• Central structure of the axilla
• Extends from the outer border of the first rib to the inferior
border of the teres major muscle
• Divided into three parts by pectoralis minor muscle
• Anastomosis occurs between branches of first part of
Subclavian and third part of Axillary arteries
• Branches from Subclavian Artery:
– 1) Suprascapular artery
– 2) Superficial cervical artery
• Branches from Axillary Artery:
– 1) Subscapular artery
– 2) Anterior circumflex humeral artery
– 3) Posterior circumflex humeral artery
• Extends from the inferior border of the teres major muscle to
its bifurcation in the cubital fossa
• Lies in the center of the cubital fossa, medial to the biceps
tendon, lateral to the median nerve.
• Terminates by dividing into the radial and ulnar arteries at the
level of the radial neck, in the cubital fossa.
POSTERIOR INTEROSSEOUS ARTERY
• It pass downward on the posterior surface of the interosseous
• It supply the adjoining muscles and bones
• They both end by taking part in the anastomosis around the wrist
• Smaller of the terminal branch of the brachial artery
• Begins in the cubital fossa at the level of the neck of the
• The radial artery leaves the forearm by winding around the lateral
aspect of the wrist
• reach the posterior surface of the hand
• Deep veins
– Follows the arteries previously mentioned
• Superficial veins
– Drain subcutaneous tissue and eventually drain into the axillary vein
• Superficial Veins
• The major superficial veins of the upper limb are the
cephalic and basilic veins. They are located within the
subcutaneous tissue of the upper limb.
• Basilic Vein
• The basilic vein originates from the dorsal venous network of
the hand and ascends the medial aspect of the upper limb.
• At the border of the teres major, the vein moves deep into the
arm. Here, it combines with the brachial veins from the deep
venous system to form the axillary vein.
• Cephalic Vein
• The cephalic vein also arises from the dorsal venous network
of the hand. It ascends the antero-lateral aspect of the upper
limb, passing anteriorly at the elbow.
• At the shoulder, the cephalic vein travels between the deltoid
and pectoralis major muscles (known as the deltopectoral
groove), and enters the axilla region via the clavipectoral
triangle. Within the axilla, the cephalic vein empties into
• The cephalic and basilic veins are
connected at the elbow by
the median cubital vein.