4. The signifier is a word in the
language and the signified is
the object in the world that it
“stands for, refers to, or
denotes”. The words that is to
say to refer the things are
called “names or label”.
The linguistic sign consists of a signifier and a signified,
these are, however, more strictly a sound image and a
concept, both linked by a psychological 'associative'
8. S ----------- r ……………s ----------- R
Stimulus------ words ----- Response, this view
shows that meaning is as a description from
a situation which there are stimulus (S) that
may cause someone to say something (r)
and the response ( R) is an effect of the
words said by someone (s)
9. Reference is a term which is used
when we are talking about the
denotation of word.
Sense relates to the complex system
of relationships that hold between the
linguistic elements themselves.
10. First, make statemens is good, but
better we also ask question or give
Second, speech act.Thirdly, much of
what we say is not a statement of
fact but an evaluation.
Fourthly language is often deeply
11. concerned with a variety
of social relations.
Fifthly, we need not
mean what we say.
Sixthly, presupposition is
distinction from assertion.
12. Not all words seem to have the same kind of
It is not at all clear that the word is a clearly
There is a problem with what have been
called TRANSPARENT and OPAQUE words.
There are many words in English that are
Semantic division seems to’ override’ word
Finally we have the problem of idioms