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Europe Chapter 24 (Revolutions, Nationalism, Art)

  1. Europe Faces Revolutions, Nationalism & Arts in Europe Chapter 24:2,3,4
  2. Section 2: Europe Faces Revolution ■ Main Idea: Liberal and national uprisings challenged the old order of Europe (Absolute monarchs- kings and queens) ■ Why it matters now? The system of nation-states established in Europe during this period continues today
  3. 1. Clashes of Philosophies ■ Littl e cha nge ■ Cons er- vative ■ Change ■ Liber al ■ Extr eme cha nge ■ Radica l Who? Wealthy property owners & nobility Want? Protecting traditional monarchs of Europe Who? Middle Class & Merchants Want? Give more power to Parliaments, but only educated and landowners can vote Who? Majority Want? Drastic change to extend democracy to all people (fans of the French Rev)
  4. 2. Nationalism Develops As debates start about governments, a new movement begins= NATIONALISM = belief that people’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king or queen, but to their nation of people Nation-State= when a nation has its own independent government   *In Europe by 1815 only France, Spain and England could be considered nations states
  5. What creates nationalism?
  6. 3. Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power ■ First to win self rule Greece (from the Ottomans in 1821) ■ Ottomans controlled the Balkans (part of Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, and former Yugoslavia)
  7. Greeks Gain Independence Greeks Gain Independence 1830s Uprising Crush 1848 Revolutions Fail to Unite Greek independence movement was popular among many (including Americans & educated Europeans) Who helps? Russians, British, French Uprisings included: • Belgians against the Dutch • Nationalists in Italy rebelling against the Pope or Austria (who were controlling them) • Poles against the Russians Ethnic uprisings erupted throughout Europe Uprisings failed (Austria, Hungary, Prague) Conservatives gained control
  8. 4. Radicals Changes France ■ 1830- King Charles X tried to return France to a monarchy (failed) ■ The Thirds Republic= 1848, mobs overthrew king and started another republic ■ New Republican government could not agree, split into factions, riots in streets ■ Results: A moderate Constitution was drawn up (called for a parliament + elected strong president)
  9. France Accepts a Strong Ruler ■ Louis-Napoleon= nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, won election of 1848, 4 years later took the title of Emperor Napoleon III ■ Accomplishments: railroads, encouraged industrialization, public work projects, unemployment decreased
  10. 5. Reforms in Russia ■ Conditio ns in Russia ■ Defeat Brings Change ■ Reform & Reaction
  11. Ch 24:3: Nationalism (Case Study: Italy & Germany) ■ Main Idea: Nationalism contributed to the formation of 2 new nations and a new political order in Europe ■ Why it matters? Nationalism is the basis of world politics today and has often caused conflicts and wars
  12. 1. Nationalism: A Force for United or Disunity ■ Background: During the 1800s, nationalism field efforts to build nation- states ■ Nationalists were NOT loyal to the kings, but their people (those who shared common beliefs)
  13. 1. Nationalism: A Force for United or Disunity Italy Germany Austria Russia Ottoman Empire
  14. What happens because of nationalism? ■ Unite s ■ Break up
  15. AUSTRIA- breakup ■Hapsburgs ■ Brought together many nations ■ (Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Italians….etc) ■ Austro-Prussian War ■ (Prussia wins, pressured by Austrian Emperor to split his empire in ½) ■ Austria-Hungary ■ (aka Austro- Hungary ■ After WW1, broke up into several nation-states
  16. Austria + Hungary=Austria- Hungary
  17. RUSSIA ■Czars■ Rules large empire: ■ (Ukraine,Poland, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonia's, Finns, Jews…etc)- each group had it’s own culture ■ RUSSIFICATION ■ (forcing Russian culture on all) ■ Strengthened ETHNIC NATIONALIST feelings ■ Czar weakens ■ 1917- last Czar gave up power
  18. Russification in Estonia
  19. OTTOMAN EMPIRE ■ Turks large empire ■ (Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, Armenians) ■ Granted CITIZENSHIP to all people under their rule (pressured by British & French) ■ Angered conservative Turks (who wanted no change- caused TENSION) ■ Broke up after WW1
  20. ITALY(1/2) ■ Model for Italy= Piedmont-Sardinia (state in Italy) ■ Camillo di Cavour= named prime minister by Sardinia’s king (Victor Emanuel II) ■ Cavour’s Goal: ■ Expanded Piedmont-Sardinia’s power ■ Goal- united all Italy under Sardinian rule ■ Problem- Austria is controlling north Italy ■ What he did? Provoke a war with Austria (France helped) ■ Result: Italy won northern Italy
  21. Italy 2/2 ■ Cavour secretly started to help a nationalist rebel, GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI, in southern Italy ■ Garibaldi always wore a red shirt into battle- known as “RED SHIRTS” ■ Captured Sicily and march northward ■ United northern and southern Italy, and stepped down to let the Sardinian king rule ALL of Italy ■ Rome came under Italian control and it became the capital ■ Pope continued to govern from Rome aka Vatican City
  22. Tour of Vatican City
  23. GERMANY ■ Bismark Unites Germany ■ German Confederation- 39 loosely grouped states ■ Prussia was ready to unify all German states ■ Prussia Leads German Unification: ■ Positive 1: Mainly German population- nationalism united them ■ Positive 2: Strong army ■ What did the people want? A constitution for the kingdom
  24. GERMANY ■ Bismarck Takes Control: ■ Wilhelm 1 saw Parliament as a threat to his army ■ JUNKERS- supported wealthy landowning class, like Wilhelm ■ OTTO von BISMARCK= Junker, named prime minister, master of REALPOLITIK (“the politics of reality”- tough power politics) ■ Bismarck said he would rule without the consent of the Parliament and without a budget (broke the constitution)
  25. Example: the Realpolitik of War (The Real Reasons?)
  26. Germany ■ Prussia Expands ■ Went to war with Austria to win more land ■ Victory increased nationalism ■ Seven Years’ War ■ Dispute over newly won land (with Austria) ■ Prussia wins ■ Took control of northern Germany ■ The eastern and western parts of Prussia united for the 1st time
  27. Germany ■ Franco-Prussian War ■ Many German states remained independent from Prussia ■ Southern Germans were Catholics and didn’t like Prussian Protestants ■ Bismarck’s Plan- if German states felt another outside pressure, they would love to be ruled by Prussia ■ He manufactured “incidents” to get what he wanted ■ Finally, Germans accepted Prussian rule ■ King Wilhelm 1 was crowned KAISER= emperor ■ Declared themselves the 2nd Reich (Holy Roman Empire was the the 1st)
  28. A Shift in Power ■ After the 1815 Congress of Vienna there were 5 GREAT POWERS in Europe ■ Britain* ■ France ■ Austria ■ Prussia Germany* ■ Russia ■ Wars of mid-1800s strengthened some (*)
  29. 3 OPTIONS: ■ OPTION #1: Flash Cards (If you turn them in the day we get back from break, +10 points extra credit) ■ OPTION #2: 24:2 on slides ■ OPTION #3: 24:4 in textbooks ■ Last 15-20 minutes: The Plague movie
  30. Groups: 2-3 People ■ Create your own graphic notes organizer in your blank “Section 4: Revolutions in the Arts” ■ Consider: ■ What sections are mentioned? ■ How many? ■ What are the main ideas/people/inventions?
  31. Section 4 Groups ■ 1. Each student will be assigned a number that correlates with an aspect of the REVOLUTION OF ARTS ■ 2. Read your assigned section- summarize info ■ 3. Write a 2-4 bullet point summary of your section (Keep it as simple as possible) and write this at the top of a blank piece of paper ■ 4. On the second half of the paper, make a visual representation of your section
  32. Ch 24:Section 4: Revolutions in the Arts ■ 1. Romanticism ■ (Pages 698) ■ 2. Romantic Literature ■ (698) ■ 3. Gothic Novel ■ 4. Composers/ ■ 5. Realism ■ (700) ■ 6. Photographe rs ■ (700) ■ 7. Writers ■ (700-701) ■ 8. Impressionis m ■ (701) ■ 9. Life in the Movement

Notas del editor

  1. In Europe by 1815 only France, Spain and England could be considered nations states
  2. How did people react to him being crowned? Were so tired of so much change in their government, that little opposed