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History of Architecture: Islamic Architecture

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this PowerPoint presentation contains all you should know about Islamic architecture. this features the history, architectural character, examples of Islamic structures, and the contemporary Islamic architects. Best for architecture students studying History of Architecture 3.

this PowerPoint presentation contains all you should know about Islamic architecture. this features the history, architectural character, examples of Islamic structures, and the contemporary Islamic architects. Best for architecture students studying History of Architecture 3.


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History of Architecture: Islamic Architecture

  1. 1. Islamic Architecture
  2. 2. HISTORY Islam originated in Arabia. In 610 the angel Gabriel is said to have appeared to Mohammed in Mecca and expounded the revelation of God, or Allah. These revelations were collected into a holy book, the Qur’an, which expressed in Arabic the message of Islam, a word signifying submission to the will of Allah.
  3. 3. By 661 Islamic armies had swept through what is today Iran, Iraq, Israel, Syria, and Egypt, and they then moved across the North African coast to enter Spain in 711. From Spain they pushed northward into France, where forces led by Charles Martel stopped their European expansion in 732 at the battle of Tours. Islamic settlers remained in central and southern Spain until 1492, however, and their armies continued to batter the southern border of the Byzantine Empire until they finally conquered Constantinople in 1453.
  4. 4. Through trade, Islamic dynasties made contact with China and India, where their religion would eventually take root. With military conquest came economic, social, and cultural dominance as Islamic customs and the Arabic language replaced surviving Roman practices. The heady mix of learned men from Islamic and Jewish traditions, sometimes joined by Christian theologians, contributed to a highly productive era in the arts and sciences from the ninth through sixteenth centuries.
  5. 5. SOCIETY • Tribal groups • Public life was reserved for men (women had a secondary role - for domestic and agricultural work) • Christians and Jews ("people of the book“) were given the freedom of worship and self-government • Many of the conquered cities were already centers of learning • Muslims translated into Arabic many scholarly writings from Greek, Persian and Indian • Rulers and scholars were interested in mathematics, astronomy, geography, medicine, philosophy and science
  6. 6. RELIGION • Complete philosophy of life and government • One god Allah, Muhammad is the prophet • Faith is held to be Allah's will for creation • Acceptance of the transitory nature of earthly life • Personal humility • Abhorrence of image worship KORAN • Muhammad wrote down the words of angels who brought him messages from Allah • After his death, these accounts were compiled into a holy book • Speaks of the power of Allah, to accept his will and to praise him
  7. 7. ISLAM’S FIVE BASIC TRUTHS or DUTIES • To believe on the oneness of God, and that Mohammed was the messenger of God; • To pray five times daily; • To fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan • To give alms to the poor; • and To make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca, wealth and permitting. *Also jihad or holy war is sometimes added as a pillar to spread the faith and defend it from attack
  8. 8. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE • Islamic architecture comprises the architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam. • Encompasses both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day. • Islamic architecture was influenced by: Roman Byzantine Persian Mesopotamian and all other lands which the Muslims conquered in the seventh and eighth centuries. • In the east, it was also influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia.
  9. 9. • it developed distinct characteristics in the form of buildings, and the decoration of surfaces with Islamic calligraphy and geometric and interlace patterned ornament. • New architectural elements like cylindrical minarets, pointed arch, muqarnas, arabesque, multifoil were invented.
  10. 10. • The principal Islamic architectural types for large or public buildings are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. • From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture.
  11. 11. From the eighth to the 11th century, Islamic architectural styles were influenced by two different ancient traditions: 1. Greco-Roman tradition: In particular, the regions of the newly conquered Byzantine Empire (Southwestern Anatolia, Syria, Egypt and the Maghreb) supplied architects, masons, mosaicists and other craftsmen to the new Islamic rulers. These artisans were trained in Byzantine architecture and decorative arts, and continued building and decorating in Byzantine style, which had developed out of Hellenistic and ancient Roman architecture. INFLUENCES 2. Eastern tradition: Mesopotamia and Persia, despite adopting elements of Hellenistic and Roman representative style, retained their independent architectural traditions, which derived from Sasanian architecture and its predecessors.
  12. 12. INFLUENCES Some features caused by The transition process between late Antiquity, or post- classical, and Islamic architecture: 1. The existence of a linear development within the Islamic architecture; 2. the existence of an inter- and intracultural hierarchy of styles; 3. questions of cultural authenticity and its delineation The Umayyads played a crucial role in this process of transforming and thereby enriching the existing architectural traditions, or, in a more general sense, of the visual culture of the nascent Islamic society.
  13. 13. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Some characteristics of Islamic architecture were inherited from pre-Islamic architecture of that region while some characteristics like: minarets, muqarnas, arabesque, Islamic geometric pattern, pointed arch, multifoil arch, onion dome , and pointed dome developed later.
  14. 14. MINARET Minaret is a type of tower typically built into or adjacent to mosques. Minarets serve multiple purposes. While they provide a visual focal point, they are generally used for the Muslim call to prayer (adhan). The basic form of a minaret includes a base, shaft, a cap and head. They are generally a tall spire with a conical or onion-shaped crown. Different types of Minaret. 1. Iraq 2. Morocco 3. Turkey 4. India, 5. Egypt 6. Asia.
  15. 15. MUQARNAS • The architectural element of muqarnas developed in northeastern Iran and the Maghreb around the middle of the 10th century. • The ornament is created by the geometric subdivision of a vaulting structure into miniature, superimposed pointed-arch substructures, also known as "honeycomb", or "stalactite" vaults. • Made from different materials like stone, brick, wood or stucco, its use in architecture spread over the entire Islamic world. In the Islamic West, muqarnas are also used to adorn the outside of a dome, cupola, or similar structure, while in the East is more limited to the interior face of a vault. The muqarna of a mosque in Bukhara, Uzbekistan
  16. 16. MUQARNAS
  17. 17. ARABESQUE The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements. Foliate ornament, used in the Islamic world, typically using leaves, derived from stylized half-palmettes, which were combined with spiraling stems
  18. 18. ISLAMIC GEOMETRIC PATTERN • Islamic decoration, which tends to avoid using figurative images, makes frequent use of geometric patterns which have developed over the centuries. • The geometric designs in Islamic art are often built on combinations of repeated squares and circles, which may be overlapped and interlaced, as can arabesques (with which they are often combined), to form intricate and complex patterns, including a wide variety of tessellations. These may constitute the entire decoration, may form a framework for floral or calligraphic embellishments, or may retreat into the background around other motifs.
  20. 20. ARCHES The horseshoe arch became a popular feature in Islamic structures. Some suggest the Muslims acquired this from the Visigoths in Spain but they may have obtained it from Syria and Persia where the horseshoe arch had been in use by the Byzantines. In Moorish architecture, the curvature of the horseshoe arch is much more accentuated. Furthermore, alternating colors were added to accentuate the effect of its shape.
  21. 21. DOMES
  22. 22. DOMES
  24. 24. Islamic Ornaments
  25. 25. Islamic Ornaments
  26. 26. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Other characteristics: Paradise garden Afif-Abad Garden, Shiraz Gardens and water have for many centuries played an essential role in Islamic culture, and are often compared to the garden of Paradise. Large Paradise gardens are also found at the Taj Mahal (Agra), and at Humayun's Tomb (New Delhi), in India; the Shalimar Gardens (Lahore, Pakistan) or at the Alhambra and Generalife in Granada, Spain
  27. 27. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Other characteristics: Courtyard (Sehan) The traditional Islamic courtyard, a sehan (Arabic: ‫صحن‬ ), is found in secular and religious structures. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, with a large courtyard (sehan) surrounded by arcades, Kairouan, Tunisia
  28. 28. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Other characteristics: Courtyard (Sehan) functions: 1. When within a residence or other secular building is a private courtyard and walled garden. It is used for: the aesthetics of plants, water, architectural elements, and natural light; for cooler space with fountains and shade, and source of breezes into the structure, during summer heat; and a protected and proscribed place where the women of the house need not be covered in the hijab clothing traditionally necessary in public. 2. A sehan—courtyard is in within almost every mosque in Islamic architecture. The courtyards are open to the sky and surrounded on all sides by structures with halls and rooms, and often a shaded semi-open arcade. Sehans usually feature a centrally positioned ritual cleansing pool under an open domed pavilion called a howz. A mosque courtyard is used for performing ablutions, and a 'patio' for rest or gathering.
  29. 29. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Other characteristics: Vaulting • Umayyad diaphragm arches and barrel vaults Umayyad period buildings show a mixture of ancient Roman and Persian architectural traditions. Diaphragm arches with linteled ceilings made of wood or stone beams, or, alternatively, with barrel vaults, were known in the Levant since the classical and Nabatean period.
  30. 30. VAULTS
  31. 31. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Other characteristics: Vaulting • Spain (al-Andaluz) The double-arched system of arcades of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba is generally considered to be derived from Roman aqueducts like the nearby aqueduct of Los Milagros. Columns are connected by horseshoe arches, and support pillars of brickwork, which are in turn interconnected by semicircular arches supporting the flat timberwork ceiling. Arcades of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba
  32. 32. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Other characteristics: Vaulting • Spain (al-Andaluz) Arcades of the Aljafería of Zaragoza
  33. 33. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Other characteristics: Vaulting • Squinches The system of squinches, which is a construction filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome, was already known in Sasanian architecture. Squinches may be formed by masonry built out from the angle in corbelled courses, by filling the corner with a vise placed diagonally, or by building an arch or a number of corbelled arches diagonally across the corner. Dome of the Fire temple of Harpak in Abyaneh
  34. 34. SQUINCHES
  35. 35. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS • Notable Islamic architectural types include the early Abbasid buildings, T-Type mosques, and the central-dome mosques of Anatolia. • Arab-plan or hypostyle mosques are the earliest type of mosques, pioneered under the Umayyad Dynasty. These mosques are square or rectangular in plan with an enclosed courtyard and a covered prayer hall. • The Ottomans introduced central dome mosques in the 15th century and have a large dome centered over the prayer hall. In addition to having one large dome at the center, there are often smaller domes that exist off-center over the prayer hall or throughout the rest of the mosque, where prayer is not performed. This style was heavily influenced by the Byzantine religious architecture with its use of large central domes. The interior of the Mezquita in Córdoba, Spain A sample of modern Islamic architecture - The mosque of international conferences center in Isfahan, Iran
  36. 36. SPECIFIC ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS Islamic architecture may be identified with the following design elements, which were inherited from the first mosque buildings (originally a feature of the Masjid al-Nabawi). Al-Masjid an-Nabawī (622 ad) Location: Medina, Hejaz, Saudi Arabia • Minarets or towers • Iwan - rectangular hall or space • Mihrab or prayer niche on an inside wall indicating the direction to Mecca. • Domes and Cupolas • Pishtaq is the formal gateway to the iwan • Balconies are a common feature of Islamic domestic architecture due to the warm climates in most countries • Capitals are the upper part or crowing feature of a column or pilaster.
  37. 37. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: EARLY SHRINES AND PALACES • DOME OF THE ROCK (687-91) Profile - Located in the Old City of Jerusalem - Ordered to be constructed by Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik - The original dome collapsed in 1015 and was rebuilt in 1022-23. - Style : Umayyad , Abbasid, Ottoman - Earliest archaeologically-attested religious structure to be built by a Muslim ruler and the building’s inscriptions contain the earliest epigraphic proclamations of Islam and of prophet Muhammad. - Structure is basically octagonal - Capped by a dome, approximately 20m (66ft), mounted on an elevated drum standing on 16 supports (4 tiers and 12 columns)
  38. 38. • DOME OF THE ROCK (687-91) Its location on Mount Moriah was sacred to the Jews, both as the site on which Abraham had offered his son Isaac as a sacrifice to the Lord and as the location of Solomon’s Temple. Muslims honored it for Abraham’s presence, but also venerated it as the place from which Mohammed ascended in his night journey to paradise.
  39. 39. • DOME OF THE ROCK (687-91) At the center of the Dome of the Rock is a rock, under which is a small cave with a single opening. The shrine is carefully positioned around this rock, the domed central portion enclosing the rock and a concentric aisle permitting circumambulation. The building’s form was probably derived from Christian precedent. Constantine’s Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem had featured a similar rotunda, and there were many centrally planned domed churches throughout the Byzantine world. Unlike most Byzantine domes, however, the structure here is of wood.
  40. 40. EARLY SHRINES AND PALACES • QUSAYR AMRA (711-715) Profile - Best known of the desert castles located in present-day eastern Jordan - It was built by Walid Ibn Yazid , the future Umayyad caliph Walid II. - Considered one of the most important examples of early Islamic art and architecture. - Located in Zarqa Governorate , Jordan - The building is actually the remnant of a larger complex that included an actual castle, meant as a royal retreat. - Made up of limestone and basalt. - The northern block, two stories high, features a triple- vaulted ceiling over the main entrance on the east façade. The western wings feature smaller vaults or domes. - It has a reception hall, throne apse, baths, Apodterium (changing room), Tepidarium (warm bath), Caldarium (hot bath),
  41. 41. • QUSAYR AMRA (711-715) Fresco of a bathing woman Fresco of “Six Kings”, one of the most well known frescoes in Qasr Amra
  42. 42. EARLY SHRINES AND PALACES • MSHATTA PALACE (Construction started 743-744 CE ) - The ruins of Qasr Mushatta consist of a square enclosure, surrounded by an outer wall comprising 25 towers. Its internal space is divided into three equal longitudinal strips, of which just the central one was completed to some degree. - This central strip contains three major elements: on its southern side is what K. A. C. Creswell called the "Gateway Block", followed by the large central courtyard, which leads northwards to the reception hall wing.
  43. 43. EARLY SHRINES AND PALACES • MSHATTA PALACE (Construction started 743-744 CE ) - The ruins of Qasr Mushatta consist of a square enclosure, surrounded by an outer wall comprising 25 towers. Its internal space is divided into three equal longitudinal strips, of which just the central one was completed to some degree. - This central strip contains three major elements: on its southern side is what K. A. C. Creswell called the "Gateway Block", followed by the large central courtyard, which leads northwards to the reception hall wing.
  45. 45. MOSQUES
  46. 46. MOSQUES
  47. 47. MOSQUES
  48. 48. MOSQUES
  51. 51. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: MOSQUES Great Mosque of Kairouan • also known as the Mosque of Uqba • one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa • Established by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in the year 50 AH (670AD/CE) at the founding of the city of Kairouan Interior view of the hypostyle prayer hall in the Mosque of Uqba (Great Mosque of Kairouan)
  52. 52. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: MOSQUES Umayyad Mosque • also known as the Great Mosque of Damascus • located in the old city of Damascus, is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. • he mosque was built on the site of a Christian basilica dedicated to John the Baptist (Yahya), honored as a prophet by Christians and Muslims. • The mosque is also believed by Muslims to be the place where Jesus (Isa) will return at the End of Days. • The Umayyad Mosque holds great significance to Shia and Sunni Muslims, as this was the destination of the ladies and children of the family of Muhammad, made to walk here from Iraq, following the Battle of Karbala.
  53. 53. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: MOSQUES Great Mosque of Mecca, Saudi Arabia • also known as the Haram Mosque (The Sacred Mosque) • a mosque that surrounds the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia. • It is a site of pilgrimage for the Hajj, which every Muslim must do at least once in their lives if able, and is also the main phase for the ʿUmrah, the lesser pilgrimage that can be undertaken any time of the year. • The Great Mosque includes other important significant sites, including the Black Stone, the Zamzam Well, Maqam Ibrahim, and the hills of Safa and Marwa.
  54. 54. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: MOSQUES Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul (1616) • also known as the Blue Mosque • a historic mosque located in Istanbul, Turkey. • a functioning mosque, while also attracting large numbers of tourist visitors. • constructed between 1609 and 1616 during the rule of Ahmed I. • Its Külliye contains Ahmed's tomb, a madrasah and a hospice. Hand-painted blue tiles adorn the mosque’s interior walls, and at night the mosque is bathed in blue as lights frame the mosque’s five main domes, six minarets and eight secondary domes. • It sits next to the Hagia Sophia, another popular tourist site.
  55. 55. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: MOSQUES Badshahi Masjid • is a Mughal era masjid in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab • is the largest, and last, of the grand imperial masjid built by the Mughals • was built by Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671, with construction of the masjid lasting for two years until 1673. • is decorated with carved red sandstone with marble inlay.
  56. 56. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: MOSQUES Shah Mosque • also known as the New Abbasi Mosque (Masjed-e Jadid-e Abbasi) or Royal Mosque • is a mosque located in Isfahan, Iran. • It was built during the Safavid dynasty under the order of Shah Abbas I of Iran. It became known as the Imam Mosque after the Iranian Revolution. • Its construction began in 1611, and its splendour is mainly due to the beauty of its seven-colour mosaic tiles and calligraphic inscriptions. • The mosque is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 20,000 rials banknote. • Architect(s) : Ali Akbar Isfahani • Length: 100m • Width: 130m • Height (max): 56m with golden shaft • Minaret(s): 4 • Minaret height : 48 m
  57. 57. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: MOSQUES Al-Aqsa Mosque (705 CE) • located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the third holiest site in Islam. • Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Sacred Mosque in Mecca to al-Aqsa during the Night Journey. • Al-Masjid al-Aqsa translates from Arabic into English as "the farthest mosque". The name refers to a chapter of the Quran called Al-Isrā’ (Arabic: ‫اء‬َ‫إـر‬‫س‬ِ ‫إ‬‫ٱْل‬ )," The Night Journey"), in which it is said that Muhammad travelled from Mecca to "the farthest mosque", and then up to Heaven on a heavenly creature called al-Burāq ash-Sharīf
  58. 58. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: MOSQUES Quba Mosque (1986), Medina, Saudi Arabia Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan (1363), Cairo
  59. 59. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: TOMBS (MAZAR) Blue Mosque (Mazar-i-Sharif) • The Blue Mosque is a mosque located in the center of Mazar-i- Sharif, Afghanistan. • The Seljuq dynasty sultan Ahmed Sanjar built the first known shrine at this location. • one of the reputed burial places of Ali, cousin and son-in law of Muhammad. • Also known as “Tomb of the Exalted”
  60. 60. ISLAMIC STRUCTURES: TOMBS (MAZAR) Imam Reza shrine, Mashhad, Iran • is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of Twelver Shiites. • It is the largest mosque in the world by area. • The shrine itself covers an area of 267,079m2 while the seven courtyards which surround it cover an area of 331,578m2 - totaling 598,657 m2 (6,443,890 sq ft).
  61. 61. MODERN ISLAMIC STRUCTURES Faisal Mosque • is a mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan. • It is located on the foothills of Margalla Hills in Islamabad. This mosque features a contemporary design consisting of eight sides of concrete shell and is inspired by a Bedouin tent. • Architect(s): Vedat Dalokay • Style: Contemporary Islamic • Date established: 1987 • The Faisal Mosque can accommodate about 300,000 worshippers. Each of the Mosque's four minarets are 79 m (259 ft) high (the tallest minarets in South Asia) and measure 10×10 metres in circumference. • Aga Khan Award for Architecture was awarded to the architect for this mosque project
  62. 62. MODERN ISLAMIC STRUCTURES Hassan II Mosque • a mosque in Casablanca, Morocco. It is the largest mosque in Africa, and the 10th largest in the world. • Its minaret is the world's second tallest minaret at 210 metres (689 ft). • Completed in 1993, it was designed by Michel Pinseau and built by Bouygues. • A maximum of 105,000 worshippers can gather together for prayer: 25,000 inside the mosque hall and another 80,000 on the mosque's outside ground
  63. 63. MODERN ISLAMIC STRUCTURES Cologne Central Mosque • is a building commissioned by German Muslims of the Organization DITIB for a large, representative Zentralmoschee (central mosque) in Cologne, Germany. • The mosque is designed in non- Ottoman architectural style, with glass walls, two minarets and a dome. • Architect(s): Paul Böhm • Type: Mosque • Style: Modern
  64. 64. MODERN ISLAMIC STRUCTURES Cologne Central Mosque • is a building commissioned by German Muslims of the Organization DITIB for a large, representative Zentralmoschee (central mosque) in Cologne, Germany. • The mosque is designed in non- Ottoman architectural style, with glass walls, two minarets and a dome. • Architect(s): Paul Böhm • Type: Mosque • Style: Modern
  65. 65. MODERN ISLAMIC STRUCTURES Arab World Institute • Architect: Jean Nouvel + Architecture Studio + Gilbert Lezenes + Pierre Soria • Year: 1981-1987 • Location: Rue Des Fossés Saint Bernard S/N, Paris, France • This project is a result of funds from both the League of Arab States and the French government. • It was the recipient of the 1989 Aga Khan Award for Architectural Excellence. • Within the museum are objects from the Arab world ranging from before Islam through into the twentieth century.
  66. 66. MODERN ISLAMIC STRUCTURES Louvre Abu Dhabi • The Louvre Abu Dhabi is an art and civilization museum, located in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The museum was inaugurated on 8 November 2017 • The architect for the building is Jean Nouvel and the engineers are BuroHappold Engineering. • The museum is designed as a "seemingly floating dome structure"; its web-patterned dome allowing the sun to filter through. The overall effect is meant to represent "rays of sunlight passing through date palm fronds in an oasis.
  67. 67. SOME CONTEMPORARY MUSLIM ARCHITECTS Zaha Mohammad Hadid (31 October 1950 – 31 March 2016) Iraqi–British architect first woman to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize, in 2004 Vedat Ali Dalokay (November 10, 1927 – March 21, 1991) was a renowned Turkish architect and a former mayor of Ankara Designed the Faisal Masjid Bashirul Haq born 24 June 1942 is a Bangladeshi architect, planner and educator. Aga Khan Award for Architecture Three times nominated

Notas del editor

  • 1- Conversion of the tribes to Islam was accompanied by an intense awakening of Arab fervor, and the courage and fighting skill of Arabic tribes, previously exploited by the Sassanian and Byzantine empires, was turned against these masters in a fury of rapid conquests, frequently aided by local contempt for the corruption associated with Byzantine rule.

  • 3- Islamic policy toward conquered populations was generally one of accommodation. Islamic rule was often preferred by the natives of occupied lands to that of harsh Byzantine governors, and the multicultural society the invaders fostered provided a model of respectful interaction that the modern world might do well to rediscover.



  • Vitreous – “glass-like” ,