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Work Zone Safety in Construction

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Workers are exposed to a variety of hazards working on roads throughout the country. These hazards range from caught against to struck by risk from motor vehicles, construction equipment and machinery onsite. Controls are needed to protect workers on foot and prevent property damage..

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Work Zone Safety in Construction

  1. 1. Protecting workers on road and highway construction sites Presented by: The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc. Road Construction Work Zone Safety WCG Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  2. 2. Safety in Road Construction Work Zones Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  3. 3. What this presentation covers  Road construction hazards  Roadway worker fatalities  Traffic control measures  Construction vehicle blind spots  How to protect roadway workers  Resources Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  4. 4. Introduction Workers in construction, utilities, or public works jobs on both highways or city streets are at risk of fatal or serious debilitating injuries. The work is in congested areas with exposure to high traffic volumes and speeds, as well as under conditions of low lighting, low visibility, and inclement weather. The work is routinely near both moving construction vehicles and passing motor vehicle traffic. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  5. 5. Are roadway workers exposed or at risk? Workers in temporary traffic control work zones are exposed to risk of injury from construction vehicles and motorized equipment:  Operating in andOperating in and around the activearound the active work zone(s)work zone(s)  Operating in trafficOperating in traffic control or secondarycontrol or secondary areas that supportareas that support the work zonethe work zone (temporary batch(temporary batch plants)plants)   Entering and leavingEntering and leaving the work zonethe work zone Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  6. 6. This attenuator truck was rear ended at 63 mph by an inattentive driver, despite workers’ attempts to get the driver’s attention. Two workers were hurt and the driver received minor injuries. The driver pled guilty to reckless endangerment of a road-way worker. 0 How are roadway workers at risk? Workers in the roadway are at risk of injury from a variety of general traffic vehicles entering the work zone: • Drunk drivers • Sleepy or impaired drivers • Impatient, reckless drivers • Drivers using cell phones; other inattentive drivers • Law enforcement and emergency vehicles • Disabled vehicles pulling in and parking • Lost drivers looking for directions Courtesy of Washington State Dept. of Transportation Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  7. 7. How are workers on foot at risk? Flaggers and other workers on foot are exposed to the risk of being struck if they are not visible to motorists or equipment operators. Workers on foot refers to any pedestrian worker on the ground in the work zone Driver’s view passing by a work zone under overcast/rainy conditions... Do you see the flagger? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  8. 8. Source: NIOSH/CDC. “Deaths Caused by Vehicles and Heavy Equipment on Construction Sites”, Other trades 33% Truck drivers 9% Construction laborers 42% Operating engineers 9% Supervisors 7% Distribution of Work Zone Fatalities by Occupation Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  9. 9. Collision between Vehicles 10% Noncollision Highway Incidents 9% Nonhighway Transportation Incident 8% Highway Transportation Incident 23% Caught in Equipment or Object 5% Struck by Object 7% Struck by Falling Object 4% Contact with Objects and Equipment 14% Fall to Lower Level 3%Harmful Substances or Environment 5% Contact with Current (Electrocution) 4% All Others 8% (Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics) Events Leading to Worker Fatalities Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  10. 10. Picture showing roadway work spacePicture showing roadway work space in close proximity to motoring trafficin close proximity to motoring traffic How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  11. 11. Barrels offset too far onto the lane How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  12. 12. Worker shifting the offset drums insideWorker shifting the offset drums inside. How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  13. 13. Pedestrian in the work zone? PedestrianPedestrian in the work zone? Pedestrian crossing locations should be provided wherecrossing locations should be provided where necessary.necessary. How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  14. 14. Equipment operator parked the equipment in central leftEquipment operator parked the equipment in central left turn lane, went to adjacent work space and now hasturn lane, went to adjacent work space and now has come back to move it.come back to move it. This is not an expected situation by drivers in the workThis is not an expected situation by drivers in the work zonezone How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  15. 15. Improper separation between workingImproper separation between working equipment and motoring traffic laneequipment and motoring traffic lane How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  16. 16. Worker should not beWorker should not be hanging on constructionhanging on construction vehicle. Note thevehicle. Note the improper clothing.improper clothing. Worker should not beWorker should not be talking on his cell phonetalking on his cell phone near the roadwaynear the roadway How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  17. 17. Worker between excavator, loader, andWorker between excavator, loader, and moving trafficmoving traffic How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  18. 18. Excavator too close to through laneExcavator too close to through lane How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  19. 19. Workers working under operating crane; vehicleWorkers working under operating crane; vehicle parked inside work space; and workers withoutparked inside work space; and workers without hard hats and safety vestshard hats and safety vests How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  20. 20. A worker with a jack hammer close to throughA worker with a jack hammer close to through lane – Chipping hazard to moving trafficlane – Chipping hazard to moving traffic How are workers on foot at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  21. 21. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  22. 22. How are equipment operators at risk? Workers who operate construction vehicles or motorized equipment risk injury due to rollovers, collisions, being caught between or struck by operating equipment. Overturned compactor on loose soil Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  23. 23. Turning radius for trucks should be designedTurning radius for trucks should be designed properlyproperly How are equipment operators at risk? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  24. 24. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  25. 25.  Abilities – Communicate – Move and maneuver – Control signaling devices – Understand Temporary Traffic Control practices – Recognize dangerous situations, warn workers, drivers and pedestrians – Personal protective equipment Flagger Qualifications Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  26. 26. Flagger Personal Protective Equipment Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  27. 27. Using cell phone in middle of the lane (distraction) Improper Personal Protective Equipment No shirts (and other PPE) No steel toed shoes Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  28. 28. Flagger Hand Signals  Stop/Slow Paddle – Stop command – Proceed command – Alert/Slow command Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  29. 29. Flagger Hand Signals  Stop/Slow Paddle – Stop command – Proceed command – Alert/Slow command Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  30. 30. Flagger is not using hard hat Improper Flagging Techniques Flagger is sitting while working Flagger is not flagging, is not using hard hat and is facing back to traffic Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  31. 31. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  32. 32. Automated Flagger Assistance Devices Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  33. 33. One Lane – Two Way Traffic Control Flaggers Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  34. 34. Traffic Control Component Distance • Buffer Space • Tapers • Advance Warning Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  35. 35. Traffic Control Component Distance • Buffer Space • Tapers • Advance Warning Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  36. 36. Traffic Control Component Distance • Buffer Space • Tapers • Advance Warning Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  37. 37. Traffic Control Component Distance Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  38. 38. Traffic Control Component Devices • Proper response time • Design • Placement, Operation • Maintenance Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  39. 39. 10 WORKER DEATHS occurred in New Jersey and 16 WORKER DEATHS occurred in New York roadway work zones in 2012 A total of 609 WORKER DEATHS occurred across the country 91% of these were related to motor vehicle traffic, construction equipment, or both Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) 2012 ARF, NHTSA How bad is the problem of road construction workers fatalities in the United States? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  40. 40.  From 2003 to 2010, 962 workers were killed at road construction sites  Nearly half of these deaths resulted from a vehicle or mobile equipment striking the worker  Analysis shows workers died when they were working at or passing through the road construction site Worker Fatalities in Roadway Work Zones Emergency vehicles at accident scene Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  41. 41. • Dump trucks were responsible for 41% of the “worker on foot” related deaths • 52% of these involved dump trucks backing up! Worker Fatalities in Roadway Work Zones Victim (under sheet) who was backed over by the Dump Truck Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  42. 42. No rigid barriers to separate workers from passing traffic Hazard to On-Foot Worker: Type of Barrier Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  43. 43. Truck may be traveling at a high speed Worker is in traffic lane Worker Hazard: Too Close to Traffic Lane Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  44. 44. Workers in close proximity to equipment Worker Hazard: Too Close to Equipment Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  45. 45. Working too close to equipment against a rigid barrier (possible pinch point) Hazards to On-Foot Workers Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  46. 46. NJ and NY Roadway Worker Fatalities 17 workers were killed in traffic control work zones between 2012 and 2013 • 10 deaths involved construction equipment • 15 were workers on foot - 8 killed by dump trucks (6 were backed over) - 7 deaths resulted from motorist traffic entering the work zone - 2 were ejected from equipment and crushed (not wearing seat belts) Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  47. 47. Traffic Control Around the Work Zone Flaggers and other workers assigned traffic control responsibilities work very close to motor vehicles and are at risk of getting struck or run over by them. Flaggers: Trained in traffic control techniques Valid Traffic Control Flagger card (or card from a state with reciprocal flagger training) Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  48. 48. A Traffic Control Plan helps move motorist traffic safely through or around roadway work zones to protect the public and workers. •Use of traffic control devices, standard signage, and buffer and transition zones. •When flaggers will be used on a job lasting more than one day, there must be a current site- specific traffic control plan that is kept on site. Traffic Control Around the Work Zone Example template from the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices Site-specific Temporary Traffic Control Plans Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  49. 49. • Temporary Traffic Control zone, construction vehicles and equipment moving inside create a risk to workers on foot requiring additional protection planning and policies to minimize backing-up maneuvers in the “activity area” • Temporary Traffic Control “Activity Area” is section of highway where the work activity takes place. It is made of work, traffic, and buffer spaces. • “Work space” is that portion of road closed and set aside for equipment, workers, and material. • Work spaces are usually delineated from the traffic space, to exclude vehicles and pedestrians, by channelizing devices or temporary barriers and signs. Temporary Traffic Control Plan Temporary Traffic Control Plans Paving Model Plan – Traffic Adjacent Example: Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  50. 50. Temporary Traffic Control Plan •Restrict personnel access points into work areas and designate “no backing zones” and “pedestrian-free zones” •Design flow paths for equipment and vehicle traffic to minimize backing maneuvers and buffer spaces to protect pedestrian workers from traffic vehicles and/or work zone equipment •Establish procedures for entering and exiting work zone •Train all employees on the plan and its precautionary measures Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  51. 51. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  52. 52. Hazardous Work Environment (Poor Visibility) Hard to see a worker in the shadow of a truck Lack of high visibility apparel/vest Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  53. 53. Working at Night • Visibility is greatly reduced at night. • Your risk of getting injured or killed increases in the dark. • Drivers may be more tired, sleepy, and less attentive. Hazards and Risks: • Poor visibility • Glare off lights • Adverse weather conditions • Tired drivers • Inattentive workers Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  54. 54. Working at Night • Being aware of your surroundings at ALL TIMES • Wearing High Visibility Apparel • Arranging good work area lighting • Setting up proper traffic controls • Knowing the traffic flow plan/pattern Protect yourself when you must work at night by: Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  55. 55. Working Around Vehicles/Heavy Equipment A blind spot (or blind area) is the area around a vehicle or piece of construction equipment that is not visible to the operator, either by direct line-of-sight or indirectly by use of internal and external mirrors. This compact wheeled loader, with its bucket raised, is approaching the work site and no one is watching. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  56. 56. Blind Spots or Areas Example: this mapping diagram shows the blind areas around a Ford F-800 dump truck. 8 ft in front and 16 ft in rear are the most hazardous areas. The driver side door area is the only zone within 8 feet of the dump truck that is safely visible. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  57. 57. Blind Areas: Struck-By or Run Over DRIVER’S and OPERATORS What happens when you can’t see around you? HAZARDS: ● Running over or striking pedestrians ● Smashing site materials and tools ● Striking other equipment or vehicles ● Rollover on steep slopes ● Contact with utilities Figure in white shows where the worker was standing when he was run over. The driver did not see the victim. “Roadway Construction Worker Dies From Crushing Injuries When Backed Over by a Dump Truck” Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  58. 58. Broken windows Hazards of Heavy Equipment: Impaired Vision Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  59. 59. Vehicle Blind Spots Construction equipment is typically large and has an enclosed cab, which can make the blind areas around this equipment very large and hard to see. The bigger the equipment the larger the blind spots or hazardous areas for pedestrians and ground workers. The problem is that pedestrian or ground workers Often need to be near moving equipment and vehicles to perform their work. Operator’s view from inside a motor grader cab Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  60. 60. Vehicle Blind Spots Driver's field of view inside of a tanker truck. Can you see the workers in front of and directly to the right of bug shield? (circle) Truck drivers and equipment operators sit high above the ground and cannot see pedestrian workers crossing close to front of them. Obstructions in a driver’s LINE of SIGHT might be: • Cab arrangements • Mirrors • Door and window post • Stacks and air cleaners • Bug shield or other ornamentations •Box, tank, and other equipment configurations Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  61. 61. Vehicle Blind Spots Tools/Attachments on vehicles can create greater blind spots, reduce visibility, or swings that increases the risk to workers being struck or pinned. Watch out for heavy equipment moving with raised buckets Be ready for possible sudden movements of booms or changes in direction of equipment operationKnow equipment swing radius (how far can it reach, move or rotate) Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  62. 62.  Don’t cross directly in front of or immediately behind large heavy equipment or trucks where the operator sits higher in the vehicle.  Communicate with an operator (verbally and/or by eye contact) before entering any area near heavy equipment or large trucks.  Stand near parked equipment or trucks, in front or operator side so if equipment comes into use, the operator can see you and you can see them. How can you protect yourself when working near heavy equipment? Vehicle Blind Spots Courtesy of Construction Safety Association of Ontario Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  63. 63. Operating Dump Trucks in Reverse Before backing a dump truck the driver must determine that no one is currently in the backing zone and it is reasonable to expect that no employee will enter the backing zone while operating the dump truck in reverse. If employees are in the backing zone or it is reasonable to expect that an employee will enter the backing zone, you must make sure the truck is backed up only when: - An observer signals that it is safe to back; or - An operable mechanical device that provides the driver a full view behind the dump truck is used, such as a video camera. Backing Zone (Distances in feet) The backing zone is defined by the shaded area. The driver cannot see anything in the blind spot, either directly or by using mirrors. Because of the significant number of deaths caused by backing dump trucks, Washington adopted this rule directed at their operation. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  64. 64. Operating Dump Trucks in Reverse If employees are in the backing zone or it is reasonable to expect that employees will enter the backing zone behind a dump truck, then ensure that: AND An observer who signals when it is SAFE to back up or stop OR the vehicle has an operable device installed which provides the driver a FULL VIEW of the area behind the dump truck The vehicle has an operable automatic reverse signal alarm which is audible above surrounding noise level; and is audible at least 15 feet from rear of the vehicle Courtesy of Construction Safety Association of Ontario Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  65. 65. Operating Dump Trucks in Reverse Exemption to Rule Workers are considered protected when they are on the opposite side of a fixed barrier such as a jersey barrier or a six-inch concrete curb or heavy equipment like a paving machine. The left photo show a camera mounted on the rear of the vehicle - the monitor is mounted in the cab of the truck. An “operable mechanical device” provides the driver with a full view behind the dump truck can be a video camera. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  66. 66. How Do You Protect Workers in Roadway Work Zones?  A comprehensive Site-specific Safety Program (APP)  A Temporary Traffic Control Plan in place for the project site  Conducted crew meetings and trained all workers on work zone safety; discussing potential hazards, equipment blind spots, movement precautions in the activity area Employers must have... Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  67. 67. How Do You Protect Workers in Roadway Work Zones? Workers must: (1) Wear high-visibility safety apparel (vest & head gear) (2) Be alert for construction vehicles, equipment and general traffic (3) Check surroundings for hazard (4) Know plan for traffic flow (5) Keep a safe distance from traffic (6) Communicate with other workers, especially when there are changes in procedures, locations, or traffic flow pattern Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  68. 68. Pedestrians and Workers  Keep in eye contact with operators when working near moving equipment  Remember equipment blind spots and limited visual areas Equipment/Vehicle Operators  Keep windows and mirrors clean  Watch for workers on foot; know where they are  Remember equipment blind spots and limited visual areas Can you see the parked vehicles through this window? How Do You Protect Workers in Roadway Work Zones? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  69. 69.  Stay behind protective barriers where possible  Do not linger or cross into areas around moving equipment if you have no reason to be there  Use extra precautions and additional safety apparel at night and during poor weather conditions How Do You Protect Workers in Roadway Work Zones? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  70. 70. Rolled over equipment Equipment Rollovers Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  71. 71. Equipment Rollovers Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  72. 72. Truck/equipment in potential contact with overhead power lines, which may result in electrocution Overhead Power Lines Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  73. 73. Parked car too close to heavy equipment in operation Incident involving parked car and loader Parking Hazards Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  74. 74. More Information and Resources  DOSH – Noise in Road Construction: http://www.lni.wa.gov/Safety/TrainTools/Online/Cours  Federal Highway Administration – work zone mobility & safety program: FHWA Work Zone  OSHA – Compactor Rollover Hazard - Compactor Rollover Hazard  NIOSH – Highway Work Zone Safety: NIOSH Topic: Highway Work Zone Safety | CDC/NIOSH Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.

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