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Lecture 1 b definition of principle of design

Principle of Design Art Education

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Lecture 1 b definition of principle of design

  1. 1. Definition Principles of Design
  2. 2. • Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic and sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. • Design Process involves: Research,Thought, Modeling, Interactive Adjustment, and Re-design • Application of Design: Diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing, graphical user interfaces, skyscrapers, corporate identities, business processes and even methods of designing
  3. 3. Basic aesthetic considerations that guide organization of a work of art. Generally, all the Principles of Design apply to any design made. How one apply the Principle of Design determines how effective the design is in conveying the desired message and how attractive it appears. There is seldom only one correct way to apply each Principle of Design.
  4. 4.  Design Elements and Design Principles describe fundamental ideas about the practice of good visual design that are assumed to be the basis of all intentional visual design strategies.  The elements form the 'vocabulary' of the design, while the principles constitute the broader structural aspects of its composition.  Awareness of the elements and principles in design is the first step in creating successful visual compositions.These principles, which may overlap, are used in all visual design fields, including graphic design, industrial design, architecture and fine art.
  5. 5. Additional Principles of Design Variety Dominance Unity
  6. 6.  Pattern (also known as Repetition) repeating visual elements such as line, color, shape, texture, value or image tends to unify the total effect of a work of art as well as create rhythm.  It is indicating movement by the Repetition of elements.  Pattern increases visual excitement by enriching surface interest.
  7. 7. Cloud Child' by Iyan De Jesus; Oil on Canvas
  8. 8. Contrast Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements eg. opposite colours on the colour wheel - red / green, blue / orange etc. Contrast in tone or value - light / dark. Contrast in direction - horizontal / vertical. The major contrast in a painting should be located at the center of interest.
  9. 9. Balance Visual balance comes from arranging elements on the page so that no one section is heavier than the other. Or, a designer may intentionally throw elements out of balance to create tension or a certain mood. A large shape close to the center can be balanced by a small shape close to the edge. A large light toned shape will be balanced by a small dark toned shape (the darker the shape the heavier it appears to be)
  10. 10. Repetition Repeating visual elements such as line, color, shape, texture, value or image tends to unify the total effect of a work of art as well as create rhythm. Repetition can take the form of an exact duplication (pattern), a near duplication, or duplication with variety Repetition with variation is interesting, without variation repetition can become monotonous. The five squares above are all the same. They can be taken in and understood with a single glance. When variation is introduced, the five squares, although similar, are much more interesting to look at. They can no longer be absorbed properly with a single glance. The individual character of each square needs to be considered. If you wish to create interest, any repeating element should include a degree of variation.
  11. 11. Harmony Harmony in visual design means all parts of the visual image relate to and complement each other. Harmony pulls the pieces of a visual image together. Harmony can be achieved through repetition and rhythm. Patterns or shapes can help achieve harmony. By repeating patterns in an interesting arrangement, the overall visual image comes together.
  12. 12. Dominance Dominance gives a design interest, counteracting confusion and monotony. Dominance can be applied to one or more of the elements to give emphasis
  13. 13. Unity is the relationship among the elements of a visual that helps all the elements function together. Unity gives a sense of oneness to a visual image. In other words, the words and the images work together to create meaning.
  14. 14. Unity Relating the design elements to the idea being expressed in a painting reinforces the principal of unity. Example: a painting with an active aggressive subject would work better with a dominant oblique direction, course, rough texture, angular lines etc. Example: a quiet passive subject would benefit from horizontal lines, soft texture and less tonal contrast. Unity in a painting also refers to the visual linking of various elements of the work.
  15. 15. Emphasis creates a focal point in a design; it is how we bring attention to what is most important. Emphasis is what catches the eye and makes the viewer stop and look at the image. Emphasis is usually an interruption in the fundamental pattern or movement of the viewers eye through the composition, or a break in the rhythm. . Subordination is defined as minimizing or toning down other compositional elements in order to bring attention to the focal point. Focal point refers to an area in the composition that has the most significance, an area that the artist wants to draw attention to as the most important aspect. In the example below, it is very clear that the emphasis is on the red circle. It is the largest object in the composition. Conversely, although there are many gray circles, they are small in size, very muted in color, and blend in rather than stand out from the background. The large circle is an extremely intense (pure) color which contrasts dramatically with the muted gray circles and background. The large, intensely red circle is bordered with an intense green that is a complementary color to the red, and equal in its intensity. Complementary colors (across from each other on the color wheel) with a high degree of intensity draw the most attention. Therefore, the red circle is the focal point of the composition.
  16. 16. EMPHASIS Subordination is defined as minimizing or toning down other compositional elements in order to bring attention to the focal point. Focal point refers to an area in the composition that has the most significance, an area that the artist wants to draw attention to as the most important aspect. In the example, it is very clear that the emphasis is on the red circle. It is the largest object in the composition. Conversely, although there are many gray circles, they are small in size, very muted in color, and blend in rather than stand out from the background. The large circle is an extremely intense (pure) color which contrasts dramatically with the muted gray circles and background. The large, intensely red circle is bordered with an intense green that is a complementary color to the red, and equal in its intensity. Complementary colors (across from each other on the color wheel) with a high degree of intensity draw the most attention. Therefore, the red circle is the focal point of the composition.
  17. 17. Emphasis can be achieved in a number of ways • Interruption of Rhythm or Repetition • Contrast achieves emphasis by setting the point of emphasis apart from the rest of its background. Contrast of color, texture, shape, size or scale will call attention to a specific point. • Placement in a strategic position will call attention to a particular element of a design. • Prolonged visual involvement through intricacy (contrast of detail) is a more unusual form of emphasis, not as commonly used in Euro-American design, though it is common in many other cultures. In this case, many points of emphasis are created that are to be discovered through close attention to the intricacies of the design.
  18. 18.  Variety (also known as alternation) is the quality or state of having different forms or types.  The differences which give a design visual and conceptual interest: notably use of contrast, emphasis, difference in size and color.
  19. 19.  Proportion is a measurement of the size and quantity of elements within a composition.  In ancient arts, proportions of forms were enlarged to show importance.This is why Egyptian gods and political figures appear so much larger than common people.  The ancient Greeks found fame with their accurately-proportioned sculptures of the human form, Canon of Proportion.  Beginning with the Renaissance, artists recognized the connection between proportion and the illusion of 3-dimensional space.
  20. 20. RonaldVentura, ‘Blind Child’, 2011. Oil on canvas
  21. 21.  Rhythm is the repetition or alternation of elements, often with defined intervals between them.  Rhythm can create a sense of movement, and can establish pattern and texture.  Movement is caused by using elements under the rules of the principles in picture to give the feeling of action and to guide the viewer's eyes throughout the artwork.
  22. 22. There are many different kinds of rhythm, often defined by the feeling something evokes when viewed.  Regular: A regular rhythm occurs when the intervals between the elements, and often the elements themselves, are similar in size or length  Flowing: A flowing rhythm gives a sense of movement, and is often more organic in nature  Progressive: A progressive rhythm shows a sequence of forms through a progression of steps
  23. 23.  There are Principles of Design that are similar to one another or can compliment each other such as Harmony and Unity, Pattern and Rhythm, Emphasis, Dominance and Proportion but differ on a certain degree because of purpose and function.
  24. 24. Please read through the following PDF Files orWebsite on the Internet http://www.edb.utexas.edu/minliu/multimedia/PDFfolder/DESIGN~1.PDF https://605.wikispaces.com/Rhythm
  25. 25.  Create an original lay-out and painted chart of the Elements of Design  It must contain an illustration, label and a short definition of the Principle of Design  Portrait or Landscape follow the proper margin and presentation: Plate Number andTitle, Score, Materials and Date Submitted; Name and Section will be placed on the back of each work Criteria: Factual Representation 10 pts Craftmanship 5 pts Lay-Out of Design 5 pts Submisson: October 5, 2016
  26. 26. PORTRAIT LANDSCAPEPlate No. 2: Principle of Design Chart Score: _______ Materials: Pencil, Watercolor, Techpen Date Submitted: ______ Plate No. 2: Principle of Design Chart Score: _______ Materials: Pencil, Watercolor, Techpen Date Submitted:__________ Remember: Name and Section will be set on the back of the Oslo Paper

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