2. Introduction & Definition
Emporis Standards defines: A multi-story structure between 35–100
meters tall, or a building of unknown height from 12–39 floors.
A high-rise is a tall building or structure: Buildings between 75 feet
and 491 feet (23 m to 150 m) high are considered high-rises. Buildings
taller than 492 feet (150 m) are classified as skyscrapers.
The international conference on fire safety: Any structure where the
height can have a serious impact on evacuation.
3. Demand for high-rise Building
1. Scarcity of land in urban areas
2. Increasing the demand for business and
3. Economic growth
4. Technological advancements
5. Innovations in structural systems
6. Desire for aesthetics in urban settings
7. Concept of city skyline
8. Cultural significance and prestige
9. Human aspiration to building higher
5. Construction materials
Easy in casting
Can be cast in situ
Cost of form
Difficulty in pouring
CONCRETE:- cellular concrete of clay-gypsum &
invention of light weight concrete.
FERRO CONCRETE:-it is layer of fine mesh
saturated with cement.
GUNITE:- it is also known as shot Crete.
compressed air to shoot concrete onto (or into) a frame or
structure. Shot Crete is frequently used against vertical soil
or rock surfaces, as it eliminates the need for
GLASS:- float glass with double glass is used in tall buildings .
Tempered glass is used in tall buildings instead of plain glass,
as that would shatter at such height.
Materials used for high rise buildings: concrete, steel, glass, cladding material, high alumina
cement used for roofs & floors. It contains bauxite instead of clay, cement, Portland cement of
lime stone, silica.
9. List of Top 10 High-Rise Buildings
# Building City Floors Height Year
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai 163 828 m 2010
2 Makkah Clock Royal Tower [Abraj Al Bait] Makkah 95 601 m 2012
3 Taipei 101 Taipei 101 509 m 2004
4 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai 101 492 m 2008
5 International Commerce Centre [Union
Hong Kong 118 484 m 2010
6 Petronas Tower 1 [Petronas Towers] KualaLumpur 88 452 m 1998
7 Petronas Tower 2 [Petronas Towers] KualaLumpur 88 452 m 1998
8 Nanjing Greenland Financial Center Nanjing 66 450 m 2010
9 Willis Tower Chicago 108 442 m 1974
10 Kingkey Finance Tower Shenzhen 100 442 m 2011
10. Completed High Rise-Buildings in Pakistan
Sr # Name City Height Floors Year
1 Ocean Towers (formerly Sofitel) Karachi 120 m 394 ft 30 2012
2 MCB Tower Karachi 116 m 381 ft 29 2005
3 Telecom Tower Islamabad 113 m 371 ft 24 2011
4 The Centaurus Tower 1 Islamabad 114m 375 ft 32 2012
5 The Centaurus Tower 2 Islamabad 110m 361 ft 32 2012
6 The Centaurus Tower 3 Islamabad 110m 361 ft 32 2012
7 Arfa Software Technology Park Lahore 106 m 348 ft 19 2011
8 Dolmen City Karachi 102 m 335 ft 21 2011
10 Habib Bank Plaza Karachi 101 m 331 ft 22 1963
11 Chapal Plaza Karachi 101 m 331 ft 22 1985
11. Type of High-Rise Structure
1. Braced Frame
2. Rigid Frame Structure
3. Infilled Frame Structure
4. High efficiency Mega-Braced frame system
5. Flat Plate and Flat Slab Structure
6. Shear wall structure
7. Core Structure system
8. Framed tube structure
9. The trussed tube
10. Bundled tube structure
11. Outriggers system
12. Tube in tube
•Girders only participate minimally in the lateral
bracing action-Floor framing design is independent
of its level in the structure.
•Can be repetitive up the height of the building with
obvious economy in design and fabrication.
Obstruct the internal planning and the locations of
the windows and doors; for this reason, braced bent
are usually incorporated internally along wall and
partition lines, especially around elevator, stair, and
service shaft.-Diagonal connections are expensive to
fabricate and erect.
14. Rigid Frame Structure
The word rigid means ability to resist the
deformation. Rigid frame structures can be defined
as the structures in which beams & columns are
made monolithically and act collectively to resist the
moments which are generating due to applied load.
16. Infilled Frame Structure
Most usual form of construction for tall buildings up to 30 stories in height Column and
girder framing of reinforced concrete, or sometimes steel, is in-filled by panels of brickwork,
block work, or cast-in-place concrete. Because of the in-filled serve also as external walls or
internal partitions, the system is an economical way of stiffening and strengthening the
structure. The complex interactive behavior of the infill in the frame, and the rather random
quality of masonry, has made it difficult to predict with accuracy the stiffness and strength
of an in-filled frame.
18. Flat plate: The flat plate is a two-way
reinforced concrete framing system utilizing a
slab of uniform thickness, the simplest of
Flat slab: The flat slab is a two-way reinforced
structural system that includes either drop
panels or column capitals at columns to resist
heavier loads and thus permit longer spans.
Flat-Plate and Flat Slab Structure
19. • A type of rigid frame construction.
• The shear wall is in steel or concrete to provide greater lateral
rigidity. It is a wall where the entire material of the wall is employed
in the resistance of both horizontal and vertical loads.
• Is composed of braced panels (or shear panels) to counter the
effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind & earthquake loads
are the most common among the loads.
• For skyscrapers, as the size of the structure increases, so
does the size of the supporting wall. Shear walls tend to be used only
in conjunction with other support systems.
Shear wall system
21. FRAMED-TUBE STRUCTURES]
The lateral resistant of the framed-tube structures is provided by very
stiff moment-resistant frames that form a “tube” around the perimeter
of the building.
The basic inefficiency of the frame system for reinforced concrete
buildings of more than 15 stories resulted in member proportions
of prohibitive size and structural material cost premium, and thus
such system were economically not viable.
The frames consist of 6-12 ft (2-4m) between centers, joined by deep
Gravity loading is shared between the tube and interior column or walls.
When lateral loading acts, the perimeter frame aligned in the direction of loading acts
as the “webs” of the massive tube of the cantilever, and those normal to the direction
of the loading act as the “flanges”.
The tube form was developed originally for building of rectangular plan, and probably
it’s most efficient use in that shape.
22. THE TRUSSED TUBE
The trussed tube system represents a classic solution for a tube
uniquely suited to the qualities and character of structural
Interconnect all exterior columns to form a rigid box, which can
resist lateral shears by axial in its members rather than through
Introducing a minimum number of diagonals on each façade
and making the diagonal intersect at the same point at the
The system is tubular in that the fascia diagonals not only form
a truss in the plane, but also interact with the trusses on the
perpendicular faces to affect the tubular behavior. This creates
the x form between corner columns on each façade.
Relatively broad column spacing can resulted large clear spaces
for windows, a particular characteristic of steel buildings.
The façade diagonalization serves to equalize the gravity loads
of the exterior columns that give a significant impact on the
John Hancock Center
introduced trussed tube
Recently the use of perimeter diagonals – thus
the term “DIAGRID” - for structural effectiveness
and lattice-like aesthetics has generated renewed
interest in architectural and structural designers
of tall buildings.
Introducing a minimum
number of diagonals on
each façade and
making the diagonal
intersect at the same point
at the corner column
23. The concept allows for wider column
spacing in the tubular walls than would be
possible with only the exterior frame tube
The spacing which make it possible to place
interior frame lines without seriously
compromising interior space planning.
The ability to modulate the cells vertically
can create a powerful vocabulary for a
variety of dynamic shapes therefore offers
great latitude in architectural planning of
at all building.
Burj Khalifa, Dubai.
Sears Tower, Chicago.
BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM
25. TUBE-IN-TUBE SYSTEM
This variation of the framed tube
consists of an outer frame tube, the
with an internal elevator and service
The Hull and core act jointly in resisting
both gravity and lateral loading.
The outer framed tube and the inner
core interact horizontally as the shear
and flexural components of a wall-
frame structure, with the benefit of
increased lateral stiffness.
The structural tube usually adopts a
highly dominant role because of its
much greater structural depth.
Lumbago Tatung Haji
Building, Kuala Lumpur