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LED Lighting - Energy Saving
Technology for Generations to Come
Wolfgang P Prenosil MSc MBA
Vigorous Co., Ltd.
The LED lighting market (packaged chips) is forecasted
to grow to US$1.65 billion by 2012 making this one of
the fastest growing segments in the LED industry. Solid
State Lighting (SSL) has the potential to be the next
generation lighting technology and the LED lighting
fixture industry is an emerging market application for
packaged HB (High Brightness) LEDs. As the
efficiencies of packaged LEDs improve, the LED lighting
fixture is expected to grow to over US$5 billion globally
by the end of the forecast period.
Banning inefficient lamps, coupled with customer
awareness of the cost-of-ownership analysis, will
create a strong demand for LED replacement lamps.
Market conditions are right for the LED replacement
lamp market to accelerate in the next few years,
according to a new report from Strategies Unlimited.
Although the market for LED replacement lamps is still
in its early stages of development, lamp revenues are
forecast to increase at a compound annual growth rate
of 107% through 2013.
The goal of this presentation is to illustrate how LED
lighting can contribute to:
• energy savings,
• CO2-footprint reduction,
• maintenance cost reduction,
• hazardous waste reduction.
The goal of this presentation is also to convince you that a proof of concept
should be carried out to demonstrate:
• proof of energy savings,
• proof CO2-footprint reduction,
• proof of maintenance cost reduction,
• proof of hazardous waste reduction.
This may be done at any relevant site by implementing a set number of T8
fluorescent tube replacements (car park, staircase, corridor, retail area,
baggage handling area, maintenance shop, warehouse…).
What is LED lighting?
• A Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a
semiconductor device, which converts
electricity into light. LED lighting has been
around since the 1960s, but is just now
beginning to appear in the residential or
industrial market for space lighting.
• At first white LEDs were only possible by
“rainbow” groups of three LEDs - red, green,
and blue - by controlling the current to each
to yield an overall white light.
What is LED lighting?
• This changed in 1993 when Nichia created a blue
indium gallium chip with a phosphor coating that is
used to create the wave shift necessary to emit
white light from a single diode. This process is much
less expensive to generate white light.
• LEDs are better at placing light in a single direction
than incandescent or fluorescent bulbs. Because of
their directional output, they have unique design
features that can be exploited by clever designs.
• Water-/ gas-proof (IP67 & 68), outdoor fixtures
(buildings, street lighting, expressways) are also
• LED lights are more rugged and damage-resistant
than (compact) fluorescent and incandescent bulbs.
LED lights do not flicker. They are very heat
sensitive; excessive heat or inappropriate
applications dramatically reduce both light output
• LED lighting can be dimmed.
Lower Maintenance Costs
• Standard (incandescent) light bulbs have to be
changed every 1’000 hrs., halogens every 5’000 hrs.,
high-end fluorescent tubes every 20’000 hrs.
• Standard light bulbs loose more lumen (luminous
flux) over time than LEDs.
• Changing light bulbs in a large building create
considerable maintenance cost. LED light bulbs
typically need to be changed only every 10-12 years.
• Typically, a LED-based light bulb uses 10% of
traditional and only 50% of energy-saving lighting
• It produces almost no heat (e.g. savings on air
• Lifetime is in the order of 50’000 hours (even up to
• Tremendous energy savings up to 90%.
• Over a lifetime, fewer light bulbs need to be used.
• LED light bulbs do not contain any hazardous materials and
therefore do not generate any hazardous waste.
• LED light bulbs can be recycled.
• LED light bulbs do not flicker, do not cause RF interference,
are much easier on the eyes, and its ‘light temperature’
makes you feel much more comfortable.
• Initial higher purchasing costs are easily returned
within three years!
• Electricity cost savings in the order of 40 to 95% are
• New constructions: Cost savings (e.g. installation,
cabling, transformers, ballast, and interior design)
are in the order of 20-30%.
Individual LEDs are considerably more efficient; however, the lamp or fixture design is
reduced by the driver and electronics. In addition, LEDs do not produce heat like
LEDs last considerably longer than incandescent or fluorescent lighting. LEDs don ’t
typically burn out like traditional lighting, but rather gradually decrease in light output.
Their “useful life” is defined by the Alliance for Solid -State Illumination Systems and
Technologies (ASSIST) as the time it takes until 70% of initial light output is reached,
often 50,000 hours. They are resistant to thermal and vibrational shocks and perform
well when subjected to frequent on -off cycling.
Return on Investment (ROI)
Fluorescent LED DIP
36W w. ballast 18W
number lamps per floor 1 1
number of floors per building 1 1
number ob buildings 1 1
total number of lamps 1 1
power consumption per lamp [W] 46 18
total power consumption [kW] 0.05 0.02
operating hours per day [h/day] 24 24
operating hours per year [h/year] 8,760 8,760
annual power consumtion [kWh/year] 403 158
costs per kWh [Baht/kWh] 3.25 3.25
annual power cost [Baht/year] 1,310 512
lifetime [h] 15,000 50,000
lifetime [Months] 21 68
lifetime [years] 1.71 5.71
Annual replacement [lamps/year] 0.6 0.2
costs per lamp [Baht/lamp] 40 2,200
costs per replacement incl. installation [Baht/replacement] 70 2,200
Return on Investment (ROI)
Break even point LED vs. Fluorescent for 1 lamp
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
-2,000 Time [years]
CO2 Footprint Reduction
18 W LED Lamp vs. 36 W fuorescent lamp (500 units)
CO2-savings per year – compounded
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 Year 11 Year 12
CO2 kg/kWh 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59
Fluorescent lamp [kWh] 201,480 201,480 201,480 201,480 201,480 201,480 201,480 201,480 201,480 201,480 201,480 201,480
Fluorescent lamp CO2 [tons] 118.87 237.75 356.62 475.49 594.37 713.24 832.11 950.99 1,069.86 1,188.73 1,307.61 1,426.48
LED Lamp [kWh] 78,840 78,840 78,840 78,840 78,840 78,840 78,840 78,840 78,840 78,840 78,840 78,840
LED Lamp CO2 [tons] 46.52 93.03 139.55 186.06 232.58 279.09 325.61 372.12 418.64 465.16 511.67 558.19
CO2-savings using LED Lamp [tons] 72.36 144.72 217.07 289.43 361.79 434.15 506.50 578.86 651.22 723.58 795.93 868.29
CO2-savings per year - compounded
1,600.00 LED lamp CO2
Fluorescent lamp CO2
CO2 mass [tons]
1,000.00 CO2 savings using LED
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 12
Services we can offer:
• Sourcing of LED products
• Onsite surveys/ audits
• Energy/ maintenance saving calculations
• ROI & CO2 footprint calculations
• Implementation/ maintenance
• Project planning/ management
• Financing through carbon credit trading