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UNIT 9
ORIENTEERING
The Well-Dressed Orienteer

                        Lightweight
   Compass            Long Sleeve Shirt
Looped At Wrist
  ...
Orienteering




A sport that involves land navigation
over unfamiliar terrain with a map and
compass
Orienteering




The object of orienteering is to run, ski,
walk, or mountain bike to a series of
points shown on a map. T...
Orienteering




Course lengths range from less than 1
mile for beginners to 4 or more miles
for experienced orienteers.
Map Reading
Orienteering usually requires the use of
a topographic map depicting the area in
which the course is laid out....
Topographic Map

Orienteering maps usually are drawn to
a scale of 1:15,000 or 1:10,000, and have
5-meter contour lines or...
Features

Boundaries           Dams
Bridges              Railroads
Buildings            Rivers
Caves/Mines          Roads/...
The most useful
scale for an
orienteering map is:

1:15,000 or 1:10,000
(1 inch on the map
represents 1 mile,
which conver...
Direction
On most maps, north is at the top, south
to the bottom, east to the right, and west
to the left.




There is a ...
Magnetic Declination Lines
on an Ungrided Map
Colors on Topographic Map
 water (lakes, ponds, rivers,
 streams, marshes)
 rock features (boulders, cliffs),
 roads, trai...
Legend

Relief features
of the Earth are
shown in the
margins of
orienteering
maps.
When lines are
close together, they
show a steep slope.

Similarly, when they
are far apart, they
show a gentle slope.

Co...
If the map contour interval is 10 feet,
this hill is approximately 130 feet high.
Contour Lines
Brown contour
lines represent
valleys, hills, and
plains.

Spacing between
lines represents a
constant verti...
Contour lines indicate
                 elevation, in feet or
                 meters, above sea
                 level.

...
Typical
                              Magnetic
                              Compass
             Silva Type 3
• A must fo...
The orienteering
compass has a
protractor base
and a cord to hang
around the neck
(optional).
During orienteering, first obtain the
magnetic azimuth or bearing.

• Place edge of protractor base along
  desired line o...
Distance is Important
        in Orienteering to:




• Determine distances between control
  points.

• Determine distanc...
Distance on a Map
If a map has a scale of 1:25000, and a
distance of 2 cm were measured on the
map between two locations, ...
Distance on a Map




Another method is to lay off the
measured distance on the map along
the graphic linear distance scal...
Distance on a Map




A third method is to use the map scales
printed along the sides of the compass
protractor base. Thes...
In the field, your pace is used to
measure distance. Your pace is the
average length, in meters, of a double
step.
To determine your pace, count the
number of double strides you make on
a 600-meter course. This should be
done while both ...
Land Navigation Techniques

Several methods of land navigation
techniques may be used. Depending on
the terrain, one of th...
Beeline




A straight line is followed to the desired
location, by observing terrain features,
without the use of a compa...
Steering Mark




Once the bearing (direction of travel) is
determined, travel to easily identifiable
way-points (steering...
Contour Route
If you use a contour line as a trail, you
would be traveling parallel to mean sea
level.

This method is
les...
Aiming Off

      In this example, the
      orienteer follows an
      azimuth slightly to
      the right of control
   ...
A Catching Feature

• A linear feature that lies beyond the
  control (example: a road or fence)

• Passes by, through, or...
Attack Point
• A prominent feature near a control
  (100 - 150 meters)

• Used to get you close to a control as
  quickly ...
Before You Start
First, stop and look around; then look
closely at your map.

Observe the lay of the land. Find some
fairl...
Handrail
• Any linear feature you can follow to
  where you want to go

• Examples: a stream, trail, road, fence,
  brick ...
Slope




Slope is the steepness of a hill, usually
expressed as a ratio, e.g., 1 to 15 or
1:15, meaning 1 meter of rise f...
Profile




Profile refers to the shape of a hill.
Three general profiles are:

Concave - steeper as it get higher
Convex ...
Weather




An important factor in flat country
Ground Cover Factors



The effect of ground cover can be
converted to equivalent amounts
of level ground travel by using ...
Types of Cover          Factor
       Open trail               1
    Waist-high grass           1.5
      Open forest     ...
Rough Orienteering




• Use map to get general idea of objective
  (how far it is and where you want to go).

• Proceed a...
Fine Orienteering




• Requires slower movement and
  continually checking map

• Smaller features used as landmarks

• S...
Speeds of Orienteering
Green light – used for rough orienteering
on the easy parts of a course where a
running pace is pos...
Speeds of Orienteering
Green light – used for rough orienteering
on the easy parts of a course where a
running pace is pos...
Speeds of Orienteering
Green light – used for rough orienteering
on the easy parts of a course where a
running pace is pos...
Speeds of Orienteering
All course legs may not lend them-
selves to all three speeds.

Learning when to use which speed
du...
Course Layout Criteria


• A well-wooded area (lots of trees)

• Uninhabited if possible

• Appropriate degree of difficul...
Course Layout Criteria


      Circles are control points.

      A triangle indicates the
      start.

      A double ci...
Control Marker
              • Should be visible from
                at least 10 meters away
                but not more...
Control
Marker
Safety Lane




• Usually a linear boundary (a road)
  where an orienteer may go in the
  event of injury, fatigue, or bec...
Orienteering Activities
Cross-country (point-to-point) – the
classic form of orienteering. Controls
on a map must be visit...
Orienteering Activities
Cross-country (point-to-point) – the
classic form of orienteering. Controls
on a map must be visit...
Orienteering Activities
Cross-country (point-to-point) – the
classic form of orienteering. Controls
on a map must be visit...
Orienteering Activities
Long-O – Courses are 1.5 to 2 times
as long as a standard course, and have
long legs and complex r...
Orienteering Activities
Long-O – Courses are 1.5 to 2 times
as long as a standard course, and have
long legs and complex r...
Orienteering Activities
Long-O – Courses are 1.5 to 2 times
as long as a standard course, and have
long legs and complex r...
Orienteering Activities
 Recently, a new orienteering activity has
 been added to the list of "O" activities.
 This is:
Tr...
Novice       Advanced




  Control
Descriptions



               Clue Sheet
The previously shown symbols are
only a few of the many used in the
sport of orienteering. A more
comprehensive listing an...
The Orienteering Event Card
Ensure you fill out and punch
 your event card as required.
The Rules of Orienteering
Like all sports, certain rules must be
followed.
Fairness – a sporting attitude and a spirit
of ...
Qualification Requirements for the
   NJROTC Orienteering Ribbon


1. You must be a cadet in good standing.

2. Point out ...
5. Measure distances on a map using a
   straight edge.

6. Explain "descriptive clues," "aiming
   off," and "attack poin...
8. Successfully complete at least two
   3,000- to 4,000-meter cross-country
   courses.


After completion of each course...
Subsequent Awards
            A star may be awarded for
            orienteering participation in
            the first an...
Benefits of Orienteering

The benefits of Orienteering are many:
• Builds self confidence
• Enhances team building
• Impro...
Q. 1. What is orienteering?
Q. 1. What is orienteering?


A.1. Navigating cross country over
     unfamiliar terrain with a map
     and compass in or...
Q.2. What are the distinguishing
     features of a topographical
     map?
Q.2. What are the distinguishing
     features of a topographical
     map?


A.2. A topographical map shows
     detail o...
Q.3. How are the Earth's relief
     features represented on a
     topographical map?
Q.3. How are the Earth's relief
     features represented on a
     topographical map?


A.3. Through the use of contour
 ...
Q.4. What is a contour interval?
Q.4. What is a contour interval?


A.4. The spacing between contour
     lines that represents a constant
     vertical di...
Q.5. What is a reentrant?
Q.5. What is a reentrant?


A.5. A small valley in a hillside
Q.6. How are grid locations on a
     map read?
Q.6. How are grid locations on a
     map read?


A.6. Grid locations are stated from
     left to right and from bottom t...
Q.7. An orienteering compass is
     designed with what type of
     base?
Q.7. An orienteering compass is
     designed with what type of
     base?


A.7. Protractor
Q.8. How are the compass and map
     used together to navigate?
Q.8. How are the compass and map
     used together to navigate?

A.8. Line up magnetic north on the
     compass with the...
Q.9. How does one determine
     distance on a topographical
     map?
Q.9. How does one determine
     distance on a topographical
     map?


A.9. Through the use of the map
     scale, the l...
Q.10. How are distances measured
      in the field during
      orienteering?
Q.10. How are distances measured
      in the field during
      orienteering?


A.10. Distances in the field are
      me...
Q.11. Why should one use the
      steering mark selection
      technique?
Q.11. Why should one use the
      steering mark selection
      technique?


A.11. Because through the use of
      landm...
Q.12. What are the advantages of
      using a contour route?
Q.12. What are the advantages of
      using a contour route?


A.12. A contour route is less tiring
      and more accura...
Q.13. What is aiming off?
Q.13. What is aiming off?


A.13. Aiming off involves following
      an azimuth to the right or left
      of a control p...
Q.14. How does one use an attack
      point?
Q.14. How does one use an attack
      point?


A.14. An attack point is a prominent
      feature near a control marker
 ...
Q.15. What are two characteristics
      that should always be taken
      into account when evaluating a
      hill on a ...
Q.15. What are two characteristics
      that should always be taken
      into account when evaluating a
      hill on a ...
Q.16. What is the rule of thumb for
      the amount of energy required
      to climb a hill?
Q.16. What is the rule of thumb for
      the amount of energy required
      to climb a hill?


A.16. The rule of thumb f...
Q.17. Why is navigating across flat
      forested country more difficult
      than in more hilly territory?
Q.17. Why is navigating across flat
      forested country more difficult
      than in more hilly territory?


A.17. Navi...
Q.18. About how many times more
      difficult is travel through thick
      brush than over open trail?
Q.18. About how many times more
      difficult is travel through thick
      brush than over open trail?


A.18. About 5 ...
Q.19. What is the difference between
      rough and fine orienteering?
Q.19. What is the difference between
      rough and fine orienteering?

A.19. Rough orienteering means to
      proceed q...
Q.20. What elements should the
      orienteer consider when
      choosing routes?
Q.20. What elements should the
      orienteer consider when
      choosing routes?


A.20. Route choices should
      con...
Q.21. What is the standard
      symbology used to lay out an
      orienteering course on a
      master map of the area?
Q.21. What is the standard
      symbology used to lay out an
      orienteering course on a
      master map of the area?...
Q.22. What is the color scheme used
      on control markers?
Q.22. What is the color scheme used
      on control markers?



A.22. The basic color scheme
      consists of square sha...
Q.23. What is a safety lane?
Q.23. What is a safety lane?


A.23. A safety lane is a location like
      a perimeter road where an
      orienteer may ...
Q.24. What is the form of
      orienteering activity most used
      in the NJROTC?
Q.24. What is the form of
      orienteering activity most used
      in the NJROTC?


A.24. The cross-country
      orien...
Q.25. In addition to a map, what
      other materials are supplied to
      participants in an orienteering
      event?
Q.25. In addition to a map, what
      other materials are supplied to
      participants in an orienteering
      event?
...
Q.25. In addition to a map, what
      other materials are supplied to
      participants in an orienteering
      event?
...
Q.26. How many orienteering
      courses must a cadet have
      completed to qualify for the
      NJROTC orienteering r...
Q.26. How many orienteering
      courses must a cadet have
      completed to qualify for the
      NJROTC orienteering r...
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Bishop Kenny NJROTC Naval Science One Lesson Orienteering

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NS1 Orienteering

  1. 1. UNIT 9 ORIENTEERING
  2. 2. The Well-Dressed Orienteer Lightweight Compass Long Sleeve Shirt Looped At Wrist Wristwatch Tear Resistant Old Pants Shin Guards Old Shoes
  3. 3. Orienteering A sport that involves land navigation over unfamiliar terrain with a map and compass
  4. 4. Orienteering The object of orienteering is to run, ski, walk, or mountain bike to a series of points shown on a map. These points are called control points.
  5. 5. Orienteering Course lengths range from less than 1 mile for beginners to 4 or more miles for experienced orienteers.
  6. 6. Map Reading Orienteering usually requires the use of a topographic map depicting the area in which the course is laid out. A topographic map is a graphic representation of manmade and natural features of a part of the Earth's surface.
  7. 7. Topographic Map Orienteering maps usually are drawn to a scale of 1:15,000 or 1:10,000, and have 5-meter contour lines or intervals. They also show large boulders, cliffs, ditches, and many other features. Some of the other features that may be shown are listed on the next screen.
  8. 8. Features Boundaries Dams Bridges Railroads Buildings Rivers Caves/Mines Roads/Trails Coastal Features Pipelines Contour Lines Bodies of Water • Elevations Fences And this is only a partial list!
  9. 9. The most useful scale for an orienteering map is: 1:15,000 or 1:10,000 (1 inch on the map represents 1 mile, which converts to 15,000 or 10,000 inches on the ground)
  10. 10. Direction On most maps, north is at the top, south to the bottom, east to the right, and west to the left. There is a slight difference between the location of the north pole and that of magnetic north. This is the variation angle or declination angle.
  11. 11. Magnetic Declination Lines on an Ungrided Map
  12. 12. Colors on Topographic Map water (lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, marshes) rock features (boulders, cliffs), roads, trails, fences, buildings forest with little or little or no undergrowth forest with no undergrowth thatthat allows for easy passage allows for easy passage vegetation that requires unusual effort to traverse open or unforested land land features, contours, earth banks, sandy ground
  13. 13. Legend Relief features of the Earth are shown in the margins of orienteering maps.
  14. 14. When lines are close together, they show a steep slope. Similarly, when they are far apart, they show a gentle slope. Contour interval is the distance (feet or meters) between lines.
  15. 15. If the map contour interval is 10 feet, this hill is approximately 130 feet high.
  16. 16. Contour Lines Brown contour lines represent valleys, hills, and plains. Spacing between lines represents a constant vertical distance; the closer the intervals, the greater the slope.
  17. 17. Contour lines indicate elevation, in feet or meters, above sea level. Contour lines tell you the ups and downs of the land.
  18. 18. Typical Magnetic Compass Silva Type 3 • A must for orienteering • Contains protractor in base for reading magnetic azimuth angles on a map • Most widely used
  19. 19. The orienteering compass has a protractor base and a cord to hang around the neck (optional).
  20. 20. During orienteering, first obtain the magnetic azimuth or bearing. • Place edge of protractor base along desired line of travel. • Turn compass housing until orienteering arrow aligns with magnetic north reference lines. • Turn your body until the red end of magnetic needle aligns with the orienteering arrow.
  21. 21. Distance is Important in Orienteering to: • Determine distances between control points. • Determine distances actually traveled.
  22. 22. Distance on a Map If a map has a scale of 1:25000, and a distance of 2 cm were measured on the map between two locations, then the actual distance along the ground would be: 2cm x 250m/cm = 500m on the ground
  23. 23. Distance on a Map Another method is to lay off the measured distance on the map along the graphic linear distance scale on the map. This can then give you the desired distance along the ground in feet, meters, miles, or kilometers.
  24. 24. Distance on a Map A third method is to use the map scales printed along the sides of the compass protractor base. These are often standardized to read distances along the ground directly in feet or meters.
  25. 25. In the field, your pace is used to measure distance. Your pace is the average length, in meters, of a double step.
  26. 26. To determine your pace, count the number of double strides you make on a 600-meter course. This should be done while both running and walking.
  27. 27. Land Navigation Techniques Several methods of land navigation techniques may be used. Depending on the terrain, one of the following methods may be used: • The beeline • The steering mark • The contour route
  28. 28. Beeline A straight line is followed to the desired location, by observing terrain features, without the use of a compass.
  29. 29. Steering Mark Once the bearing (direction of travel) is determined, travel to easily identifiable way-points (steering marks), such as trees, rocks, or houses along the way.
  30. 30. Contour Route If you use a contour line as a trail, you would be traveling parallel to mean sea level. This method is less tiring and more accurate than the beeline method because up and down hill travel is minimized.
  31. 31. Aiming Off In this example, the orienteer follows an azimuth slightly to the right of control point 3, proceeds to the stream (the catch feature), turns left, and follows the stream to the control point.
  32. 32. A Catching Feature • A linear feature that lies beyond the control (example: a road or fence) • Passes by, through, or near a control • "Saves" you if you should miss the control and go past it
  33. 33. Attack Point • A prominent feature near a control (100 - 150 meters) • Used to get you close to a control as quickly as possible • Numerous attack points on beginner courses • Few attack points on advanced courses
  34. 34. Before You Start First, stop and look around; then look closely at your map. Observe the lay of the land. Find some fairly distinct feature, or better yet, a group of features, within view and on the map. Can you see any collecting features, catching features, or handrails that will help you get to the first control?
  35. 35. Handrail • Any linear feature you can follow to where you want to go • Examples: a stream, trail, road, fence, brick or stone wall
  36. 36. Slope Slope is the steepness of a hill, usually expressed as a ratio, e.g., 1 to 15 or 1:15, meaning 1 meter of rise for every 15 meters of horizontal distance.
  37. 37. Profile Profile refers to the shape of a hill. Three general profiles are: Concave - steeper as it get higher Convex - steeper at the bottom Uniform - constant slope from bottom to top
  38. 38. Weather An important factor in flat country
  39. 39. Ground Cover Factors The effect of ground cover can be converted to equivalent amounts of level ground travel by using a conversion formula. The formula involves multiplying the distance by the appropriate factor in the following list.
  40. 40. Types of Cover Factor Open trail 1 Waist-high grass 1.5 Open forest 2-3 Thick brush 5 Creek-bottom tangles 7-10 This indicates it would take 7-10 times longer to cover creek-bottom tangles than it would to jog along an open trail.
  41. 41. Rough Orienteering • Use map to get general idea of objective (how far it is and where you want to go). • Proceed at top speed to collecting features and continue to the control.
  42. 42. Fine Orienteering • Requires slower movement and continually checking map • Smaller features used as landmarks • Slow and inefficient for use for entire leg of course
  43. 43. Speeds of Orienteering Green light – used for rough orienteering on the easy parts of a course where a running pace is possible
  44. 44. Speeds of Orienteering Green light – used for rough orienteering on the easy parts of a course where a running pace is possible Yellow light – a slow jog or fast walk, being cautious when approaching a hand- rail or an attack point
  45. 45. Speeds of Orienteering Green light – used for rough orienteering on the easy parts of a course where a running pace is possible Yellow light – a slow jog or fast walk, being cautious when approaching a hand- rail or an attack point Red light – a slow walk in order to use fine orienteering to locate a control
  46. 46. Speeds of Orienteering All course legs may not lend them- selves to all three speeds. Learning when to use which speed during rough and fine orienteering comes only through experience.
  47. 47. Course Layout Criteria • A well-wooded area (lots of trees) • Uninhabited if possible • Appropriate degree of difficulty for the orienteers who will be using it • Good map coverage of suitable scale
  48. 48. Course Layout Criteria Circles are control points. A triangle indicates the start. A double circle indicates the finish.
  49. 49. Control Marker • Should be visible from at least 10 meters away but not more than 50 • Usually attached is a distinctive punch used as 'proof' you were at that control marker
  50. 50. Control Marker
  51. 51. Safety Lane • Usually a linear boundary (a road) where an orienteer may go in the event of injury, fatigue, or becoming lost
  52. 52. Orienteering Activities Cross-country (point-to-point) – the classic form of orienteering. Controls on a map must be visited in order.
  53. 53. Orienteering Activities Cross-country (point-to-point) – the classic form of orienteering. Controls on a map must be visited in order. Score-O – Controls are visited in any order.
  54. 54. Orienteering Activities Cross-country (point-to-point) – the classic form of orienteering. Controls on a map must be visited in order. Score-O – Controls are visited in any order. Night-O – a variation on either of the above conducted from dusk through dark.
  55. 55. Orienteering Activities Long-O – Courses are 1.5 to 2 times as long as a standard course, and have long legs and complex route choices.
  56. 56. Orienteering Activities Long-O – Courses are 1.5 to 2 times as long as a standard course, and have long legs and complex route choices. Relay-O – A variation of point-to-point. Each team member completes a leg of a course.
  57. 57. Orienteering Activities Long-O – Courses are 1.5 to 2 times as long as a standard course, and have long legs and complex route choices. Relay-O – A variation of point-to-point. Each team member completes a leg of a course. Memory-O – The first leg of the course is memorized. After reaching control 1, the second leg is memorized before going to control 2.
  58. 58. Orienteering Activities Recently, a new orienteering activity has been added to the list of "O" activities. This is: Trail-O – an orienteering course laid out specifically for handicapped individuals. Trails are either on firm ground or paved paths. Once a control point is reached, the individual must observe specific land- scape features and make the most accurate estimates of distance, time of travel, height and other required items.
  59. 59. Novice Advanced Control Descriptions Clue Sheet
  60. 60. The previously shown symbols are only a few of the many used in the sport of orienteering. A more comprehensive listing and their meanings are available through links provided at the United States Orienteering Federation (USOF) Web site at: http://www.us.orienteering.org
  61. 61. The Orienteering Event Card Ensure you fill out and punch your event card as required.
  62. 62. The Rules of Orienteering Like all sports, certain rules must be followed. Fairness – a sporting attitude and a spirit of comradeship and honesty Nature of orienteering – no outside help; yet provide appropriate assistance if one is injured or honestly lost Environmental protection – take care of the land you are on, obeying common sense rules and following posted signs
  63. 63. Qualification Requirements for the NJROTC Orienteering Ribbon 1. You must be a cadet in good standing. 2. Point out and name five major terrain features on a map and in the field. 3. Point out and name ten symbols often found on a topographic map. 4. Use a compass effectively.
  64. 64. 5. Measure distances on a map using a straight edge. 6. Explain "descriptive clues," "aiming off," and "attack point." 7. Determine, by length of pace and speed, both walking and running, when a distance of 100 meters has been covered over various types of terrain.
  65. 65. 8. Successfully complete at least two 3,000- to 4,000-meter cross-country courses. After completion of each course, the NSI will debrief (critique) you on your results.
  66. 66. Subsequent Awards A star may be awarded for orienteering participation in the first and subsequent years. A maximum of two awards per year (including the initial ribbon award) are authorized. Different orienteering courses must be used for subsequent awards.
  67. 67. Benefits of Orienteering The benefits of Orienteering are many: • Builds self confidence • Enhances team building • Improves map reading • Teaches a lifetime sport • Provides mental challenges • Provides physical challenges
  68. 68. Q. 1. What is orienteering?
  69. 69. Q. 1. What is orienteering? A.1. Navigating cross country over unfamiliar terrain with a map and compass in order to locate certain checkpoints called control points that have been marked by the course umpires
  70. 70. Q.2. What are the distinguishing features of a topographical map?
  71. 71. Q.2. What are the distinguishing features of a topographical map? A.2. A topographical map shows detail of elevations, water areas, depressions, vegetation and land features. It also depicts the main roads and trails through the area.
  72. 72. Q.3. How are the Earth's relief features represented on a topographical map?
  73. 73. Q.3. How are the Earth's relief features represented on a topographical map? A.3. Through the use of contour lines
  74. 74. Q.4. What is a contour interval?
  75. 75. Q.4. What is a contour interval? A.4. The spacing between contour lines that represents a constant vertical distance
  76. 76. Q.5. What is a reentrant?
  77. 77. Q.5. What is a reentrant? A.5. A small valley in a hillside
  78. 78. Q.6. How are grid locations on a map read?
  79. 79. Q.6. How are grid locations on a map read? A.6. Grid locations are stated from left to right and from bottom to top.
  80. 80. Q.7. An orienteering compass is designed with what type of base?
  81. 81. Q.7. An orienteering compass is designed with what type of base? A.7. Protractor
  82. 82. Q.8. How are the compass and map used together to navigate?
  83. 83. Q.8. How are the compass and map used together to navigate? A.8. Line up magnetic north on the compass with the map's magnetic north. Twist the compass protractor base to line up the current position with the destination printed on the map. Read the magnetic bearing. Select landmarks to follow along this bearing.
  84. 84. Q.9. How does one determine distance on a topographical map?
  85. 85. Q.9. How does one determine distance on a topographical map? A.9. Through the use of the map scale, the linear distance scale printed on the map, or the distance scales along the sides of the compass protractor base
  86. 86. Q.10. How are distances measured in the field during orienteering?
  87. 87. Q.10. How are distances measured in the field during orienteering? A.10. Distances in the field are measured by counting paces, with each pace being the average distance of a double- step at various speeds.
  88. 88. Q.11. Why should one use the steering mark selection technique?
  89. 89. Q.11. Why should one use the steering mark selection technique? A.11. Because through the use of landmarks, the orienteer is relieved of constantly checking the compass.
  90. 90. Q.12. What are the advantages of using a contour route?
  91. 91. Q.12. What are the advantages of using a contour route? A.12. A contour route is less tiring and more accurate than following a straight azimuth over uneven terrain, because it minimizes up and down climbing.
  92. 92. Q.13. What is aiming off?
  93. 93. Q.13. What is aiming off? A.13. Aiming off involves following an azimuth to the right or left of a control point, then following a catch feature to the control.
  94. 94. Q.14. How does one use an attack point?
  95. 95. Q.14. How does one use an attack point? A.14. An attack point is a prominent feature near a control marker that can be used as an intermediate destination. Then an accurate azimuth is followed to the control marker.
  96. 96. Q.15. What are two characteristics that should always be taken into account when evaluating a hill on a map?
  97. 97. Q.15. What are two characteristics that should always be taken into account when evaluating a hill on a map? A.15. Two important characteristics of all hills are its slope or steepness and its profile or shape.
  98. 98. Q.16. What is the rule of thumb for the amount of energy required to climb a hill?
  99. 99. Q.16. What is the rule of thumb for the amount of energy required to climb a hill? A.16. The rule of thumb for estimating energy required to climb a hill is every 25 feet of climb equals 100 meters on flat ground.
  100. 100. Q.17. Why is navigating across flat forested country more difficult than in more hilly territory?
  101. 101. Q.17. Why is navigating across flat forested country more difficult than in more hilly territory? A.17. Navigating in flat country is difficult because there are usually no prominent features to use as steering marks or attack points. Also there are often marshes, swamps, and briar patches in the low places.
  102. 102. Q.18. About how many times more difficult is travel through thick brush than over open trail?
  103. 103. Q.18. About how many times more difficult is travel through thick brush than over open trail? A.18. About 5 times more energy is required.
  104. 104. Q.19. What is the difference between rough and fine orienteering?
  105. 105. Q.19. What is the difference between rough and fine orienteering? A.19. Rough orienteering means to proceed quickly from one point to another using steering marks and attack points, without much use of the compass. Fine orienteering requires slower movement while continually checking position using the map and compass.
  106. 106. Q.20. What elements should the orienteer consider when choosing routes?
  107. 107. Q.20. What elements should the orienteer consider when choosing routes? A.20. Route choices should consider distance, slope, vegetation, collecting/catching features, available handrails, attack points, and the physical and mental status of the orienteer.
  108. 108. Q.21. What is the standard symbology used to lay out an orienteering course on a master map of the area?
  109. 109. Q.21. What is the standard symbology used to lay out an orienteering course on a master map of the area? A.21. A triangle is used to indicate the start. Circles are drawn around the various control points. A double circle is used for the finish.
  110. 110. Q.22. What is the color scheme used on control markers?
  111. 111. Q.22. What is the color scheme used on control markers? A.22. The basic color scheme consists of square shapes with white upper triangles and red or orange lower triangles.
  112. 112. Q.23. What is a safety lane?
  113. 113. Q.23. What is a safety lane? A.23. A safety lane is a location like a perimeter road where an orienteer may go in the event of injury, excessive fatigue, or becoming lost.
  114. 114. Q.24. What is the form of orienteering activity most used in the NJROTC?
  115. 115. Q.24. What is the form of orienteering activity most used in the NJROTC? A.24. The cross-country orienteering course is most often used for NJROTC field activities.
  116. 116. Q.25. In addition to a map, what other materials are supplied to participants in an orienteering event?
  117. 117. Q.25. In addition to a map, what other materials are supplied to participants in an orienteering event? A.25. Orienteers are given written or coded descriptions called clue sheets to help locate and identify control markers.
  118. 118. Q.25. In addition to a map, what other materials are supplied to participants in an orienteering event? A.25. They are also given event cards upon which to record their start and finish times and punch or write in the codes found on the various control markers.
  119. 119. Q.26. How many orienteering courses must a cadet have completed to qualify for the NJROTC orienteering ribbon?
  120. 120. Q.26. How many orienteering courses must a cadet have completed to qualify for the NJROTC orienteering ribbon? A.26. Two
  • JonJonDula

    Mar. 21, 2020
  • moky27

    Jan. 25, 2018
  • lskvl79

    Oct. 9, 2016

Bishop Kenny NJROTC Naval Science One Lesson Orienteering

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