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Time & Schedule, Submittals, Site visits, Testing and Inspection

Time & Schedule, Submittals, Site visits, Testing and Inspection

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Time & Schedule, Submittals, Site visits, Testing and Inspection

  1. 1. Time and Schedule Lecture 7a American University in Cairo School of Sciences and Engineering Department of Architectural Engineering AENG441 – Professional Practice, Design Management and Codes 1
  2. 2. Topics 2
  3. 3. Design Scheduling 3
  4. 4. Design Scheduling • Phases of production from Conceptual Planning  Start of Construction. • Efficient use of Manpower and Resources • To achieve an economical, functional and harmonious design • Executed within a reasonable period of time • With an efficient utilization of personnel. • Experience and Judgment 4
  5. 5. Design Scheduling • Phases (AIA standard owner-architect agreement) • Schematic Design: Drawings + Cost Estimate • Design Development: Drawings +Outline Specifications, + Cost Estimate • Construction Documents: Working Drawings +Final Specifications + Final Cost Estimate • Bidding and Negotiation: Receipt and Evaluation of Bids + Addenda • Construction Administration: Services after bidding or negotiation to assure that the structure is built in accordance with the construction documents. 5
  6. 6. Design Scheduling • Estimate time required for reach phase. • Schematic Design phase is the most difficult to estimate - Greatest amount of variability. (1-12 months!) • Size and Complexity • Quality and Completeness of the Program Information • Decision Making Ability of the Client.(committees!) • Nature of the Design Team. 6
  7. 7. Design Scheduling • Design Development and Construction Documents: • More predictable • Project Architect and/or Job Captain • From Schematic Design into Preliminary Design Drawings then Working Drawings • Complexity not Size determines scheduling and staffing requirements. • Coordination between consultants, client and designers is vital! • From 2 - 4 months • Construction Documents 3-7 months. • Bidding or Negotiation 6 weeks. 7
  8. 8. Design Scheduling • Project financing to convert design into reality. • Client review and approval between phases depends on the size and complexity of the project- usually between one week. And one month. • Approvals by building department and public agencies varies considerably. 8
  9. 9. Design Scheduling 9
  10. 10. Contingencies • Unexpected Problems: • Building Department • Consultants • Staffing problems • Client • 10% average additional time • Flexible and Responsive to changing conditions 10
  11. 11. Working with a Builder • Working with contractor to Guarantee Maximum Project Cost (GMP: Guaranteed Maximum Price) • Time is generally shortened • Risk that design is not fully developed • Documents less specific • No bidding and negotiation phase 11
  12. 12. Extending the Schedule • Change of staff • Increase cost due to inflation 12
  13. 13. Shortening the Schedule • Optimum Use of staff effort and resources • Work overtime - costly and inefficient • Hire more people - Part time or freelance or subcontract to another firm - costly and inefficient. • Hire new staff - Not familiar with office procedures or projects - Expensive • Reduce man-hours - lower quality job, incomplete, unclear ,errors and inconsistencies. • Higher cost, lower quality. • Quality work requires time and staff. 13
  14. 14. Construction Scheduling 14
  15. 15. Establishing a Schedule • Construction Projects are Complicated • They involve the work of numerous trades and subcontractors • Coordination • Equipment and Materials • Time schedules and Cost recording 15
  16. 16. Considerations 1. The construction documents - Well or Poorly prepared. 2. The architect-engineer -More or Less demanding 3. The subcontractors - coordination 4. The contractor’s organization - Project manager, field superintendent, Office and Field staff, … workload 5. Material dealers - Reliability in meeting deliverability 6. Size and complexity of the project - Most critical. 7. Site conditions - Size and Accessibility 8. The Weather 9. The possibility of labor troubles 10. The possibility of material shortage. 16
  17. 17. CPM (Critical Path Method) 17
  18. 18. CPM (Critical Path Method) • Planning Phase - Diagram is drawn indicating the order in which various operations are to be accomplished - Called Activities. • Activity Start and Finish referred to as “events” or “nodes” • Event: That moment when a preceding activity has been completed and the following activity may begin. • Milestone Events - Important points in the construction process. • No indication of time - arrows are not indicating time. • No gaps of discontinuities • CPM is known as a network diagram 18
  19. 19. CPM (Critical Path Method) 19 Event Activity
  20. 20. CPM (Critical Path Method) 20
  21. 21. CPM Scheduling • Time! • Time is estimated based on past experience. • Working day is taken as a unit of time. • Consult with subcontractors. 21
  22. 22. CPM (Critical Path Method) 22 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 14 Critical Path
  23. 23. Critical Path • Critical Path is the longest path! • Critical activities along the path must be monitored. 23
  24. 24. Float Path • Paths that are not on the CP. • The float is a measure of the extra time available for an activity or group of activities. 24
  25. 25. Project Calendar • Multiply by 7/5 (5 working days in each 7 days) • 16 days x 7/5 = 22.4 or 23 calendar days. • Starting date  Completion date • Project Calendar • Critical Activities noted in color or boldface • Most building construction projects require 9 - 18 months. 25
  26. 26. Contingencies • Allowance for project delays (weather, …) • Some contractors add a fixed percentage! 26
  27. 27. CPM Calculations • CPM Programming • Programs. 27
  28. 28. Bar Graphs • Start and finish dates of major phases. • They don’t indicate relationships nor dependencies! • Inferior to CPM as a management tool but superior as a means of visual communication. • Continue to be widely used. 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. Shortening the Schedule • Business demands. • Minimize effect of inflation, weather, interest, … • Reduce CP time. • Critical activities 25-30% of all activities. • Shorter time increases direct cost. Less efficiency in supervision and coordination. Errors are more likely to occur. • Less time - More direct cost! • Less time - Less overhead! • Analyze the effects and determine a balance. 30
  31. 31. Fast-Track Scheduling • Fast-Track - Accelerated - Telescoped scheduling. • Determine major building elements. • Produce detailed working drawings for a portion of work on which the contractor may begin construction • Further details continue • Requires close coordination: Architect - Engineers - Client - Contractor • Oversights expected, Correction of errors • Staged bidding awarded to different contractors • Cost and Time control by CM (Construction Manager) 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Time Management • Fabrication Time • Erection Time • Sequence of Construction Trades • Scheduling of Construction Trades 33
  34. 34. Submittals - Site Visit, Testing and Inspection Lecture 7b American University in Cairo School of Sciences and Engineering Department of Architectural Engineering AENG441 – Professional Practice, Design Management and Codes 34
  35. 35. Topics 35
  36. 36. Material and Equipment Submittals • Shop Drawings, Product Data, and Samples • Introduction 36
  37. 37. Material and Equipment Submittals • Shop Drawings, Product Data, and Samples • Introduction 37
  38. 38. Material and Equipment Submittals • Shop Drawings, Product Data, and Samples • Basic Concepts 38
  39. 39. Material and Equipment Submittals • Shop Drawings, Product Data, and Samples • Basic Concepts 39
  40. 40. Material and Equipment Submittals • Shop Drawings, Product Data, and Samples • Basic Concepts 40
  41. 41. Material and Equipment Submittals • Shop Drawings, Product Data, and Samples • Basic Concepts • Shop drawings are not part of the contract documents. 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. Contractor’s Responsibilities 43
  44. 44. Architect’s Responsibilities 44
  45. 45. Procedures • Recordkeeping • Dates received and returned • Action taken: Approves, corrected, revised, resubmit • Retain copies of all submittals • Timeliness • Within a reasonable time • 10 working days or two weeks • Changes and Revisions • Change orders • Standard Formats for processing submittals 45
  46. 46. Procedures 46
  47. 47. Procedures 47 10 - 15 working days
  48. 48. Procedures 48
  49. 49. Procedures 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. Site Visits • Contract Requirements • Architect's Role • Advise owner whether the contractor is performing the work in accordance with the contract documents. • Meeting Reports • Pre-Bid Meetings • Pre-Construction Meeting • During Construction 51
  52. 52. Site Visits 52
  53. 53. Site Visits 53
  54. 54. Site Visits 54
  55. 55. Site Visits 55
  56. 56. Site Visits 56
  57. 57. Site Visits 57
  58. 58. Site Visits
  59. 59. Site Visits • Safety • Architect’s Role 59
  60. 60. Site Visits • Safety • Architect’s Role 60
  61. 61. Site Visits • Safety • Contract’s Role 61
  62. 62. Site Visits • Evaluating Work Against Contract Documents 62
  63. 63. Site Visits • Evaluating Work Against Contract Documents 63
  64. 64. Site Visits • Evaluating Work Against Contract Documents 64
  65. 65. Site Visits • Testing and Inspection 65
  66. 66. Site Visits • Testing and Inspection 66
  67. 67. Site Visits • Testing and Inspection 67
  68. 68. Site Visits • Testing and Inspection
  69. 69. Site Visits • Testing and Inspection 69
  70. 70. Site Visits • Testing and Inspection 70
  71. 71. Thank You. 71

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