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The Mexican War<br />By: Christopher Young, Alison Akers, Micah Lyons, & Anna Weisser<br />
The Mexican-American War began because of the U.S. annexation (1845) of Texas, which Mexico continued to claim despite the establishment of the independent republic of Texas 10 years before. Some historians have argued, however, that the United States provoked the war by annexing Texas and, more deliberately, by stationing an army at the mouth of the Rio Grande. Another, related, interpretation maintains that the administration of U.S. President James K. Polk forced Mexico to war in order to seize California and the Southwest. A minority believes the war arose simply out of Mexico's failure to pay claims for losses sustained by U.S. citizens during the Mexican War of Independence.<br />Background<br />
Seth Barton Thornton was a military officer who commanded a squadron in the Mexican War and exchanged the first shots with the enemy at La Rosia, April 25, 1846. In the engagement he was severely wounded and captured along with a large part of the squadron. While leading his troops he was shot dead.<br />FIRST SHOTS OF THE MEXICAN WAR: The Thornton Affair<br />
Polk Addresses Congress<br />After being informed of the Thornton Affair President Polk took immediate action. He declared to Congress that “Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil.”<br />May 11, 1846<br />
Battle of Monterrey<br />General Taylor had entered Mexico and was waiting for further instructions. He recieved word to travel just outside of Monterrey where Gen Worth and his army were. Their plans were to attack Monterrey, the capital of New Leon, that was strongly fortified and defended by 9000 Mexicans.On the morning of September 21 they attacked the stronghold. General Ampudia of the Mexican troops asked for a truce. It was granted, and he prepared to evacuate the city. Taylor demanded absolute surrender, which was made on the 24th. In the siege of that city the Americans lost over 500 men. The Mexican loss was about double that number.<br />General Ampudia<br />
General Santa Anna began to assemble an army to confront Zachary Taylor in northern Mexico. The Mexican force grew to 20,000 by February, which forced Taylor to take a defensive position in a hacienda outside of Saltillo.<br />The Battle of Buena Vista began on February 22 and by the second day it appeared that the superior Mexican force was on the verge of victory. However a daring cavalry charge led by helped to turn the tide along with aid from an artillery barrage.<br />Santa Anna withdrew from the area under the cover of night and headed south toward Mexico City, where he prepared to resist Winfield Scott’s revenge.<br />
Battle of Contreras <br />& Churubusco<br />Contreras: Santa Anna failed to support the Mexican line at a critical moment; turns victory into route.<br />Churubusco: “Mexican troops under Manuel Rincón hold a fortified monastery against Winfield Scott; just over half of the San Patricios are killed or captured, the rest retreat with the rest of the Mexican forces in the area.”<br />
Chapultepec<br />The main assault on the city came a few days later on September 12. Mexico City was guarded in part by Chapultepec Castle, which was being used as a military academy. Scott preceded infantry assault with an all day artillery barrage on September 12. The next day, September 13, the 4th Division, under John Quitman, spearheaded the attack against Chapultepec and carried the castle. The Mexican forces fell back from Chapultepec and retreated within the city.<br />Although the fight for Mexico City was said to begin at the Battle of Molino del Rey, we believe that it official started at the Battle of Chapultepec.<br />
The Battle for Mexico City:<br /> On September 13, 1847, Scott launched an attack on Mexico City itself, assaulting Chapultepec Castle and capturing the gates of the city. Following the occupation of Mexico City, the fighting effectively ended.<br />The war ended on February 2, 1848, with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. <br />The Defeat of the Mexicans!!!<br />
During the war 1,773 Americans were killed in action and 4,152 were wounded. Mexican casualty reports are incomplete, but it estimated that approximately 25,000 were killed or wounded between 1846-1848.<br />
Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of, 1848, peace treaty between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican War. Negotiations were carried on for the United States by Nicholas P. Trist. The treaty was signed on Feb. 2, 1848, in the village of Guadalupe Hidalgo, just outside Mexico City. It confirmed U.S. claims to Texas and set its boundary at the Rio Grande. Mexico also agreed to cede to the United States California and New Mexico (which included present-day California, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming) in exchange for $15 million and assumption by the United States of claims against Mexico by U.S. citizens. The treaty was ratified by the U.S. Senate on Mar. 10, 1848, and by the Mexican Congress on May 25.<br />The treaty extended U.S. citizenship to Mexicans in the newly-purchased ... It also ensured safety of existing property rights of Mexicans living in the transferred territories.<br />The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo <br />
Conclusion<br />As a group we decided that we believe the war with Mexico was an act of imperialism. We understand Manifest Destiny, and what America thought it meant but in this instance we believe the actions that took place were unnecessary and voracious. They invaded Mexico with the intention of taking all that they could in order to bring about manifest destiny.<br />We also do not think the war was justified. (As you can see from our previous answer.) It all started when the Americans began moving into territory not belonging to them. Many Americans moved to Texas, outnumber the Mexicans. Then came the independence of Texas from Mexico. From here things just got worse, Mexico was furious and retaliated.<br />