Gene Editing is just the
Presented By :
Akash Arora (1410105001)
AsWikipedia says :
Genome editing is a technique where DNA is
inserted,replaced or removed from a genome using
artificially engineered nucleases.
The nucleases create specific double-strand breaks (DSBs)
at desired locations in the genome and harness the cell’s
endogenous mechanisms to repair the induced break by
natural processes of homologous recombination (HR)
and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ).
Story Behind CRISPR
• Researchers find CRISPR sequences in Escherichia
coli, but do not characterize their function.
• CRISPR sequence are found to be common in other
• Coined CRISPR name, defined signature Cas genes
• First experimental evidence for CRISPR adaptive
• First demonstration of Cas9 genome engineering in
CRISPR: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short
First described in E. coli and determined to be part of the bacterial
innate immune system versus bacteriophages
Consists of short segments of DNA that are palindromes interspaced
with spacer DNA
The spacer DNA is identical in sequence to viral (bacteriophage) DNA
There are additionalCRISPR associated proteins:
cas proteins that are typically helicases or nucleases
• CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers
resistance to foreign genetic elements such as phages.
• Much easier to design compared to its predecessors zinc finger
• CRISPR loci range from 24 to 48 bp.
• CRISPR-associated(cas) genes are attached to the
• Spacers are fragments of DNA gathered
from the viruses that had tried to attack
Some More Important Points
The CRISPR immune system works to protect
bacteria from repeated viral attack via three basic
Production of cr RNA
How it works
Clinical Human Applications of CRISPR
• Genetic diseases
Remove or add the sequence that is causing the
Gene editing of mismatched human or even non-human
mammals as potential
Editing will reduce risk of immune responses and rejection
• Drug development – optimize biotech
• Disease models
• Ecological vector control – mosquito
Some more Important Application
• CRISPR system are advantageous for industrial
processes that utilize bacterial cultures.
• CRISPR-based immunity can be employed to
make these cultures more resistant to viral
attack, which would otherwise impede
• CRISPR technology has emerged as a powerful and
universal technology for genome engineering with wide-
ranging innovative implications across biology and
• This technology has proved its potential by being user
friendly and has shown its practicality in ensuring health as
well as food security of the future.
• The tool itself do not pose a threat and we hope that the
CRISPR technology will live up to its promise by being used
Impact of CRISPER
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