18. 18
  19. WHERE DO I/O PSYCHOLOGISTS WORK? Dual orientation (science & practice) reflected in principal work settings of I/O psychologists Universities (37%) Consulting firms (38%) Industry (18%) Gov't (7%)
  20. MEAN SALARIES OF I/O PSYCHOLOGISTS IN THE US IN 2000 M.A. $67,000 Ph.D. $90,000 Top 10% $200,000 or more Professors $73,000 Companies $100,000 New Ph.D. $60,000 Men $93,000 Women $77,000 Note: Gender difference mostly accounted for by women being more likely to be M.A. level and being younger. Source: Katkowski, D. A., & Medsker, G. J. (2001).
  21. Professor of . . . Psychology, Management, Organizational Behavior, Industrial Relations Staff member, Manager, Dir, VP of . . . Personnel, HR, Organizational Planning, Personnel Development, OD, Management Development, Personnel Research, Employee Relations, Training, Affirmative Action Management Consultant Common Job Titles for I/O Psychologists
  22. I/O AS A PROFESSION  Graduate degree necessary (MA or Ph.D.)  Content of graduate training  Basic psychology  Research methods (heavy emphasis)  I/O content  Thesis, Dissertation  Qualifying exam  Internship, practica  Entry requirements very competitive  SIOP website for most US programs (  Employment  Little or no unemployment  Academic and nonacademic market strong  Field expanding and becoming popular
  23. PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS RELATED TO I/O PSYCHOLOGY American Psychological Association (APA: Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology (SIOP: Academy of Management (AoM: www. Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM: American Society for Training and Development (ASTD:
  24. LICENSURE FOR I/O PSYCHOLOGISTS Licensure requirements vary by state SIOP’s policy – recognize the requirement and offer guidance SIOP’s Guidelines for the Education and Training of I/O Psychologists Organizational requirements for licensure 24
  25. HISTORY OF I/O  Began early 1900s  World War I first mass testing  Between wars psychology helping business: I side  Hawthorne studies impact of social aspects: O side  World War II: Psychology and the war effort  Civil rights movement: Job relevance  Technological change
  26. LEADING HISTORICAL FIGURES  Hugo Münsterberg: Psychology and Industrial Efficiency  Walter Dill Scott: The Theory of Advertising  Frederick Winslow Taylor: Scientific Management  Robert Yerkes: Army Alpha and Beta tests  Lillian Gilbreth: Time and motion; Human factors  Bruce V. Moore: First I/O PhD?  Roethlisberger & Dickson: Hawthorne Studies
  27. HUGO MUNSTERBERG: “THE FATHER OF INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY”  Pioneered the application of psychological findings from laboratory experiments to practical matters  He was the first to encourage government funded research in the area of industrial psyc.
  28. HAWTHORNE STUDIES Early I/O psychologists studied worker productivity in the factory What physical factors (e.g. lighting) govern worker productivity?  1924 study conducted at the Hawthorne factory of Western Electric failed to find that physical environment factors controlled productivity  Rather, any changes made increased productivity  Conclusion: Mere observation of a worker is sufficient to change their behavior (termed the Hawthorne effect)
  29. HUMAN FACTORS PSYCHOLOGY The focus of human factors psychology is to improve the design and function of machines and the work environment Humans and machines form an interdependent system Machine has displays and controls (displays allow for human perception, controls allow the human to control the machine) Displays and controls can be fine-tuned to prevent accidents and improve performance
  31. PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY  Finding the right person for the job:  Job analysis: What knowledge, skills, and abilities are required to do the job?  Candidate selection: Who best matches the job analysis?  Interview process  Job training: How is the person trained after hiring?  Orientation is designed to clue new hires into the new organization culture
  32. WORKER EVALUATION Performance evaluation is the formal procedure used to asses the multidimensional job performance of employees Provides feedback on job performance Can be used to identify training and development needs Used to make decisions on promotions, transfers, and termination
  33. ISSUES IN EVALUATION  Evaluations can be objective (units sold) or subjective  Often cannot identify objective criteria  Subjective evaluations suffer from rater bias  Halo effect is the tendency to rate a person as too high or too low based on one outstanding trait  Halo effect can be countered by having multiple persons contribute to the evaluation  The evaluation can be focused on rating behaviors rather than traits
  34. MYTHS OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT It’s a minor problem Number of complaints are rising It’s overreported 75% of harassment may be ignored It’s an expression of sexual desire Is actually an assertion of power
  35. ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY  The focus of organizational psychology is how interpersonal relations in the work setting affect productivity  Managerial style makes a difference:  Theory X managers believe that employees are lazy, avoid being productive and have to be prodded to work  Use quotas and commissions to motivate workers  Theory Y managers believe that employees like work and can direct themselves  Do not use close supervision of employees
  36. WORKER MOTIVATION I/O psychology has sought answers for what motivates workers Goal-setting theory argues that having specific and difficult goals will lead to higher performance  Equity theory suggests that workers compare their contributions and rewards to those of their fellow workers; if these are out of line, the worker adjusts output accordingly Expectancy theory argues that worker motivation is related to expectancy of outcomes
  37. JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction leads to Reduced resignations means lower costs to replace workers Increased productivity means more output Improved employee health is a benefit that accrues to the office and outside the office Holland argues that job satisfaction is a match between the personality and their occupation
  39. PROSPECTS FOR I/O FIELD  Rapidly growing  New areas/topics  Attracting more graduate students  More graduate programs  More psychologists in the world  Job market strong: Academic and applied  Area of psychology making an impact on the world  Relevant to anyone who works  Interdisciplinary connections  Business, engineering, health fields, other areas of psychology
  40. REFERENCES  SIOP, 1998, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP  Spector, E.,P., 2005, Industry and Organization Psychology,  Huffman, Vernoy & Vernoy, 2000, Psychology in Action, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 5 edition.