2. Definition of Management
According to Harold Koontz, “Management is an art of
getting things done through and with the people in
formally organized groups. It is an art of creating an
environment in which people can perform and
individuals and can co-operate towards attainment of
4. TOP LEVEL
It consists of Board of
The top management
is the ultimate source
of authority and it
manages goals and
policies for an
It devotes more time
on planning and
Roles & Responsibilities:
Framing the objectives and
policies f the enterprises.
Issues necessary instruction for
preparation of department
budgets, procedures, schedules
It provides guidance and
Responsible towards the
shareholders for the
performance of the enterprises.
5. Middle level
They are responsible
to the top
management for the
functioning of their
They devote more
Roles & Responsibilities
They executes the plans of the
organization in accordance with
the policies and directives of the
They make plans for the sub
units of the organizations.
They participate in employment
& training of lower level
They evaluate performance of
6. Lower Level
management is also
known as supervisory /
operative level of
It consists of
They are concerned with
controlling functions of
Roles & responsibilities
Assigning of jobs and tasks to
They guide and instruct workers
for day to day activities.
They are responsible for the
quality and quantity of
They help to solve the grievances
of the workers.
They motivates workers.
8. Functions of management
The plan is a future course of actions
Planning is a systematic thinking about
ways and means for accomplishment of
According to koontz,” Planning is deciding
in advance – what to do, when to do & how
to do. It bridges the gap from where we are
& where we want to be”.
9. Functions of management
It is the process of brining together physical, financial
and human resource and developing productive
relationship amongst them for achievement of
According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to
provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e.,
raw material, tools, capital and personnel's”.
10. Functions of management Staffing
It is the function of manning the organization structure
and keeping it manned.
The main purpose of staffing is to put right man on right
Staffing involves the following:
Man power planning
Recruitment, selection & placement
Training & development
Promotions & transfers
11. Functions of management
It is that part of managerial function which actuates
the organizational methods to work efficiently for
achievement of organizational purposes.
Directing has the following elements:
12. Functions of management
It implies measurements of accomplishment
against the standards and corrections of
deviations if any to ensure achievement of
According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling is
the process of checking whether or not
proper progress is being made towards the
objectives and goals and correcting if
necessary to correct any deviation”.
14. Roles of manager
Leader – responsible for
staffing, training and
Figurehead – the symbolic
head of the organization
Liaison – maintains the
communication between all
contacts and informers that
composes the organizational
15. Roles of manager
Monitor – personally seek and
receive information, to be able
to understand the organization.
Disseminator – transmits all
import information received
from outsiders to the members
of the organization.
Spokes person –here the
manager transmits the
organizations plans, policies and
actions to outsiders.
16. Roles of manager
Entrepreneur – Seeks
opportunities, basically they
search for change, respond to it,
and exploit it.
Negotiator – Represents the
organization at major
Resource allocator – Makes or
approves all significant decisions
related to the allocation of
Disturbance handler –
Responsible for corrective action
when the organization faces
17. Nature and Purpose of
System of authority
Dynamic nature of principle
Management make things happen
Management science or art
Management as profession
19. Skills needed by a manager
Technical Skill: This skill requires the ability to
use a special proficiency or expertise to perform
particular tasks. Manager acquire these skills initially
through formal education and then further develop
them through training and job experience.
Eg: Accountants, Engineers, Market researchers and
20. Skills needed by a manager
Human Skill: This skill demonstrates the ability
to work well in cooperation with others.
Human skills emerge in the workplace as a spirit of
trust, enthusiasm and genuine involvement in
A Manager with good human skills has a high degree
of self-awareness and a capacity to understand or
empathize with the feelings of others.
21. Skills needed by a manager
Conceptual Skill: This skill calls for the ability
to think analytically.
Analytical skills enable managers to break down
problems into smaller parts, to see the relations among
the parts, and to recognize the implications of any one
problem for others.
23. Management is a Science or Art
Management is a science
Science is based on logical consistency, systematic
explanation, critical evaluation and experimental analysis.
The construction of theory to provide answers to the
problem or problems based on inductions from
Science may be viewed in terms of its structure, its goals
and its methods.
One of the most important rules of science is that concepts
have to be defined clearly in terms of the procedures
involved in their measurement.
Management is considered “Young Science” and internal
consistencies is approximate and not exact like that of
other mature science.
24. Management is a Science or Art
Management is a Art
Management can be regarded as an art also. The
meaning of art is related with the bringing of a desired
result through the application of skills.
Under science, one learns the ‘why’ of a phenomenon,
under art, one learns the ‘how’ of it.
Art is thus concerned with the understanding of how
particular work can be accomplished. Thus, art has to
do with applying of knowledge or science or of
expertness in performance.
The process of management is directed to achieve
certain concrete results as other fields of art do.
25. Management is a Science or Art
Management is both science as well
Managing as practice is an art, the organized
knowledge underlying the practice may be referred to
as a science. Thus to be a successful manager, a person
requires the knowledge of management principles and
also the skills of how the knowledge can be utilized.
Absence of either will results in inefficiency.
26. Difference between Management
Basis of Difference Management Administration
Level in Organization Top Level Middle and Lower Level
Nature of Functions Determinative Executive
Major Focus Policy formulation and
Policy execution and
Scope of Functions Broad and conceptual Narrow and operational
Mostly external Mostly internal
Entrepreneurs and owners Employees
Qualities required Administrative Technical
33. 1. Division of Work. Specialization increases output by making employees more
2. Authority. Managers must be able to give orders, and authority gives them this
3. Discipline. Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the
4. Unity of command. Every employee should receive orders from only one
5. Unity of direction. The organization should have a single plan of action to
6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest. The interests of
employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the
organization as a whole.
7. Remuneration. Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services.
8. Centralization. This term refers to the degree to which subordinates are
9. Scalar chain. The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks is