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BBFC GUIDE RESEARCH
• The main objective for BBFC is that they want to create
preference and independence.
• They don’t intend on making profit.
• The BBFC adjusts its standards and criteria in response to any
changes in public attitudes.
There are two key principles, laid out by the BBFC guildline
• to protect children and vulnerable adults from potentially harmful
or otherwise unsuitable content
• to empower consumers, particularly parents and those with
responsibility for children, to make informed viewing decisions.
• A U film should be suitable for audiences aged four years and
over, although it is impossible to predict what might upset any
• U films should be set within a positive framework and should not
offer any violence, threat or horror. If the film is suitable for pre-
school children, this will be indicated as universal film.
General viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young
children. A PG film should not unsettle a child aged around eight or
older. Unaccompanied children of any age may watch, but parents
are advised that it may contain un suitable content for their child.
• Films classified 12A and video works classified 12 contain
material that is not generally suitable for children aged under 12.
No one younger than 12 may see a 12A film in a cinema unless
accompanied by an adult. Adults planning to take a child under
12 to view a 12A film should consider whether the film is
suitable for that child. To help them decide, we recommend that
they check the BBFCinsight for that film in advance. No one
younger than 12 may rent or buy a 12 rated video work.
• You must be 15 and older to be able to watch this film. This age
restriction tends to use less explicit language than (18). But
more than a (12)
• No one younger than 18 may see an 18 film in a cinema. No
one younger than 18 may rent or buy an 18 rated video work.
Adults should be free to choose their own entertainment.
• The R18 category is a special and legally-restricted
classification primarily for explicit works of consenting sex or
strong fetish material involving adults. Films may only be shown
to adults in specially licensed cinemas, and video works may be
supplied to adults only in licensed sex shops. R18 video works
may not be supplied by mail order.
Credit to BBFC
• Before a film is released the company will do many
things to hype up their audience in order to make profit.
An example would be for them to release a trailer, in
order to get people intrigued and curious for when the
film is actually released to the public in the cinema.
• The film can either be released to the cinema, video on
demand, personal home viewing or broadcasting
syndication for the audience to view.
• A director of a potential film has a plot/script ready to sell to a producer. If the producer
likes what he reads, a written agreement is placed and a budget for the film is set. An
example of a producer company would be ‘Illumination Entertainment.’
• The second step is the casting of actors and other technician (editing, filming, sound
• All the crew members then begin to shoot the film, and eventually when its finished, the
director and producer decide when and how to release it to the public. For this to occur, a
distributor is needed. A distributor also helps release the film globally, increasing the
chances of higher profits. Films are distributed by many ways;
EXAMPLES OF FILM DISTRIBUTORS.
Warner Bros Pictures 20th Century Fox Television
CONVENTIONS OF FILM OPENING
• The first few opening scenes must hook and engage the audience. It will also give little
hints of what will occur later on in the film. The institution title is normally editing to fit the
genre it is in. So in a horror film the Walter Brothers logo may have been edited with dark
and sinister lighting.
• Establishing shot is sometimes used to clearly give the audience the date and setting
the film. For a horror film a establishing shot a forest may be used. This will be to engage
and to get the viewers thinking right away.
• Music is essential, seeing this intrigues people. It also builds tension for the rest of the
film. Non-Diegetic is used the most, as this makes the viewers feel uncomfortable.
• Some Horror films start straight off with an action scene. This to give the audience a taste
of what's going to occur. This is also to engage and intrigue the audience.
SUB - GENRES
• Combines horror with comedy
• They often mix famous horror films with their wacky comedy such, scary movie
• They make the viewers fear and laugh throughout the film.
• Relies on characters fear, guilt and vison.
• Very dark and sinister
• Creative angles are used to built tension
• This genre is very gruesome and violet.
• This normally includes a crazy serial killer stalking his victims , slowly killing them off one
by one, with the same unique weapon.
• There is often a reason to why the serial killer does his killing, later found out.
• Serial killer often killed off, or left injured for another possible sequel.
• Sound conventions are things that typically are heard in a horror film. There are
many things that always appear in horror films. These can be loud banging noises,
creaky sounds, whispers, silence and music to build to tension. There are a lot
more, but these are only a few.
There are two types of sound used in films (Diegetic and non-Diegetic):
• Diegetic sound is sound that the characters can here. For example voices of other
characters, source music, atmosphere of the scene and many more.
• Non-diegetic is sound that characters cant hear. For example the narratives
commentary, mood music, sound effects and more.
Fast paced music is used a lot in horror films. This is used as it is very good at building
suspense and tension in within the film. It is usually ended with a fright scare. In order
to scare the audience and to engage further. The scare is always partnered with a loud
bang to end it off. To add to the tension of the scare.
Parallel editing: Is used a lot in horror films. This is the technique of altering cross
cutting scenes that happen straight after one another in different locations. This
type of editing adds interest and excitement to an otherwise boring scene.
Why use it?
Imagine a scene of a man, just about to go to bed. He’s in the bathroom brushing
his teeth. As he begins to wash his face a masked serial killer stabs and murders
him. Yes its exiting, but it can be improved by parallel editing. For example the first
shot would be the man entering the bathroom. The second scene would could be
the masked man entering his house through his windows. The man would then
begin to turn on the tap so that he could start washing his face. But the masked
man grabs him before he can, and stabs him in the back. This adds visual value
too. The first version had one key exiting point, which was the stabbing of the man.
However the parallel edited version increase the suspense and adds even more
excitement as it is slowly built up by the director. It has the viewer thinking and
worrying for the victim unlike the first version. Background sound music will be
added too to build that tension just a little more. Its added superfluous content,
enjoyable for the viewers.
Close Up Shot: This types of shot is where the camera tightly frames an object
Why use it?
Horror movies often use a lot of close up shots. This is because they can be
used to show many things. Such as showing importance, creates an atmosphere
and bring the viewers closer together. It also increase fear. This is used a lot in
movies. This is a very frequent use of editing.
Horror is based upon conflict and dilemma the main protagonist have to endure
and even overcome. Horror film always contain a main protagonist. This could
either a hero/heroine or a villain. Most likely a hero. If a villain it could be
masked serial killer, a monster, mutant, super natural element and list goes on.
In most horror films the ending of them film would end in the death of the villain
and the victory of the main protagonist, but recent films have changed where the
villain is superior at the end of the film. EG- paranormal activity, conjuring 2 etc.
These tend to be super natural themed films.
The action of the villain always have a reasoning to it. It could be revenge, need
of possession of the human soul, or could be the need to killing.
Types of Characters
The protagonist: Could be either male or female and are the smartest of the group.
They tend to be the last one alive of the lot, and the one manages to solve the dilemma
or escapes. They make the right, smart obvious choices whereas the other make not so
The Suspicious Friend: Others members of the group begin to suspect them to be the
antagonist due to there actions.
Annoying Friend: The one friend who makes really dumb choices, and is very irritating
to the viewers. Often first killed off, leaving the views happy satisfied rather than upset.
The Antagonist: Often revealed at the end. Sometimes killed at the end with a dramatic
scene. At this point we find out why all this occurred. Could be left injured for a possible
In horror films different and unique angles and canted cameras will
be used to enhance the viewer further. This also adds the element
of tension and to even express fear. They will also use colours
such as red and black because they suggest danger and death. So
you could tell right away that you are watching a horror movie.
Whereas a romantic comedy, would use bright vibrant colours. One
technique used a lot by the directors would be the filming of
someone through something. For example a women eating at a
restaurants being filmed through the window of the shop. This
suggests that she is being watched and examined, and could be
targeted and attacked later in the plot. Builds suspense and fear for
CREATIVE CINEMATOGRAPHY EXAMPLES
• Low angle, silhouetted shot.
Normally used on the antagonist, to
create fear, as the audience are not
shown his face, making him/her even
more scary. (no identity)
• Through window shot.
Normally used in all types of Horror
Genre. Normally occurs on the
protagonist and makes it seem as if
they are behind watched by the
antagonist. Adding another layer of
• High angles shot
The high angle makes
the character on the less
superior to the audience.
Because they (camera)
are looking down on
What is the difference of plot and narrative
• The narrative is a device used to communicate to the audience. It tells the story through
sequence of actions and events.
• The plot is the main events of a play, novel, film. For example in a Rom-Com the plot will
be man falling in love with a woman.
Types of narrative structure
• Open – There is no foreseeable ending – soap shows (Eastenders)
• Closed – The ending is given, wrapped up, so no questions are asked. (most films)
• Multi-strand - is telling a story from more than one person's point of view. Or two stories
of two different people.
• Linear – Tells the story one point at a time without using flashbacks or flash – forwards.
• Non – Linear – Does not follow normal pattern. Out of chronological order.
MISE – EN – SCENE
The film is usually set in isolated area or even super natural areas. This is so the viewers can
clearly identify and figure out that there is no around to help if anything helps. Often its dark, old
abandoned run down buildings etc.. It would most likely be shot at night seeing as it would have a
bigger effect on audience. The director will use pathetic fallacy which consists of thunder and rain.
These are used to add even more tension and fear to the unusual isolated setting.
Props that might be used
These props have a sense of eeriness and darkness to them. Therefore they are perfect for Horror
Films. Props add to a scene by giving more dark sinister scene and it builds tension. Example could
the Holy book could show the presence of a super natural element. Knives could show that
someone is out there to murder them.
QUESTIONNAIRE RESULT ANALYSIS
From this question we an see that 67%
voted for the Horror films, and the
remaining 33% is shared between Thriller,
Comedy, Sci Fi and Adventure. However
no-one selected the action category. This
shows us that horror movies are more
popular than the other given options.
From question 2 we can analyse that the
sub – genre, Comedy Horror is preferred
more than the other provided options.
These are Paranormal Horror, Slasher
horror and sci – fi horror.
This question was answered by 15 people, in which
40% where 15-18 and 19-24. The remaining 20% is for
those who are 25 or older. No-one was 14 years old or
younger. This shows us that Horror films are targeted
for the older audience.
From this question we can see that there is
a large proportion of those who watch horror
films ‘whenever they can’. Specifically the
percentage of this is 40%. But there is very
small proportion of those who ‘never watch
it’. (7%). This shows us the popularity of this
genre. This could be because of many
In this question I asked them what was the
last film they watched. These where
• Conjuring 2
• Aliens vs Predators
• Nightmare on Elm Street
• Batman vs Superman
• Paranormal Activity 5
• Iron Man
• Suicide Squad
• Bounty hunter
• Finding dory
• Captain America Civil war
• Conjuring 2
• Don’t breath
• Avenger 2
• Hangover 3
• Conjuring 2
I asked this question because I want to get an
idea of what my questionnaire answer like and
The majority of these where horror films. This
shows us that Horror films are hot and trendy
I asked this question because I wanted to see why
loved their favourite films.
From those who chose Horror films as there
favourite films, they all seem to like the film being
based on true events and the use of gore to
represent death. As makes the film that much more
From this question you can see that more
people like to watch horror films with friends
rather than alone, or with family or with siblings.
Watching with family came in second with 26%,
and watching alone and with sibling came in
with 14%. This shows us the majority like
watching we someone else rather than alone.
This may because they like to share and enjoy
the fear of the film with someone else. Makes
the film more entertaining to watch.
From this we can clearly see that
horror films are more appealing
when they are based on real life
events. Such as – Paranormal
Activity. ‘Yes’ earned 80% of the
vote whereas ‘no’ earned 20% of the
From my questionnaire I have learnt that the Horror movies genre is more appealing to
watch compared to other genres, such as action, comedy etc. I have also learnt that the
comedy – horror sub genre had a greater proportion of the vote rather than slasher –
horror, paranormal horror and sci – fi horror. This has had a great influence on what type
of genre I am going to shoot for our final production.
TARGET AUDIENCE PROFILE
My target audience is
for the younger
audience as I feel that
in this generation enjoy
Slasher Horror Movies
more. At that age they
are open to experiment
on their emotions, and
Therefore they are
perfect for target
OPENING SEQUENCE ANALYSIS – CONJURING
• The opening scene starts with a black screen and people taking in the background.
After a while the viewers will be able to make out the words in which were about a
possessed doll. As soon as the doll is mentioned an extreme close of the doll is
shown. It is zoomed into the dolls eyes as this looks very realistic. This is give the
doll a realism to it. No noise is used throughout this scene, however the input of the
doll still adds a shocking surprise as now the viewers can visually see what the
characters at the beginning were distressing about. The camera then slowly zooms
out to show the dolls entire face, to further frighten viewers as they know that this
doll is possessed so whenever it appears, bad things will happen. Narrative is
introduced through a conversation that the characters are having. The other people
in the conversation who are most likely experts in in sprits explain why the sprits
wanted to be closer to doll and its owners. This information is given to the audience
in order to make them feel even more disturbed for the rest of the movie. The
lightning throughout the film is very dark to add to the eerie effect and to make it feel
twice as more creepy and scary for the audience. This is also used to show that
something bad is going to occur. This is matched with the use of eerie music to build
OPENING SEQUENCE ANALYSIS – WOMAN IN
• At the beginning of the film we are introduced with a close up of three children playing
with their dolls with eerie creepy music being played in the background. From the use of
the tea cups and the setting of the house we the audience realise that the film is set in
England. Seeing as the house is very Victorian and tea cups is very stereotypical item
which has an association to England. The Victorian house also gives us a sense of when
the movie was set in. The use of the characters also portrays this. The music was used in
order keep the audience on edge. The music used was slow and calm. From this it gives
the audience a feeling of something bad is going to occur. This also foreshadows what the
audience are going to witness later in the film and foreshadows future events. The next
shot shows a high angle shot of the three children playing with their toys whilst they sit
right in the middle of the room. Suddenly all three children come to a stop, suggesting that
something bad is going to take place. The music also begins to speed up to make
audience even more aware. It also makes the audience think whether there is another
character in the movie.
NEW LINE CINEMA
• This film distribution company is an American film studio found in 1967. They
began as a film distribution company, but later on became a independent film
studios. They mostly participate in marketing and distribution for horror and
thriller films. Some example are the ‘Nightmare on Elm Street’, ‘The
• This company has been successful with many movies within the horror
Film distribution companies in detail
• Screen Gems are also an American film production company. This company
is responsible for the distribution of films such as ‘obsessed’, ‘Dear John’ ect.
• This company is a widely known distribution and production company. It
mostly works with Romantic Comedy films.
Film distribution companies in detail