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Crowdsourcing in the Production of Video Advertising
This is the presentation I gave at the 6th IMMAA (International Media Management Academic Association) in Lisbon. It's a very synthetic presentation of the book chapter "Crowdsourcing in the Production of Video Advertising: The Emerging Roles of Crowdsourcing Platforms" which you can download on http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2231396 and will be published in the Book Series on Business Innovation and Disruption in Film, Video and Photography co-edited by Bob DeFillippi and Patrik Wikström.
This presentationwasgivenat the 6th Conference of the International Media Management Academic (IMMAA) in Lisbon, on May 4th 2013. It was part of the afternoon session “Beyond Advertising and Nielsens: Non-Econmic Drivers And New Business Models (Crowdsourcing, Co-Creation etc.) And Their Integration Into Traditional Media And Audience Research” moderated by Robert DeFillippi (Suffolk University, Boston).It is a synthetic and visual presentation of a forthcoming chapter of the “Book Series on Business Innovation and Disruption in Film, Video and Photography” co-edited by Robert DeFillippi and PatrikWikström. The chapter pre-print can be read on http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2231396
Online, the demand of video advertising revenue will even grow faster than that of all other advertising channels, at an annual growth rate of 19.6% globally from 2011 to 2016, increasing from $4.7 billion to $11.4 billion. Furthermore, it seems obvious that the audience for mobile video will rapidly grow as smartphone and tablet adoption becomes standard. There are already 25 million US adults who consume, on average, 4 hours and 20 minutes of mobile video every month (Stutzmann, Paderni, & Madigan, Corinne, 2011)
Cartier's latest commercial, Odyssee de Cartier, was making headlines in the brand's native France. The spot, Cartier's first in a decade, premiered on French TV network TF1 on Sunday night during the movie Asterix et Obelix. According to Le Figaro, an audience of 8 million viewers watched its 3 ½ minute run without switching channels during the ad break. Odyssee, made by Publicis agency Marcel, is an epic production - an allegory of Cartier's history, made for the brand's 165th anniversary, involving a mythical journey around the world by a panther (Cartier's longstanding emblem) brought to life.It now has 16 million views on YouTube (accessed May 3rd 2013).Source:http://creativity-online.com/news/cartier-conjures-animal-magic/233165
Shot on a € 4 million budget, it boasts depictions of iconic locations, spectacular visual effects, a sumptuous original score (played by an 84 piece orchestra) and priceless Cartier jewelry not usually on display to mere mortals. What is more, the starring role is played not by an actor, but a live pantherThe restrictions of transporting live panthers meant that the production team couldn’t travel outside Europe, so they got creative with European locales (The Dolomites in northern Italy for a sequence where the panther confronts a mystical dragon that initially resembles the Great Wall of China, the Cervinia ski resort for some of the snowy landscapes for scenes where the panther pads across an arctic wilderness, the BárdenasReales desert in northern Spain was used to double for scenes where the panther emerges from an Oriental palace onto the back of an enormous elephant before catching a lift on an historic Santos Dumont aircraft, a studio in Belgium with the replica 1906 Santos Dumont aircraft specially built for the shoot, the scene with panther chasing a horse-drawn carriage through a frozen St Petersburg was also recreated in a studio, this time in Czech Republic).Sources:http://www.thelocationguide.com/blog/2012/03/quad-productions-charts-panther-odyssey-on-location-across-europe-for-cartier/http://www.wisibility.com/post/2012/04/04/L-Odyss%C3%A9e-de-Cartier-%3A-Making-ofhttp://www.journalgraphic.com/2012/04/06/odyssee-cartier-making-of-video/http://www.journalgraphic.com/2012/03/23/coulisses-odyssee-cartier/http://adage.com/article/news/work-odyssee-de-cartier/233232/http://www.davidairey.com/lodyssee-de-cartier/
Many argue that the traditional video advertising production process is too long and costly: one of the suggested solutions is to use crowdsourcing as a way to generate video content for brands (DeJulio, 2012; Winter & Hill, 2009). The “creative core” of decision-makers in the production of video content are increasingly becoming open to creative input from the outside (Telo, Sanchez-Navarro, & Leibovitz, 2012), and online creative platforms are becoming a new venue for these creative individuals to create for brands. This chapter argues that the video advertising industry is undergoing a fundamental change with the advent of a new set of intermediaries that we will call creative crowdsourcing platforms.
Originally, crowdsourcing was defined by Jeff Howe as “the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call” (Howe, 2006). Crowdsourcing is the precise process by which a company posts a problem online, a vast number of individuals offer solutions to the problem, the winning ideas are awarded some form of a bounty, and the company uses the output for its own gain (Brabham, 2008; Estellés-Arolas & González-Ladrón-de-Guevara, 2012). Creative crowdsourcing is often used by organizations for their innovation and marketing efforts, as the creative output of the crowd allows them to have access to a variety of fresh ideas to use (Erickson, Petrick, Trauth, & Erickson, 2012; Howe, 2008; Whitla, 2009). This form of crowdsourcing has also been called crowd creation (Howe, 2008), peer-vetted creative production (Brabham, 2010), crowdsourcing of creative tasks (Schenk & Guittard, 2011) or crowdsourcing of inventive activities (Penin & Burger-Helmchen, 2011) in previous academic literature.
The early examples described above show anecdotal evidence about the birth of the phenomenon, in which most of the initiatives were managed by traditional agencies. Nowadays, while integrated agencies still remain in control of campaign creation and coordination, brands are also increasingly relying on creative crowdsourcing platforms to generate video content to feed their marketing efforts. Organizing video contests to generate buzz or to revamp a brand image still exists, but we also see the emergence of new types of video advertising contests, that are launched to actually produce promotional content for brands.The rise of creative crowdsourcing platforms is being showcased on an interactive timeline that visualizes how the use of creative crowdsourcing has exploded among brands since the mid-2000's6. This timeline features a wide variety of creative crowdsourcing initiatives organized or sponsored by the 100 brands included in Interbrand’s Best Global Brands ranking, and shows that the number of video contests has increased significantly since 2006, mostly due to video contests on creative crowdsourcing platforms (Figure 1). From that date onwards, the number of advertising contests organized on creative crowdsourcing platforms exploded, with a peak in 2011, while the number of video contests organized independently remained stable.
The case study method allows researchers to explore, describe or explain real-life events such as organizational and managerial changes, or the evolution of particular industries. Case studies are often used when the goal of the research is to relate particular phenomena, like crowdsourcing, to broader contexts, such as the production of video content for advertising (Yin, 2002). This is exactly the aim of this chapter, whereby we want to describe how crowdsourcing-based web platforms are increasingly being used to produce video content for brands and organizations.
To explore this novel set of actors, we chose a multiple case study research design to explore and describe the growing role of creative platforms for the production of video advertising. We focus our research on companies that control web-based platforms on which contributors participate to a variable extent in the production of video content for brands and organizations. Our population comprises 15 creative crowdsourcing platforms that intermediate the creation of video advertising for brands and organizations.Mofilm, eYeka, blur Group, Victors & Spoils, Womadz, GeniusRocket, Tongal, Concept Cupboard, Genero TV, Wooshii, Userfarm, Talenthouse, Zooppa
The first step of the production process is to find ideas based on this brand’s brief, target audience and desired impact The next steps of bringing the ideas to life arePre-production: scheduling the shooting, casting the participants etc.Production: directing and shooting the actual spotPost-production: editing the film, adding special effects, music etc. The media departments of advertising agencies then take care of the distribution
We have identified four dominant uses of crowdsourcing in the creation of video advertising: idea contests can be used to generate simple ideas, to be used by organizations for the creation of advertisements in a traditional manner; call for pitches can be used to identify talented individuals to work and co-create the spots with; simple contests allow organizations to gather video content after a one-round, traditional competition, and stage-based contests allow them to have more control throughout the process by being involved at different stages and channeling the crowd’s creativity. We choose to present these four crowdsourcing models in this order as it reflects the growing implication of the crowd along the video production process, from low crowd involvement at the very beginning of the process (idea contests) to higher crowd involvement throughout the whole production process (stage-based contests).
At the beginning of the video advertising creation process is the ideation phase. Crowdsourcing can be used in this phase to find original and creative ideas of advertising spots, thus leveraging the creativity and the diversity of the crowd (Winsor, 2013). Examples of the first type of crowdsourcing initiatives, where only the ideas matter, can be found on eYeka, Userfarm or Victors & Spoils. These contests usually last a couple of weeks and the brands “walk away” with the ideas without further collaboration with the crowd, using the ideas (or not) to work with their internal communication department and/or advertising agencies.
Some creative crowdsourcing platforms indeed use crowdsourcing as a matchmaking mechanism to connect companies to skilled video makers for the execution of specific projects (Lampel, Jha, & Bhalla, 2012). Companies can indeed submit “briefs” on these websites, along with a budget and a deadline, and participants submit so-called “pitches” to present their ideas. Here, instead of just gathering creative ideas and using them for internal purposes the companies are looking for both the ideas and the individual to execute these ideas; sourcing ideas and talent. In this model, crowdsourcing is used in the initial ideation phase and the subsequent production phases (production and distribution) are not based on crowdsourcing principles, but are executed in the traditional manner, in direct collaboration with the chosen creator. (Behan, 2012).
This is the original, most basic approach to crowdsourcing whereby a company posts a problem online, a vast number of individuals offer solutions to the problem before a specific deadline, the winning ideas are awarded some form of a bounty, and the company uses the idea for its own gain (Brabham, 2008). When it comes to video advertising, this type of initiative requires participants to complete all stages needed to come up with an advertisement: ideation (finding the idea), pre-production (preparing the shooting), production (shooting) and post-production (editing the material).
One way to direct the crowd’s creativity is to break down the production process and to infuse crowdsourcing in different stages, and to organize stage-based contests. Creative crowdsourcing platform Tongal, for example, breaks down the production process in three phases, which results in three sub-contests for one video project: an idea contest, a pitch contest, and a production contest. The advantage of this model is that the crowd’s creativity is being channeled by the brand, which can decide in which direction the crowd should work by rewarding some ideas rather than others. Another advantage of this mechanism is that the scope of potential participants is broader since it is not restricted to video makers only; someone with just good ideas can participate in the early phases, which is not possible in one-round video contests.
Early forms of crowdsourcing were simple contests to generate buzz. Many creative crowdsourcing platforms started with the simple contest model: eYeka (2006), GeniusRocket, Poptent/ XLNTads (2007), Mofilm (2009), Userfarm (2010). Somehave adopted other models since then: eYeka (in 2010) and Userfarm (2012) have started running idea contests;Poptent (in 2010) and Mofilm (in 2012) have launched specific business units to organize call for pitches; GeniusRocket (in 2010) dropped the simple contest model to focus on a form of call for pitches called “curated crowdsourcing;” and Tongal (in 2009) has pioneered the stage-based contest approach.Taken together, the above mentioned evolutions of the traditional simple contest model allow crowdsourcing platforms to use the creative power of the crowd, which is at the basis of creative crowdsourcing, and at the same time to lower the risks that the open contest model implies.
Given the difficulty of churning out a steady stream of new and engaging content, crowdsourcing ideas and content is increasingly becoming a new tool in advertisers’ tool kits. Marketers are beginning to turn to crowdsourcing in varying degrees, as they seek to have an ongoing dialogue with consumers. We have seen that the first examples of crowdsourcing were mostly integrated into PR-driven marketing campaigns, some of which are still being run today. But we have also seen that these famous examples do not represent the majority of initiatives, and that a lot of brands use crowdsourcing as a fast, global and cost-effective way to generate video content to be used to advertise their brands online or offline. We have underlined that creative crowdsourcing platforms do not operate in the same way nor do they target the same types of clients. Our research highlights the diversity of models that brands and agencies can mobilize to engage crowds in the production of original video content for their advertising, and also underlines the growing complexity of the crowdsourcing phenomenon.
Strategicintegration by advertisingagencies and/or companies, for example:http://news.eyeka.net/2011/12/japanese-adk-first-major-marketing-group-in-the-world-to-invest-strategically-into-online-co-creation/http://www.edelman.com/news/edelman-and-poptent-announce-pioneering-crowdsourced-video-partnership/http://www.sony.com/SCA/company-news/press-releases/sony-computer-entertainment-america-inc/2013/sony-computer-entertainment-america-hires-mofilm-a.shtmlMore innovation in models, for example:https://www.stuntbuxx.com/Use of crowdsourcingbeyondadvertising, for example:http://blogen.eyeka.com/2012/02/17/invent-the-next-home-related-tv-program/http://blogen.eyeka.com/2013/03/26/turn-culture-shock-into-a-hit-tv-show/
Crowdsourcing in the Production of Video Advertising
Crowdsourcing in theProduction of Video AdvertisingYannig Roth(@yannigroth)Université Paris 1 PanthéonSorbonne6th Conference of the International Media Management Academic, Lisbon (May 3rd – 4th 2013)Book Series on Business Innovation and Disruption in Film, Video and Photography (2013)Rosemary Kimani(@kjourney2010)eYeka
Introduction• Advertising: any paid form of non-personalcommunication about an organization, product,service, or idea by an identified sponsor (Belch & Belch, 2003)• Video advertising is seen as particularly effective(Dishmann, 2011; Torng, 2012)• Online video advertising revenue will grow fasterthan other channels, increasing from $4.7 billion in2011 to $11.4 billion in 2016Production is traditionally carried out byadvertising agencies
IntroductionHow can brands/organizations create quality videocontent at affordable cost?• Crowdsourcing can be faster and cheaper(DeJulio, 2012; Winter & Hill, 2009)• We witness the advent of creativecrowdsourcing platforms
• Crowdsourcing:1. A company posts a problemonline2. A vast number of individualsoffer solutions3. The winning ideas arerewarded4. The company uses the outputfor its own gain (Howe, 2006; Brabham,2008; Estellés-Arolas & González-Ladrón-de-Guevara, 2012)• Creative crowdsourcing isoften used in innovation andmarketing (Erickson, Petrick, Trauth, & Erickson,2012; Howe, 2008; Whitla, 2009)Crowdsourcing
051015202530354045502006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Contests organized on creative crowdsourcing platforms Contests organized on branded websites or social mediaSource: http://www.tiki-toki.com/timeline/entry/52997/Crowdsourcing-by-Worlds-Best-Global-Brands (February 18th 2013)
Methodology• Crowdsourcing has been described ino innovation tournamentso creative executiono micro-working markets... Research has not addressed this trend in advertising• A case study methodology to present howcrowdsourcing-based web platforms are used (Yin, 2002)
MethodologyWe focus our research on creative crowdsourcingplatforms specialized in video production for brands:
Ideation• The strategic and creativeteams pitch advertisingideas based on the client’sneedsPre-production• The parties set up aproduction planning(budget, casting, fee etc.)Production• Director orchestratesshoot, assisted by technicalstaff with agency creativesand producerPost-production• Editors work on the footageto build up a “rough cut”and eventually the finalversionDistribution• Finished ad is shared withthe agencys mediadepartment for distributionbased on the media planSelection ofan ideaApproval of a finalspot by clientCreative brief basedon client’s needsApproval of theplanningChoice ofrough cutsThe traditional process
Use of crowdsourcingWe have identified 4 dominant models ofcrowdsourcing in video advertising:o Idea contestso Call for pitcheso Simple contestso Stage-based contests
Idea contestsIdeation• The crowd suggestsadvertising ideas based onthe creative briefPre-production• The parties set up aproduction planning(budget, casting, fee etc.)Production• Director orchestratesshoot, assisted by technicalstaff with agency creativesand producerPost-production• Editors work on the footageto build up a “rough cut”and eventually the finalversionDistribution• Finished ad is shared withthe agencys mediadepartment for distributionbased on the media planSelection ofan ideaApproval of a finalspot by clientCreative brief basedon client’s needsApproval of theplanningChoice ofrough cuts
Call for pitchesIdeation• The crowd suggestsadvertising ideas based onthe creative briefPre-production• The selected creative setsup a production planning(budget, casting, fee etc.)Production• The selected creativeorchestrates shoot, assistedby technical staff withagency creatives andproducerPost-production• Editors work on the footageto build up a “rough cut”and eventually the finalversionDistribution• Finished ad is shared withthe agencys mediadepartment for distributionbased on the media planSelection of a creativebased on her/his ideaApproval of afinal spot by clientCreative brief basedon client’s needsApproval of theplanningChoice ofrough cuts
Simple contestsIdeation•Members of the crowdbrainstorm to come upwith advertising ideasbased on the creativebriefPre-production•The members of thecrowd independentlyplan the production oftheir spotsProduction•The members of thecrowd independentlyshoot theirspots, sometimesassisted by technicalstaffPost-production•The members of thecrowd independentlyedit the footage toproduce their spots•The members of thecrowd upload theirspots to thecrowdsourcingplatformDistribution•Finished ad(s) is(are)shared with theagencys mediadepartment fordistribution based onthe media planChoice of one or severalwinning spot by clientCreative brief basedon client’s needs
Stage-based contestsIdeation•Members of the crowdbrainstorm to come upwith advertising ideasbased on the creativebriefPre-production•The members of thecrowd proposestoryboards for theirspots, based on theapproved idea(s)•The members of thecrowd plan theproduction of theproposed storyboardsProduction•The members of thecrowd independentlyshoot theirspots, sometimesassisted by technicalstaffPost-production•The members of thecrowd independentlyedit the footage toproduce their spots•The members of thecrowd upload theirspots to thecrowdsourcingplatformDistribution•Finished ad(s) is(are)shared with theagencys mediadepartment fordistribution based onthe media planCreative brief basedon client’s needsSelection of oneor several ideasApproval of a finalspot by clientSelection of one orseveral storyboards
Early forms ofcrowdsourcing:- Simple contests- Initiated by brands- Managed by agencies- On ad hoc contest websitesAdvent of creativecrowdsourcing platforms:- Simple contests- Initiated by brands andtheir agencies- Managed by creativecrowdsourcing firms- On private contestplatformsCurrent forms ofcrowdsourcing:- Idea contests, calls forpitches, simplecontests, stage-basedcontests- Initiated by brands andtheir agencies- Managed by creativecrowdsourcing firms- On private contestplatformsEvolution overtime
Conclusion• Crowdsourcing is a new tool for advertisers• The diversity of models reflects the trend to identifyand classify crowdsourcing models (Adamczyk et al., 2012; Erickson etal., 2012; Geiger, Schulze, Seedorf, Nickerson, & Schader, 2011)• Movement towards precision and gaining control isan evolution of the crowdsourcing model
What’s next?• Strategic integration of crowdsourcing by brands &agencies• More innovation in creative crowdsourcing models• Use of crowdsourcing beyond advertising