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Language Change

  1. Language change Language is always changing. We've seen that language changes across space and across social group. Language also varies across time. Example : 1. Short "o" Long "Open o" cot hot hock stock caught haughty hawk stalk
  2. 2. Englis h Gloss Frenc h Italian Spani sh Portu guese Ruma nian Catala n mother mer madre madre mae mama mare father per padre padre pae tata pare
  3. Language variation and change The Language Variation and Change is experimental work and computational modelling in order to understand the causes and consequences of language variation, across speakers, contexts and lexical items.
  4. Example of Language variation Children these days are putting the language at risk with their careless and sloppy pronounciations. From many possible example select just one. The distinctions between which and which, and whether and weather, are slowly but surely disappearing in children speech. Do other listeners regret this loss i do ?when i heart a child asking which which ? recently,it sopuded as if she had a stutter.
  5. POST VOCALIC [r] – ITS SPREAD AND ITS STATUS In many parts of England and Wales, standard English has lost the pronunciation of [r] following vowels in words like star and star. Accents with post-vocalic [r] are called ‘rhotic’. In large areas of England rhotic English accents are regarded as rural and uneducated
  6. THE SPREAD OF VERNACULAR FORMS A pronunciation which is considered prestigious will be imitated, and will spread trough a community. It is possible for changes to proceed from a variety of starting points in a variety of directions. pronunciation of the vowels in these words had gradually become more and more centralized
  7. HOW DO CHANGES SPREAD From group to group In any speech community different sets of waves intersect. You belong simultaneously to a particular age group, region, and social group. From style to style FIGURE 9.1 The wave-like spread of linguistic changes. (this diagram is based on Bailey 1973a: 159) From word to word Sound changes spread through different word one by one. This is called lexical diffusion.
  8. How do we study language change? In order to resolve such problems we need to examine the reasons for linguistic change, and to identify factors other than age as clue to the direction of changes in progress.
  9. Language change in real time The apparent-time method of studying language change is a useful shortcut for sociolinguists who generally cannot afford to wait around for twenty years to see what happens in real time.
  10. Reasons for language change Social status and language change Members of the group with most social status, for example, tend to introduce changes into a speech community from neighbouring communities which have greater status and prestige in their eyes.
  11. Gender and Linguistic Change An important consequence of gender differentiation in language is linguistic change. Aspects of linguistic variability are of interest to sociolinguists who attempt to chart how the language used by individuals and groups in various social situations can vary in patterned ways. Language variation serves to distinguish the speech of different social groups (social variation), as well as the speech of an individual in different contexts (stylistic variation). Over time, these variations may lead to language change, which occurs when a new linguistic form, used by a particular sub-section of a speech community, is adopted by other members of the community and accepted as the norm. Sociolinguists now recognize that not only linguistic variation between social groups, but also gender differences in speech play an important role in the promulgation of language change.
  12. Interaction and contact between people is crucial in providing the channels for linguistics chage, as previous examples have implied. In this final section I will briefly identify more explicitly the ways in which interaction- or lack of it-has affected the progress of linguistics changes in number of communities Interaction and Language Change