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A descriptive paragraph explains how someone or
something looks, feels.
Opinion paragraph tells what the writer feels about a
A process paragraph explains how something is
Using adjectives in descriptive paragraph:
Adjective is a word that describes or clarifies a noun by
giving some information about an object’s size, shape,
age, color, origin or material.
It’s a big table. (size)
It’s a round table. (shape)
It’s an old table. (age)
It’s a brown table. (color)
It’s an English table. (origin)
It’s a wooden table. (material)
It’s a lovely table. (opinion:)
It’s a broken table. (observation)
It’s a coffee table. (purpose)
When an item is defined by its purpose, that word is
usually not an adjective, but it acts as one in that
coffee table , baseball player
Note : If you come across a word that ends in -y, -ary or -ate (or
any other suffix for that matter), and you want to know
whether it’s an adjective or not, just look at where it is and
what it’s doing in the sentence. If it comes immediately
before a noun, and especially if it comes between an article
(a, an, the), a possessive adjective (my, his, her, its, your, our,
their), a demonstrative (this, that, these, those) or an amount
(some, most, all, a few) and a noun, then it’s probably an
The grassy field was wet with dew. – “Grassy” comes between
an article (the) and a noun (field), so you know it’s an
We had a few ordinary days. – “Ordinary” comes between an
amount (a few) and a noun (days), so it’s definitely an
Did you see that immaculate kitchen? – “Immaculate” comes
between a demonstrative (that) and a noun (kitchen), so it
must be an adjective.
Adjectives can be positioned:
1. before the noun that they modify. (e.g. small child )
2. adjectives can come after (verb to be or “sense” verbs).
The child is small.
The child seems small.
An important thing to consider is verbs that turn into
adjectives. Usually, the verb has -ing tacked onto the end
of the root form. The adjective can be placed before the
noun or after the verb.
The smiling baby is really cute.
This is my new washing machine.
Washing is acting like an adjective for machine.
Prepositions tell us how a space is organized.
In front of, in back of, behind, on top of, on the
bottom of, next to, above, below,
underneath, to the right of, to the left of, in
the middle of, between, around.
1) An opinion paragraph tells what the writer feels about a
2) It states an opinion in the topic sentence.
3) It uses reasons and details to explain the opinion.
4) Good Opinion paragraphs rely on FACTS to back up its
5) Bad Opinion paragraphs use personal opinions to support
Guidelines for writing an opinion paragraph.
1) Begin with a topic sentence that clearly states your topic and
opinion about this topic
2) Provide strong reasons that explain, or support, your opinion.
3) Give details that explain each reason. Include facts and
4) Let the audience hear your voice. Tell how you really feel.
5) Restate your opinion and sum up your ideas in the last
A FACT is something that is true. It can be proven to be
true. If you can find proof, or evidence for a sentence,
then it is a FACT.
1. Rabbits are mammals.
2. George Washington was the first president of the
3. There are books in the library.
An OPINION is what someone believes -it cannot be
proven true or false. It is your personal feeling or point
When you talk about your opinions you can start your
sentences with phrases like the following:
I don’t think
In my view,
In my opinion,
Some adjectives give a specific opinion. We usually put
a general opinion in front of a specific opinion:
Nice tasty soup.
Usually we put an adjective that gives an opinion in
front of an adjective that is descriptive:
A nice red dress; a silly old man.
We often have two adjectives in front of a noun:
A handsome young man; a big black car; that horrible
Sometimes we have three adjectives, but this is unusual:
A nice handsome young man; a big black American car;
Note: Adjectives usually come in this order:
General opinion, Specific opinion, Size, Shape,
Age, Color, Nationality, Material .
1. Learning English is easier for girls than for boys.
2. There are more girls than boys in our English
3. Cell phones are convenient.
4. Many people carry cell phones these days.
5. I don’t think that wearing the latest fashion is
For each topic below, write one fact and one opinion:
3. University degree
4. White lies
1. In a process paragraph, you explain how to make or do
2. To explain how to do something clearly, break the
process into a series of steps and explain each step.
3. Arrange the steps in order by time and use time order signals
to guide your reader from step to step.
First, (second, etc.)
Then (no comma)
Now (no comma)
The first step … (no comma)
The next step … (no comma)
The final step … (no comma)
After five minutes,
After you take
transitions are phrases or words used to
connect one idea to the next.
in the second
and, or, nor
now, until now
In addition and Additionally are used to give more
information about something. When you write a
formal essay, you should not start a sentence with
the word “And”. You can often use “In addition” or
“Additionally” instead of “And”.
• I studied journalism in college. In addition, I had a
part‐time job at a newspaper.
• I joined the guitar club and the math club in
school. Additionally, I went on a camping trip with
the debate team.
Furthermore and Moreover are also very formal, and
they are basically the same as “in addition” and
“additionally”. We often use “moreover” and
“furthermore” when we talk about our opinions.
• Smoking is a bad habit because it smells bad and it
can damage your health. Furthermore, it is a very
• Students are given too many tests these days.
Moreover, they don’t have enough free time.
Plus and …as well can be formal or
informal. (“…as well” is used at the end of a
• That car has new brakes, an air‐conditioner,
and a new CD player. Plus, it has an alarm.
• The typhoon destroyed my cousin’s home,
and it destroyed his car as well.
As well as means “and also”.
A as well as B (+ing)
A and B as well as C (+ing)
I went to Paris and London, as well as Berlin
• I studied psychology and medicine, as well as
working in a hospital to gain firsthand
His bad attitude causes him to do poorly in
school, as well as making it harder for him to
Not only … but also: This is similar to “as well
as” and is often used in formal writing
Sentence Pattern: not only A but also B.
• This city is not only expensive but also
as an illustration
e.g., (for example)
in the same way
by the same token
in like manner
in similar fashion
on the contrary
on the other
at the same time
that is to say
in other words
i.e., (that is)
to rephrase it
to put it another
on account of
for that reason
as a result
in order that
to that end,
to this end
by all means
to sum up
to be sure
it is true