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Mental
Retardation/Intellectual
Disability:
Definition and its causes
Presented by:
Mirasol S. Madrid
III-9 BS Psychology
What is Mental
Retardation/
Intellectual
disability?
Mental Retardation
“Mental retardation refers to substantial limitations in
present functioning. It is characterized by si...
Mental Retardation
• Substantial limitations in present
functioning means that the person has
difficulty in performing eve...
Mental Retardation
• Significantly sub-average intellectual
functioning means that the person has
significantly below aver...
Mental Retardation
• Limitations in the adaptive skills or
behavior means that the person with
mental retardation fail to ...
Mental Retardation
• Related limitations in the adaptive
skills areas means that the person has
difficulty in performing t...
Mental Retardation
• Mental Retardation is a developmental
disability.
• NOTE: It is important that the person must
meet a...
INTELLECTUAL
DISABILITY
Mentally deficient
What are the
classifications
of Mental
Retardation?
Classification of Mental Retardation
In the previous American Association on
Mental Retardation classification system, the...
Classification of Mental Retardation
In the previous American Association on
Mental Retardation classification system, the...
Classification of Mental Retardation
Classification IQ Score
MODERATE MR
- Trainable (work and self-
care task)
- Acquires...
Classification of Mental Retardation
Classification IQ Score
SEVERE MR
- They may master very
basic self-care skills and
s...
Classification of Mental Retardation
However, the AAMR has introduced a
new system of classification that is based on
the ...
Classification of Mental Retardation
Classification Support Needed
Intermittent
Support
are on “as needed” basis,
that is,...
Classification of Mental Retardation
Classification Support Needed
Limited Supports
are required
consistently, though not
...
Classification of Mental Retardation
Classification Support Needed
Extensive Supports
are needed on a regular
basis; daily...
Classification of Mental Retardation
Classification Support Needed
Pervasive Supports
are daily extensive
supports, perhap...
What are the
causes of MR?
Causes of Mental Retardation
There are more than 250 identified
causes of mental retardation. The AAMR
classifies the caus...
Causes of Mental Retardation
A. Prenatal or Biological (before birth)
Prenatal causes are those that
originate during conc...
Causes of Mental Retardation
Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics
• Down Syndrome
 Was named after Dr.
Langdon Down...
Causes of Mental Retardation
Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics
• Klinefelter
Syndrome
 More associated with
lear...
Causes of Mental Retardation
Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics
• Fragile X Syndrome
 Most common MR
next to DS
...
Causes of Mental Retardation
Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics
• William Syndrome
 Results in learning
problems,...
Causes of Mental Retardation
Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics
• Prader-Willi
syndrome
 Syndrome disorder
 Asso...
Causes of Mental Retardation
Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics
 Translocation, or
mutation that
inactivates that...
Causes of Mental Retardation
Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics
• Phenylketonuria
(PKU)
 Inborn errors of
metabol...
CRANIAL Malformation
• Occurs in developmental disorders of
brain formation
– Anencephaly the major portions of the
brain ...
CRANIAL Malformation
– Hydrocephaly blockage of
cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial cavity
causes an enlarged head and undu...
ANENCEPHALY
MICROCEPHALY
HYDROCEPHALY
Mental Retardation may also occur due to
environmental influences such as:
– Maternal Malnutrition
– Irradiation during pr...
Fetal Alcohol Effect or FAE happens due to
the mother’s prenatal alcohol exposure. FAE is
a condition associated with hype...
FAS/FAE
Causes of Mental Retardation
B. Perinatal (during birth) mental retardation
may occur by:
- Intrauterine Disorders such as...
Causes of Mental Retardation
B. Perinatal (during birth) mental
retardation may occur by:
-Neonatal Disorders such as
intr...
Causes of Mental Retardation
C. Postnatal and Environmental (after birth)
mental retardation may occur due to:
- head inju...
Causes of Mental Retardation
C. Postnatal and Environmental (after birth)
mental retardation may occur due to:
- Degenerat...
Causes of Mental Retardation
C. Postnatal and Environmental (after
birth) mental retardation may occur due to:
-Environmen...
Though accidents,
particularly vehicular
accidents, are the leading
causes of childhood head
injuries, the shaken baby
syn...
Cultural-familial retardation refers to the
existence of lowered intelligence of unknown
origin associated with a history ...
Diseases of the mother during pregnancy may
also result in retardation. Infections caused by
sexually transmitted diseases...
Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability: Definition and its causes
Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability: Definition and its causes
Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability: Definition and its causes
Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability: Definition and its causes
Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability: Definition and its causes
Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability: Definition and its causes
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Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability: Definition and its causes

Presentation about the definition and causes of Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disability for Special Education subject.

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Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability: Definition and its causes

  1. 1. Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability: Definition and its causes Presented by: Mirasol S. Madrid III-9 BS Psychology
  2. 2. What is Mental Retardation/ Intellectual disability?
  3. 3. Mental Retardation “Mental retardation refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. It is characterized by significantly sub-average intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following adaptive skills areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work. Mental retardation manifests before age 18.” (Heward, 2003)
  4. 4. Mental Retardation • Substantial limitations in present functioning means that the person has difficulty in performing everyday activities related to taking care of one’s self, ordinary tasks at home and work related to other adaptive skills areas. Academic work is also included, if the person goes to school.
  5. 5. Mental Retardation • Significantly sub-average intellectual functioning means that the person has significantly below average intelligence. The person has difficulty to learn, solve problems, accumulate knowledge and adapt to new situations. However, sub- average intellectual functioning can change.
  6. 6. Mental Retardation • Limitations in the adaptive skills or behavior means that the person with mental retardation fail to meet the standards of personal independence and social responsibility expected of their chronological age and cultural group. Adaptive skills are assessed by means of standardized adaptive behavior scales.
  7. 7. Mental Retardation • Related limitations in the adaptive skills areas means that the person has difficulty in performing the following tasks: communication, self-care, home living, community use, social skills, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work.
  8. 8. Mental Retardation • Mental Retardation is a developmental disability. • NOTE: It is important that the person must meet all three of the above criteria. Thus, an IQ score below 70 or 75 is not sufficient to classify a person as with mental retardation.
  9. 9. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY Mentally deficient
  10. 10. What are the classifications of Mental Retardation?
  11. 11. Classification of Mental Retardation In the previous American Association on Mental Retardation classification system, there are four levels that are still widely used today (based on IQ score): Classification IQ Score MILD MR 55-70 MODERATE MR 40-54 SEVERE MR 25-39 PROFOUND MR Below 25
  12. 12. Classification of Mental Retardation In the previous American Association on Mental Retardation classification system, there are four levels that are still widely used today (based on IQ score): Classification IQ Score MILD MR - Educable (6th grade) - May live independently, with community and social support 55-70
  13. 13. Classification of Mental Retardation Classification IQ Score MODERATE MR - Trainable (work and self- care task) - Acquires communication skills - May live and function successfully within the community 40-54
  14. 14. Classification of Mental Retardation Classification IQ Score SEVERE MR - They may master very basic self-care skills and some communication skills 25-39 PROFOUND MR - May develop basic self- care skills and communication skills - Needs high supervision Below 25
  15. 15. Classification of Mental Retardation However, the AAMR has introduced a new system of classification that is based on the amount of support that the person needs in order to function to the highest possible level The four categories of mental retardation according to the intensity of needed supports are: (Wehmeyer, 2002)
  16. 16. Classification of Mental Retardation Classification Support Needed Intermittent Support are on “as needed” basis, that is, the person needs help only at certain periods of time and not all the time. Support will most likely be required during periods of transition. (e.g. moving from school to work.)
  17. 17. Classification of Mental Retardation Classification Support Needed Limited Supports are required consistently, though not on a daily basis. The support needed is of non-intensive nature.
  18. 18. Classification of Mental Retardation Classification Support Needed Extensive Supports are needed on a regular basis; daily supports are required in some environments, for example, daily home living tasks.
  19. 19. Classification of Mental Retardation Classification Support Needed Pervasive Supports are daily extensive supports, perhaps of a life-sustaining nature required in multiple environments.
  20. 20. What are the causes of MR?
  21. 21. Causes of Mental Retardation There are more than 250 identified causes of mental retardation. The AAMR classifies the causes or etiological factors based on: Time of onset A. Prenatal or Biological (before birth) B. Perinatal (during birth) C. Postnatal and Environmental (after birth)
  22. 22. Causes of Mental Retardation A. Prenatal or Biological (before birth) Prenatal causes are those that originate during conception or pregnancy until before birth are chromosomal disorders such as trisomy 21 or Down Syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Phenylketonuria, and William Syndrome.
  23. 23. Causes of Mental Retardation Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics • Down Syndrome  Was named after Dr. Langdon Down  the best known and well researched biological condition associated with MR  affects 1 in 1,000 live births  Chromosomal abnormality  Trisomy 21 – the 21st set is a triplet rather than a pair which often results in the moderate level of MR  Correlated with the age of the mother  can also be a result of a nondisjunction of the father’s chromosome 21  Flat, broad face  Small ears and nose  Upward slanting eyes  Small mouth with short roof  Protruding tongue  Hypertonia or floppy muscles  Shorter life span  Sexually underdeveloped  sterile
  24. 24. Causes of Mental Retardation Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics • Klinefelter Syndrome  More associated with learning disability  Males are commonly affected  Extra X chromosome resulting to: XXY  XXY is usually caused by what is called nondisjunction. Nondisjunction happens when a pair of sex chromosomes fails to separate during egg (or sperm) formation.  Male sex organs are underdeveloped: unusually small testicles  Sterile  Has female secondary sex characteristics: breast enlargement and other feminine characteristics  Less-muscular bodies  Wider hips, low growth of facial hair
  25. 25. Causes of Mental Retardation Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics • Fragile X Syndrome  Most common MR next to DS  Occurs in both gender but males are mostly affected  Majority of males experience mild to moderate MR (childhood) and moderate to severe MR (adulthood)  A triplet or repeat mutation on the X chromosome interferes with the production of FMR-1 protein which is essential for normal brain functioning  Most people have 29 repeats at this end of their X chromosome but people with FX have over 700 repeats  Males: Intellectual Disability, large ears, long face, soft skin, large testicles, flat feet, double-jointed fingers. They may also have: social anxiety, poor-eye contact, tactile defensiveness, ritualistic forms of greeting  Females: milder presentation of the characteristics
  26. 26. Causes of Mental Retardation Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics • William Syndrome  Results in learning problems, attention deficit disorder, anxiety, phobias but they have outgoing personality  Occurs equally in both male and female and in every culture  WS is caused by the deletion of a portion of chromosome 7  The deleted area includes more than 25 genes so amount of genetic material deleted may vary  Deletion of chromosomes are due to random events that occur in eggs or sperm from their parents  Elfin or dwarf-like features (e.g. small eye openings, broad forehead, short nose with a broad tip, full cheeks, wide mouth with full lips, and dental problems)  They lack reserve toward strangers  Weak in visual-spatial skills  Often hyperactive
  27. 27. Causes of Mental Retardation Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics • Prader-Willi syndrome  Syndrome disorder  Associated with mild retardation and learning disability  PWS is caused by the deletion of a portion of chromosome 15  May also occur if the person has a copy of chromosome 15 from the maternal side instead of each of the parent  Infants: floppy- muscles, feeding difficulties, delayed development  Childhood: insatiable appetite that may result to chronic overeating (hyperphagia) or obesity  Beh. Problems are common: impulsitivity, aggressiveness, OCD and tantrums
  28. 28. Causes of Mental Retardation Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics  Translocation, or mutation that inactivates that paternal chromosome 15  Physical features: narrow forehead, almond-shaped eyes, triangular mouth, short stature, small hands and feet. Some may have unusually fair skin and light colored hair  Male and female affected may have underdeveloped genitals. Most are also infertile
  29. 29. Causes of Mental Retardation Chromosomal Disorder Cause Characteristics • Phenylketonuria (PKU)  Inborn errors of metabolism  Genetically inherited  A child is born without an important enzyme to break down an amino acid called Phenylalanine (Phe) found in dairy and protein rich foods  PKU is inherited if both the mother and the father is a carrier of the defective gene  Because of the failure to breakdown the Phe, this causes brain damage, that results in aggressiveness, hyperactivity, and severe mental retardation  Symptoms may include: beh. And social problems, seizures or jerking movements, hyperactivity, skin rashes, microcephaly, musty odor in the child’s breath, skin or urine due to too much Phe.  They have fair skin and blue eyes
  30. 30. CRANIAL Malformation • Occurs in developmental disorders of brain formation – Anencephaly the major portions of the brain are absent. This is a major neural tube defect, that is, it occurs in the brain or in the spinal cord. – Microcephaly the skull is small and conical, the spine is curved and typically leads to stooped portion and severe mental retardation
  31. 31. CRANIAL Malformation – Hydrocephaly blockage of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial cavity causes an enlarged head and undue pressure on the brain.
  32. 32. ANENCEPHALY
  33. 33. MICROCEPHALY
  34. 34. HYDROCEPHALY
  35. 35. Mental Retardation may also occur due to environmental influences such as: – Maternal Malnutrition – Irradiation during pregnancy – Juvenile diabetes mellitus – Fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS FAS is one of the leading causes of MR. This is due to the mother’s excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
  36. 36. Fetal Alcohol Effect or FAE happens due to the mother’s prenatal alcohol exposure. FAE is a condition associated with hyperactivity and learning problems. It is characterized by cognitive impairment, sleep disturbances, motor dysfunctions, hyperirritability, aggression and conduct problems. FAS’ incidence is higher than DS and cerebral palsy
  37. 37. FAS/FAE
  38. 38. Causes of Mental Retardation B. Perinatal (during birth) mental retardation may occur by: - Intrauterine Disorders such as maternal anemia, premature delivery, abnormal presentation, umbilical cord accidents and multiple gestations in the case of twins, triplets, quadruplets and other types of multiple births. Birth trauma may result from anoxia or cutting off of oxygen supply to the brain.
  39. 39. Causes of Mental Retardation B. Perinatal (during birth) mental retardation may occur by: -Neonatal Disorders such as intracranial hemorrhage, neonatal seizures, respiratory disorders, meningitis, encephalitis, head trauma at birth.
  40. 40. Causes of Mental Retardation C. Postnatal and Environmental (after birth) mental retardation may occur due to: - head injuries cerebral concussion, contusion or laceration - infections encephalitis, meningitis, malaria, German measles, rubella; - demyelinating disorders post infectious disorders, post immunization disorders
  41. 41. Causes of Mental Retardation C. Postnatal and Environmental (after birth) mental retardation may occur due to: - Degenerative disorders Rett syndrome, Huntington disease, Parkinson’s disease; - Seizure disorders – epilepsy, toxic- metabolic disorders such as Reye’s syndrome, lead or mercury poisoning - Malnutrition – especially lack of proteins and calories;
  42. 42. Causes of Mental Retardation C. Postnatal and Environmental (after birth) mental retardation may occur due to: -Environmental deprivation such as psychosocial disadvantage, child abuse and neglect, chronic social/sensory deprivation
  43. 43. Though accidents, particularly vehicular accidents, are the leading causes of childhood head injuries, the shaken baby syndrome, which is a type of child abuse when a crying infant is violently shaken by a frustrated caregiver, can result to head injury. This often results in internal bleeding and brain damage, or in some cases, even death.
  44. 44. Cultural-familial retardation refers to the existence of lowered intelligence of unknown origin associated with a history of mental retardation in one or more family members.
  45. 45. Diseases of the mother during pregnancy may also result in retardation. Infections caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, AIDS, toxoplasmosis (blood poisoning) and rubella can have negative effects on the developing fetus. Maternal rubella is most likely to cause retardation, blindness, or deafness when the disease occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy.

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