INTRODUCTION TO 5G
EVOLUTION FROM 1G TO 5G
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE OF 5G
3. INTRODUCTION TO 5G
5G is the 5th generation mobile network. ... 5G wireless technology is
meant to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra low
latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased
availability, and a more uniform user experience to more users.
4. WHAT IS 5G?
5G simply refers to the next and newest mobile wireless standard
based on the IEEE 802.11ac standard of broadband technology. Rather
than faster Internet connection speeds, 5G aims at a higher capacity
than current 4G LTE, allowing a higher number of mobile broadband
users per area unit, and allowing consumption of data quantities in
gigabyte per second. This would make it feasible for a large portion of
the population to consume high-quality streaming media many hours
per day on their mobile devices, also when out of reach of wifi
hotspots. 5G research and development also aim at the improved
support of machine to machine communication, also known as the
Internet of things, aiming at a lower cost, lower battery consumption,
and lower latency and to increase the security and connectivity for a
5. WHAT DOES IT OFFER?
5G is the fifth generation of cellular technology. It is
designed to increase speed, reduce latency, and improve
flexibility of wireless services. 5G technology has a
theoretical peak speed of 20 Gbps, while the peak speed of
4G is only 1 Gbps.
1G refers to the first generation of wireless cellular technology
(mobile telecommunications). These are the analog
telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s
and continued until being replaced by 2G digital
telecommunications. The main difference between these two
mobile cellular generations is that the audio transmissions of 1G
networks were analog, while 2G networks were entirely digital.
2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation cellular network. 2G cellular
networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by
Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991.
Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were:
• Digitally encrypted phone conversations, at least between the mobile phone
and the cellular base station but not necessarily in the rest of the network.
• Significantly more efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum enabling
more users per frequency band.
• Data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages.
3G is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications
technology. It is the upgrade for 2.5G GPRS and 2.75G EDGE
networks, for faster data transfer. This is based on a set of
standards used for mobile devices and mobile
telecommunications use services and networks that comply with
the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000)
specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. 3G
finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet
access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV.
4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular network
technology, succeeding 3G, and preceding 5G. A 4G system must
provide capabilities defined by ITU in IMT Advanced. Potential
and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP
telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video
conferencing, and 3D television.
The first-release WIMAX standard was commercially deployed in
South Korea in 2006 and has since been deployed in most parts
of the world.
5G is the fifth generation technology standard for broadband
cellular networks, which cellular phone companies began
deploying worldwide in 2019, and is the planned successor to
the 4G networks which provide connectivity to most current
cellphones. 5G networks are predicted to have more than 1.7
billion subscribers worldwide by 2025, according to the GSM
12. KEY CONCEPTS
Real wireless world with no more limitation with access and zone issues.
Wearable devices with AI capabilities.
Internet protocol version 6(IPv6), where a visiting care-of mobile IP address is
assigned according to location and connected network.
One unified global standard.
5) Pervasive networks providing ubiquitous computing: The user can simultaneously
connected to several wireless access technologies and seamlessly move between them
access technologies can be a 2.5G, 3G, 4G or 5G mobile networks, Wi-Fi, WPAN or any
other future access technology. In 5G, the concept may be further developed into
multiple concurrent data transfer paths.
13. Cognitive radio technology, also known as smart radio: allowing different
radio technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently by adaptively
finding unused spectrum and adapting the transmission scheme to the
requirements of the technologies currently sharing the spectrum. This
dynamic radio resource management is achieved in a distributed fashion,
and relies on software defined radio.
High altitude stratospheric platform station (HAPS) systems. The radio
interface of 5G communication systems is suggested in a Korean research
and development program to be based on beam division multiple access
(BDMA) and group cooperative relay techniques.
15. HARDWARE OF 5G
UWB Networks: higher bandwidth at low energy levels. This short-range radio technology
is ideal for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). UWB complements existing longer
range radio technologies – such as Wi-Fi,* WiMAX, and cellular wide area communications
that bring in data and communications from the outside world. UWB provides the needed
cost-effective, power-efficient, high bandwidth solution for relaying data from host devices to
devices in the immediate area (up to 10 meters or 30 feet).
Bandwidth: 4000 megabits per second, which is 400 times faster than today’s wireless
16. Smart antennas:
• Switched Beam Antennas: Switched Beam Antennas support radio positioning via
Angle of Arrival (AOA) information collected from nearby devices.
• Adaptive Array Antennas: The use of adaptive antenna arrays is one area that shows
promise for improving capacity of wireless systems and providing improved safety
through position location capabilities. These arrays can be used for interference
rejection through spatial altering, position location through direction ending
measurements, and developing improved channel models through angle of arrival
channel sounding measurements.
Multiplexing: CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) CDMA employs analog-to-
digital conversion (ADC) in combination with spread spectrum technology. Audio
input is first digitized into binary elements. The frequency of the transmitted signal
is then made to vary according to a defined pattern (code), so it can be intercepted
only by a receiver whose frequency response is programmed with the same code, so
it follows exactly along with the transmitter frequency. There are trillionsof possible
frequency-sequencing codes, which enhance privacy and makes cloning difficult.
17. SOFTWARE OF 5G
5G will be single unified standard of different wireless
networks, including wireless technologies (e.g. IEEE 802.11),
LAN/WAN/ PAN and WWWW, unified IP and seamless
combination of broad band.
Software Defined Radio, Packet layer, implementation of
packets, encryption, flexibility etc.
• 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi- directional large bandwidth shaping.
• The advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective.
• 5G technology also providing subscriber supervision tools for fast action.
• The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error.
• 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65,000
• 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency.
• The traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate.
• Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast solution.
• The remote diagnostics also a great feature of 5G technology.
• The 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed.
• The 5G technology also support virtual private network.
• The new 5G technology will take all delivery service out of business prospect
• The uploading and downloading speed of 5G technology touching the peak.
• The 5G technology network offering enhanced and available connectivity just about the world.
• High resolution and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping.
• Technology to gather all networks on one platform.
• More effective and efficient.
• Technology to facilitate subscriber supervision tools for the quick
• Most likely, will provide a huge broadcasting data (in Gigabit), which
will support more than 60,000 connections.
• Easily manageable with the previous generations.
• Technological sound to support heterogeneous services (including
• Possible to provide uniform, uninterrupted, and consistent
connectivity across the world.
• It will make unified global standard for all.
• Network availability will be everywhere and will facilitate people to use their
computer and such kind of mobile devices anywhere anytime.
• Because of the IPv6 technology, visiting care of mobile IP address will be assigned
as per the connected network and geographical position.
• Its application will make world real Wi Fi zone.
• Its cognitive radio technology will facilitate different version of radio technologies
to share the same spectrum efficiently.
• Its application will facilitate people to avail radio signal at higher altitude as well.
21. FUTURE SCOPE
5G technology will give a new future in mobile communication
technology. The 5G mobile phones will have access to different
wireless technologies at the same time.5G technology offer high
resolution for crazy cell phone user. We can watch TV channels at
HD clarity in our mobile phones without any interruption. The 5G
mobile phones will be a tablet PC. Many mobile embedded
technologies will evolve.
Mobiles have become very essential part of our everyday life.
Their current development is the outcome of various
generations. In this paper we review introduction to 5G
technologies, Key concepts of 5G, Features of 5G networks
technology, applications, and wireless network architecture for
5G wireless technologies the. This field is still full of research