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Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants

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Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants

  1. 1. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
  2. 2. Background on Persistent Organic Pollutants
  3. 3. Problems With POPs • Long-range transport, bioaccumulation, can disrupt endocrine systems and is linked with cancer, reproductive disorders, birth defects, and immune-system deficiencies. • Patterns of transport vary by substance but most turn into vapor at high temperatures and condense at lower. • As vapor it can be transported over long distances by air currents, when they condense they can fall to the ground or in water and be transported by water currents. • Leads to global circulation. Produces higher accumulations in colder climates.
  4. 4. Effects and Consequences
  5. 5. Pre-Negotiations for Convention
  6. 6. 5th Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee
  7. 7. Convention Objectives • 2001 Convention applies to 12 POPs of concern “Dirty Dozen”. • Of the 12 substances addressed, 10 of intentionally produced substances, many of them are industrial chemicals. • Include process and criteria for adding new substances to regime at later date. • already heavily regulated in many countries, meant treaty would likely promote better alternatives.
  8. 8. Negotiations at Convention
  9. 9. Article 3 • “Obligation to eliminate or severely restrict use” • intentionally produced substances divided into two groups by convention, listed in separate annexes, referred to in different subparagraphs of Article 3. • Annex A: lists 9 of 10 intentionally produced substances • allows countries to register for certain time limited “specific exemptions” for some substances.
  10. 10. Article 3: Continued • Article 3 B: lists DDT as one of ten IPS. • Like Annex A allows for country specific, time limited specific exemptions. • Allows for “acceptable purposes” • an acceptable purpose specifies a use of a particular substance that is, in general, available to all parties and not subject to a time- frame for review and termination. • convention allows "specific exemptions" to the obligations to eliminate production and use.
  11. 11. Article 4 • Rules to govern the review and termination of country-specific exemptions developed in the INC's fifth session and put in Article 4. • Register created and maintained by the Secretariat • It includes the "types" of specific exemptions listed in Annexes A and B for specific substances.
  12. 12. Article 4: Continued • Requires that all registered specific exemptions be reviewed through a process elaborated by the COP and, unless extended by the COP or voluntarily withdrawn at an earlier time by the eligible party, be terminated five years after the convention's entry into force. • If country did not register itself for a specific exemption during negotiations, it could do so upon becoming a party. • Alternative to structure that would differentiate between the needs of developed and developing countries.
  13. 13. Article 4: Continued
  14. 14. Article 5 • "Measures to reduce or eliminate releases from unintentional production“ developed by a separate negotiating group during the INC meetings. • Many of the intentionally produced substances no longer in used in many countries, but by-products continue to be released.
  15. 15. Article 5: Continued • Each party to develop an action plan or, to identify, characterize, and address the release of the unwanted by- products. • Include evaluation of releases, strategies to meet obligations in Article 5, and a schedule for implementation. • Annex C made provisions regarding use of "best available techniques" (BAT) for specified sources for the release of POPs. • Parties asked to promote use of "best environmental practices" (BEP) for identified categories.
  16. 16. Concerns
  17. 17. 2009 Stockholm Convention Amendments • “At its fourth meeting, held from 4 to 8 May 2009 in Geneva, Switzerland, the Conference of the Parties, amended Annexes A, B and C to the Convention to include additional chemicals: alpha hexachlorocyclohexane; beta hexachlorocyclohexane; chlordecone; hexabromobiphenyl; hexabromodiphenyl ether and heptabromodiphenyl ether; lindane; pentachlorobenzene; perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride; and tetrabromodiphenyl ether and pentabromodiphenyl ether.”
  18. 18. The End