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Quality control

  1. 1. WELCOME Abruan Group Dept. of Industrial Engineering & Planning
  2. 2. Training Program on “QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM in Garments Industry”
  3. 3. Quality is the degree to which a commodity meets the requirements of the customer at the start of its life. (ISO 9000) What is Quality? What does Quality Mean? So, Quality is………. 1. Degree of excellence 2. Conformance to requirements 3. Totality of characteristics which act to satisfy a need 4. Fitness for use 5. Fitness for purpose 6. Freedom from defects 7. Delighting customers Joseph Juran says, quality is “Fitness for Use”. When “fitness for use” concept applied to garment it must According quality Guru Philip Crosby, Quality is “Conformance to Requirements.”
  4. 4. Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control •Assurance: The act of giving confidence, the state of being certain or the act of making certain. Quality Assurance: The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled. •Control: An evaluation to indicate needed corrective responses; the act of guiding a process in which variability is attributable to a constant system of chance causes. Quality Control: The observation techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.
  5. 5. Process Flow Chart of Garments Quality Fabric Inspection (4 Point System) Accessories Inspection (10% Inspection) Shade segregation Shrinkage test Size set check
  6. 6. Marker check Spreading quality assurance Shade segregation Cut Panel Inspection Hard pattern check Process Flow Chart of Garments Quality
  7. 7. Risk Analysis Meeting Pre-production meeting Quality Assurance when Line Feeding In process audit Quality Assurance Two time process check Process Flow Chart of Garments Quality
  8. 8. Two time machine check 7 Pcs Check (Traffic light System) 100% Shell Check 100% Lining Check 100% Shell Lining Join Check Process Flow Chart of Garments Quality
  9. 9. 100% KANBAN Check Button Pull Check 100% Metal Check 100% Lining Check Pre Final Inspection Process Flow Chart of Garments Quality
  10. 10. DHU & DEFECTIVE % Defects Defects are all those non-conformance that are not acceptable by end customer. Like imbalanced shape of the garment, broken button or other trims, holes in fabrics, slip stitch, broken seam etc. In a defective garment there may be more than one defect. Defective Pieces Defective pieces are those pieces, which are separated for alteration during checking may be for any causes. For the quantitative measure there is two measuring unit as Defects per hundred units and percentage defective. Defects per hundred units (DHU) – number of total defects in 100 checked garments. The formula for calculating DHU is DHU = Total no. of defects found X 100 / Total pieces checked Percent Defective (%) – total number of defective pieces in 100 checked garments. Percentage defective = Total no. of defective pieces X 100 / Total pieces checked Example: Suppose in a day one table checker checked 200 pieces. He found total 15 defective pieces and in those 15 pieces total 60 defects were found. So, quality measure of that lot in terms of DHU is 30 (60*100/200) and Percentage Defective is 7.5%.
  11. 11. How to change defective or damaged garment parts intelligently? “Part changing” is not an intended process in garment manufacturing but this process is there because there is certain reasons where we can’t control the cause of fabric damages in the garments completely. However, where possible, we have to minimize short shipment and improve our sales. Part changing is generally done in finishing stages. Most of the fabric defects that are not acceptable in garments are removed during cutting and stitching processes. Still damaged part is found in the sewn garment due to heavy washing, dyeing or other reasons. Instead of rejecting the defective garment, only damaged part can be changed and converted it into a quality garment. When part changing is necessary and main purpose of the part changing is to improve ship quantity, part changing must to be done intelligently. It should not increase the fabric consumption or produce further defective garment in the part changing process. You have to think from where you will get fabric for part changing? How to remove damaged component and re-stitch the garment maintaining sewing quality? For the fabric usage you have multiple options – i) End bits of the cut layers, ii) using fresh fabrics or iii) replacing damaged parts with good parts of another garment. Which option to be chosen is depends on garment processing after stitching, fabric types, value added work or embellishment in the garment.
  12. 12. End bit usage for part changing: In the cutting room, during layering cutters store end bits that are not layered in the lay for a cutting. These end bits are one type of cutting waste. So for the part change you can use those end bits without increasing fabric consumption. But here you have to take care about shade matching or lot matching of the fabrics with the damaged garments. If the garments were heavily washed, then it will be very difficult to match the garment fabric shade. After changing the parts garment must be washed again to give matching finished look and similar hand feel. Fresh fabric usage for Part changing: If you don’t have enough end bits to replace the damaged parts from the garment, use available fresh fabric. When using fresh fabric, you may find problem with shade matching, extra fabric consumption for the order. Only use fresh fabric if there is no problem with shade matching. But for solid colors and yarn dyed fabric there is no issue related to shade matching. Using good components from other damaged garments: This option is chosen when garments are dyed and there are no fresh fabric or end bits or fresh fabric for that order. The reason, instead of rejecting all garments, you can make some good garment losing few garments. Also for the high value garment with fine hand embroidery work and where you have less time to complete the shipment, this option is preferred. Like above options, you have to care about the garment component’s shade matching.
  13. 13. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for Quality Customer complaint: When buyers received something wrong against the contract with suppliers in terms of product quality they claim for the damages. It is huge money to pay back to the buyer. Even factory may lose business relationship with those buyers due to poor product quality. So customer complaint is considered as most important KPI. • AQL levels: It means when garments are inspected what AQL level is being followed as pass or fail criteria. Though it may vary product to product but it gives clear idea about factory’s quality performance. Lower the AQL you follow better is the quality performance. • Percentage Defective level: This term is also known as Defect %. It is measure of total defective garments founds and total garments inspected in percentage. It can be calculated batch wise or on the basis of complete order. Generally factory measure Defect percentage on daily and hourly basis of batch. Lesser the defect% better is the quality performance.
  14. 14. • Defects per Hundred Units (DHU): Factories measure Defect% but don’t track total number of defects found in inspected pieces. Tracking of DHU is important because your rework time and work force required for repairing defect directly linked with DHU number. Lesser the DHU better is the quality performance. • Rework Cost: Each rework is a cost to the company. The rework costs vary according to the process and types of rework. It consumes extra time and increase factory overhead. Process wise and product wise rework cost can be tracked to measure it. Lower the Rework cost better is quality performance. • Right First Time (RFT): For garment manufacturer RFT quality is an ideal situation. It means whatever activities you do to make the garment, quality of the garment should be correct at the first time. Data can be captured for RFT at each process and it is expressed in percentage.
  15. 15. Garment Zoning for the Inspection of Visual Defects Defect Zone of Vest Outwear
  16. 16. Defect Zone of Hooded Jacket
  17. 17. Defect Zone of Sports coat
  18. 18. Defect Zone of Sports coat
  19. 19. What are the Critical Defects for a Garment? Definition of Critical defects: According to Quality Assurance Manual of Gap Inc. "Anything which can harm the wearer of the product are critical defects". Critical defects are also defined as a defect that is likely to result in hazardous or unsafe conditions for an individual in using the product and that does not meet the mandatory regulations. A critical defect in clothes may cause accident to the wearer and may malfunction when wearer out wearing a garment with critical defect. Example of some critical defects: •Loose components: Trims and fasteners those are used in the garment but not secure properly. For example, buttons, snaps, stones etc. •Sharp edges: During the processing of the garment it come in contact with various sharp metals such as needles, staples. Broken needles, damaged or broken snap buttons, rivets, wire and pins. •Drawstrings at head or neck for baby or kids products. Draw string must be avoided in kids clothes. •Thread or trims which are extensively long or loose. All the above critical defects must not be present in the product in any circumstances. In an audit if inspector finds such defects in packed garments, he must fails the audit and ask quality checker for re- inspection of all goods. For the factory, management should run awareness program on critical defects and potential risk of the critical defects at end-user point.
  20. 20. Major & Minor Defect
  21. 21. Major & Minor Defect
  22. 22. Major & Minor Defect
  23. 23. Major & Minor Defect
  24. 24. Major & Minor Defect
  25. 25. Acceptable Quality Level Consumer Product Critical defects no critical defect is accepted Major defects AQL 2.5 Minor defects AQL 4.0 AQL standard refers to the maximum number of defective that could be considered acceptable during the random sampling of an inspection. The Defects that are found during inspection are classified into 3 levels: Critical, Major and Minor. The AQL level should be agreed between buyer and supplier before production commences. The following AQL standard are usually applied by Hong Kong Q. C. Center Ltd unless otherwise instructed by customer.
  26. 26. How to Improve Apparel Product Quality? • Specific steps that can enhance quality include: Communicating the importance of quality, each worker’s role in achieving and maintaining right quality, and expectations of worker performance • Maintaining a clean and dry workplace, including storage rooms and shipping areas • Selecting and utilizing proper equipment for each cutting and assembly step • Providing the proper tools and training to each worker, and communicating management quality performance expectations • Planning and conducting an ongoing program of machine maintenance • Establishing agreed-upon quality standards with all fabric and finding suppliers before purchase, including procedures for rejecting/returning unacceptable goods • 100% inspection of all incoming fabrics to include, at a minimum: • Visual inspection by a trained inspector running every roll of fabric over a back-lit inspection frame to identify fabric defects such as holes, tears, stains, stop marks, and width variations, and to compare actual width and length to reported dimensions. • Color shade check, compared to agreed-upon (or buyer imposed) shade tolerances under a five-light box • Rejection and return of all fabric not meeting agreed-upon quality standards • 100% inspection of value added processes like panel printing, machine embroidery, hand embroidery etc. No defective panels or components should be sent to assembly. Defective component to be accepted after corrective measure.
  27. 27. Corrective measures: Replace – replace underperforming suppliers, equipment, • Repair – repair ill-functioning equipment, • Retrain – retrain underperforming workers and • Reward – reward high performing workers Implementing even a few of these steps will result in improved quality, but each additional suggestion put into practice will yield significant improvements in product quality. Traffic Light System Roving QC Internal AQL System