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• Phases of production from Conceptual Planning Start of
• Efficient use of Manpower and Resources
• To achieve an economical, functional and harmonious
• Executed within a reasonable period of time
• With an efficient utilization of personnel.
• Experience and Judgment
• Phases (AIA standard owner-architect agreement)
• Schematic Design: Drawings + Cost Estimate
• Design Development: Drawings +Outline Specifications, + Cost
• Construction Documents: Working Drawings +Final Specifications
+ Final Cost Estimate
• Bidding and Negotiation: Receipt and Evaluation of Bids +
• Construction Administration: Services after bidding or negotiation
to assure that the structure is built in accordance with the
• Estimate time required for reach phase.
• Schematic Design phase is the most difficult to
estimate - Greatest amount of variability. (1-12
• Size and Complexity
• Quality and Completeness of the Program Information
• Decision Making Ability of the Client.(committees!)
• Nature of the Design Team.
• Design Development and Construction Documents:
• More predictable
• Project Architect and/or Job Captain
• From Schematic Design into Preliminary Design Drawings then
• Complexity not Size determines scheduling and staffing
• Coordination between consultants, client and designers is vital!
• From 2 - 4 months
• Construction Documents 3-7 months.
• Bidding or Negotiation 6 weeks.
• Project financing to convert design into reality.
• Client review and approval between phases depends on
the size and complexity of the project- usually between
one week. And one month.
• Approvals by building department and public agencies
• Unexpected Problems:
• Building Department
• Staffing problems
• 10% average additional time
• Flexible and Responsive to changing conditions
Working with a Builder
• Working with contractor to Guarantee Maximum Project
Cost (GMP: Guaranteed Maximum Price)
• Time is generally shortened
• Risk that design is not fully developed
• Documents less specific
• No bidding and negotiation phase
Extending the Schedule
• Change of staff
• Increase cost due to inflation
Shortening the Schedule
• Optimum Use of staff effort and resources
• Work overtime - costly and inefficient
• Hire more people - Part time or freelance or subcontract to
another firm - costly and inefficient.
• Hire new staff - Not familiar with office procedures or projects -
• Reduce man-hours - lower quality job, incomplete, unclear
,errors and inconsistencies.
• Higher cost, lower quality.
• Quality work requires time and staff.
Establishing a Schedule
• Construction Projects are Complicated
• They involve the work of numerous trades and
• Equipment and Materials
• Time schedules and Cost recording
1. The construction documents - Well or Poorly prepared.
2. The architect-engineer -More or Less demanding
3. The subcontractors - coordination
4. The contractor’s organization - Project manager, field
superintendent, Office and Field staff, … workload
5. Material dealers - Reliability in meeting deliverability
6. Size and complexity of the project - Most critical.
7. Site conditions - Size and Accessibility
8. The Weather
9. The possibility of labor troubles
10. The possibility of material shortage.
CPM (Critical Path Method)
• Planning Phase - Diagram is drawn indicating the order in
which various operations are to be accomplished - Called
• Activity Start and Finish referred to as “events” or “nodes”
• Event: That moment when a preceding activity has been
completed and the following activity may begin.
• Milestone Events - Important points in the construction process.
• No indication of time - arrows are not indicating time.
• No gaps of discontinuities
• CPM is known as a network diagram
• Critical Path is the longest path!
• Critical activities along the path must be monitored.
• Paths that are not on the CP.
• The float is a measure of the extra time available for an
activity or group of activities.
• Multiply by 7/5 (5 working days in each 7 days)
• 16 days x 7/5 = 22.4 or 23 calendar days.
• Starting date Completion date
• Project Calendar
• Critical Activities noted in color or boldface
• Most building construction projects require 9 - 18 months.
• Allowance for project delays (weather, …)
• Some contractors add a fixed percentage!
• Start and finish dates of major phases.
• They don’t indicate relationships nor dependencies!
• Inferior to CPM as a management tool but superior as a
means of visual communication.
• Continue to be widely used.
Shortening the Schedule
• Business demands.
• Minimize effect of inflation, weather, interest, …
• Reduce CP time.
• Critical activities 25-30% of all activities.
• Shorter time increases direct cost. Less efficiency in supervision
and coordination. Errors are more likely to occur.
• Less time - More direct cost!
• Less time - Less overhead!
• Analyze the effects and determine a balance.
• Fast-Track - Accelerated - Telescoped scheduling.
• Determine major building elements.
• Produce detailed working drawings for a portion of work on
which the contractor may begin construction
• Further details continue
• Requires close coordination:
Architect - Engineers - Client - Contractor
• Oversights expected, Correction of errors
• Staged bidding awarded to different contractors
• Cost and Time control by CM (Construction Manager)
• Fabrication Time
• Erection Time
• Sequence of
• Scheduling of
Submittals - Site Visit,
Testing and Inspection
American University in Cairo School of Sciences and Engineering
Department of Architectural Engineering
AENG441 – Professional Practice, Design Management and Codes
• Dates received and returned
• Action taken: Approves, corrected, revised, resubmit
• Retain copies of all submittals
• Within a reasonable time
• 10 working days or two weeks
• Changes and Revisions
• Change orders
• Standard Formats for processing submittals
• Contract Requirements
• Architect's Role
• Advise owner whether the contractor is performing the work in
accordance with the contract documents.
• Meeting Reports
• Pre-Bid Meetings
• Pre-Construction Meeting
• During Construction