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Problems With POPs
• Long-range transport, bioaccumulation, can disrupt
endocrine systems and is linked with cancer, reproductive
disorders, birth defects, and immune-system deficiencies.
• Patterns of transport vary by substance but most turn into
vapor at high temperatures and condense at lower.
• As vapor it can be transported over long distances by air
currents, when they condense they can fall to the ground or
in water and be transported by water currents.
• Leads to global circulation. Produces higher accumulations
in colder climates.
• 2001 Convention applies to 12 POPs of concern
• Of the 12 substances addressed, 10 of intentionally
produced substances, many of them are industrial
• Include process and criteria for adding new
substances to regime at later date.
• already heavily regulated in many countries,
meant treaty would likely promote better
• “Obligation to eliminate or
severely restrict use”
• intentionally produced
substances divided into two
groups by convention, listed in
separate annexes, referred to in
different subparagraphs of
• Annex A: lists 9 of 10
• allows countries to register for
certain time limited “specific
exemptions” for some
Article 3: Continued
• Article 3 B: lists DDT as one of
• Like Annex A allows for country
specific, time limited specific
• Allows for “acceptable purposes”
• an acceptable purpose specifies a
use of a particular substance that
is, in general, available to all
parties and not subject to a time-
frame for review and termination.
• convention allows "specific
exemptions" to the obligations to
eliminate production and use.
• Rules to govern the review and
termination of country-specific
exemptions developed in the
INC's fifth session and put in
• Register created and maintained
by the Secretariat
• It includes the "types" of
specific exemptions listed in
Annexes A and B for specific
Article 4: Continued
• Requires that all registered specific exemptions be
reviewed through a process elaborated by the COP and,
unless extended by the COP or voluntarily withdrawn at
an earlier time by the eligible party, be terminated five
years after the convention's entry into force.
• If country did not register itself for a specific exemption
during negotiations, it could do so upon becoming a party.
• Alternative to structure that would differentiate between
the needs of developed and developing countries.
• "Measures to reduce or
eliminate releases from
developed by a separate
negotiating group during
the INC meetings.
• Many of the intentionally
produced substances no
longer in used in many
countries, but by-products
continue to be released.
Article 5: Continued
• Each party to develop an action plan or, to identify,
characterize, and address the release of the unwanted by-
• Include evaluation of releases, strategies to meet
obligations in Article 5, and a schedule for
• Annex C made provisions regarding use of "best
available techniques" (BAT) for specified sources for
the release of POPs.
• Parties asked to promote use of "best environmental
practices" (BEP) for identified categories.
2009 Stockholm Convention
• “At its fourth meeting, held from 4 to 8 May 2009 in
Geneva, Switzerland, the Conference of the Parties,
amended Annexes A, B and C to the Convention to include
additional chemicals: alpha hexachlorocyclohexane; beta
hexachlorocyclohexane; chlordecone; hexabromobiphenyl;
hexabromodiphenyl ether and heptabromodiphenyl ether;
lindane; pentachlorobenzene; perfluorooctane sulfonic
acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride; and
tetrabromodiphenyl ether and pentabromodiphenyl ether.”