Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Se está descargando tu SlideShare. ×

Diffusion of innovation

Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Cargando en…3
×

Eche un vistazo a continuación

1 de 27 Anuncio

Diffusion of innovation

Descargar para leer sin conexión

A presentation that I did on 02-Nov-2020 within the "Seminar in Communication Theories and Literature" course under the supervision of Dr. Shahira Fahmy @ The American University in Cairo. Dr. Everette Rogers is inspirational and Innovator himself!

A presentation that I did on 02-Nov-2020 within the "Seminar in Communication Theories and Literature" course under the supervision of Dr. Shahira Fahmy @ The American University in Cairo. Dr. Everette Rogers is inspirational and Innovator himself!

Anuncio
Anuncio

Más Contenido Relacionado

Presentaciones para usted (20)

Similares a Diffusion of innovation (20)

Anuncio

Más reciente (20)

Diffusion of innovation

  1. 1. Diffusion of Innovation Dr. Everette M. Rogers 1962 onwards
  2. 2. The American University in Cairo Mass Communication Theory and Literature - JRMC 5200-1 Course Instructor: Dr. Shahira Fahmy Presentation by: Christine Saad Eskander Guirguis – ID: 800170215
  3. 3. Presentation Agenda Diffusion main players Criticism to the theory Diffusion theory Main elements 1 2 3 4 Innovativeness + Adopters
  4. 4. • "How did I get trapped into this business? It happened very easily I can tell you that, and very naturally. I had grown up on an Iowa farm as I said; I was puzzled, I had NOTICED the same thing that Ryan and Gross found in their study. My father and other neighboring farmers were very reluctant in adopting agricultural innovations“ (Rogers, 2004). • In 1854 speech by Louis Pasteur: application of science is impossible without pure research and theory building (Koelbing,1969). “Chance, by the way, favours the prepared mind only” (Koelbing, 1969). • Ex. Telegraph (Hans Oersted), Penicillin (Alexander Fleming), X-Rays (Wilhem Rontengen) … etc. (Pearce, 1912; Neil, 2017). “Chance Only Comes to Prepared Minds”
  5. 5. 1st : Diffusion theory main elements Innovation Communication Channels Over time In a social System Diffusion (of innovation): it is a special type of communication where messages exclusively about innovations, i.e. new ideas, are communicated through channels among members of a social system over time. 1 2 3 4 Rogers about the Hybrid Corn study by Ryan and Gross in 1943: “one of the most influential diffusion studies of all time”. Why?
  6. 6. Diffusion theory main elements, continued “An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption.” The process by which individuals within a community create and exchange information to reach common understanding through communication channels (interpersonal & Mass Media) were messages go back and forth between the members. Set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal. 1. Innovation-decision process: (Knowledge, Persuasion, Decision, Implementation and Confirmation). 2. Innovativeness: earliness/lateness. 3. Full adoption within a community. The Innovation Communication Time
  7. 7. What facilitates/hinders the diffusion of an innovation? Uncertainty/ Unpredictability Homogeneous/ Homophilous Characteristics of Innovation
  8. 8. What facilitates/hinders the diffusion of an innovation? Continued, • Perceived benefit versus perceived cost. • This is tackled by a Technology which is an action that targets to reduce the uncertainty of the innovation through the Hardware (innovation design) and the Software or the information about the innovation which doesn’t only aim at reducing the uncertainty around an innovation but also reduces uncertainty in the future and thus improves life in general. Ex.: - Cost of the hybrid corn in the Great Depression. - In 1996-97 only 16% of the U.K households owned mobile phone, a decade later the figured jumped to 80% mobile phone ownership. Why? Vodafone non-contract service. 1. Uncertainty/ unpredictability:
  9. 9. What facilitates/hinders the diffusion of an innovation? Continued, 2. Characteristics of Innovation: • Relative Advantage of the Innovation: the more the perceived desired outcome or advantage the speeder the rate of adoption. • Compatibility: how compatible/congruent/ consonant is the innovation is with the social system it diffuses in. This is related in part to the taboo innovations and how they are made acceptable in the society through well-designed communication. Ex.: Indian birth control campaign. • Complexity: how difficult or easy an innovation is to understand. Ex.: Peru boiling water campaign. • Triability: the degree to which an innovation can be tried on small scale before the actual adoption.
  10. 10. What facilitates/hinders the diffusion of an innovation? Continued, 3. How Homophilous the social system is: • “Homophily” is the degree to which individuals who interact together are similar in attributes like beliefs, education, social status, and the like. Rogers say “more effective communication happens when two individuals are homphilous. • “Heterophily” on the other hand, means how different the individuals communicating together are. Therefore, Extreme homophily means no diffusion of innovation takes place and extreme heterophily means hindrance to the communication process. The solution is something in between.
  11. 11. Innovation-decision process 1. Knowledge: awareness of the innovation and how it functions. 4. Implementation: when an individual adopts the innovation. 2. Persuasion: forming a favorable or unfavorable attitude towards the innovation. 3. Decision: engagement in innovation-related activities that lead to the adoption or the rejection of the innovation. 5. Confirmation: reinforcement of innovation adoption decision. Note Discontinuation might occur if the individual becomes dissatisfied by the innovation or the innovation has become replaced by another one.
  12. 12. Q. After watching Elon Musk’s conference last August and have become more informed now, how likely are you willing to undergo a brain chip implantation surgery? If yes, why? If no, do you have other reasons besides uncertainty?
  13. 13. 2nd: Diffusion Main Players Change Agent: is the one who communicates the innovation and facilitates the process of its adoption by the members of a community. They act as linkers, who also conveys the individuals’ feedback to the change agency. Change Agency: is the source of the innovation, the most innovative member in a society and are viewed as deviant, dubious and of low credibility, therefore have limited ability to affect others. Opinion Leader: informal leaders within a social system, have the ability to influence other individuals’ attitudes and behaviors, have high social accessibility, conformity to the system’s norms and technical competence. They affect collective rather than individual decisions.
  14. 14. Opinion leadership Polymorphic The degree of the ability of the individual to lead the public opinion in a variety of topics. Monomorphic The tendency of an individual to act as an opinion leaders in one single topic.
  15. 15. It is not necessary that all innovations have change agencies, some innovations actually are decentralized and unplanned. Example: leaders-free revolutions where the potential adopters are solely responsible for the self-management of the diffusion of innovation.
  16. 16. “From Cocoon to Butterfly”
  17. 17. Innovativeness • It is how early an individual is likely to adopt an innovation in comparison to other individuals within a social system. • Innovativeness is a central theme in the “Diffusion of Innovation”: “We know more about Innovativeness than any other concept in diffusion research” (Rogers, 1983, p. 242) • Why Innovativeness is so important? Because, it is all about Persuasibility of the the Change Agent. According to Oliver, Raney and Bryant (2019, chp.4, p.5), “Persuasion” (2nd step in the Innovation decision process) targets behavioral change which is the ultimate goal of Diffusion process (Rogers, 1983, p. 242).
  18. 18. Early Adopters (13.5%): a.k.a localites, more integrated into the local system than the innovators. They have the highest degree of opinion leadership (in most not all systems (Rogers, 1983, p.259)) and members of a society count them as an informed individual in their society so they look up to him/her as a role model and a source of credible information. Innovators (2.5%): a.k.a venturesome and cosmopolites (global citizen). They are risk takers and actively engaging in new innovations. They are of high socio- economic class; therefore, they aren’t afraid of financial losses. Early Majority (34%): a.k.a deliberate they are a linking point between the high level of innovativeness of the 2 previous categories and the following categories, since they don’t easily adopt an innovation like the early adopters and innovators but they more likely to adopt an innovation faster than the following categories. Adopters
  19. 19. Late Majority (34%): a.k.a. skeptical. Adoption of innovation may be out of necessity to possess or as a result of peer pressure. They decide to adopt after most of the members in the same social system have already adopted the innovation. They are cautious and respond to the peer pressure after they check the availability of their scarce resources. Laggards (16%): they are the most localite individuals and the last to adopt any innovations, sometimes they do adopt an innovation after it becomes no more an innovation and gets displaced by newer innovations. They are the most suspicious regarding any innovation and they make decisions on purely rational standpoints. They are fixed in the past and look “on the rear-view mirror”. Adopters Continued,
  20. 20. Factors Influencing Adoption Decision • Dogmatism and Fatalism are negatively related to innovativeness. • Socio-economic class is positively related to innovativeness. (Knowledge gap/Digital Divide?)
  21. 21. Points of Criticism • Pro-innovativeness bias: the assumption that an innovation should be diffused and adopted by all members of a social system is criticized. • Individual-blame bias: blaming someone for not adopting an innovation while not blaming this on their social system. • Recalling problem: inaccuracies may happen due to some people aren’t not able to accurately recall when they adopted an innovation. • Equality issue: innovation adoption makes people of higher innovativeness more able to access many facilities and resources than the less innovative.
  22. 22. Diffusion of Innovation in Points Central thesis: Diffusion is a special type of communication where messages exclusively about innovations, i.e. new ideas, are communicated through channels among members of a social system over time. Kinds of evidence that developed and supported the thesis: 155 interviews (PhD). Then, meta-analysis of empirical research findings to reach general theoretical conclusion. Major terms/concepts: Innovation/ Diffusion/ Communication Channels/ Social System/ Change Agency/ Change Agent/ Opinion Leader(ship)/ Homophily/ Heterophily/ Innovativeness/ Innovators/ Early Adopters/ Early Majority/ Late Majority/ Laggards. Main Assumptions: Diffusion process consists of 4 main elements/ It passes through 5 stages/ Factors facilitating or hindering diffusion/ Diffusion main actors/ Different rates of adoption among different groups (innovativeness). 1 2 3 4 Limitations: Biases (Pro-innovativeness, Individual blame, recalling problem, equality issue), cross-sectional studies, and an innovation should reach to a maturity phase so that individuals of a social system can be divided on a bell shaped graph. 5 Contribution(s): Extending the Diffusion of Innovation theory outside the agricultural innovations (from “cocoon to butterfly”). 6
  23. 23. Diffusion of Innovation in Points Relationship between this theory and other theories/models: 2-step flow of comm. → multi-step flow of comm. Within social networks. Modernization theory (Thussu, 2002, P.57) (and similar related theories like Cultural Imperialism). Digital Divide : the socio-economic imperative of the innovation adopters widens their gap. Problems/Questions suggested: Network communication analysis to study how the diffusion occurs among social networks. Longitudinal Studies tracing the change in innovativeness over a period of time. More realistic and less normative model of the Adopters. 7 8
  24. 24. Thanks
  25. 25. Instructions for use In order to use this template, you must credit Slidesgo and Freepik in your final presentation and include links to both websites. You are allowed to: - Modify this template. - Use it for both personal and commercial projects. You are not allowed to: - Sublicense, sell or rent any of Slidesgo Content (or a modified version of Slidesgo Content). - Distribute Slidesgo Content unless it has been expressly authorized by Slidesgo. - Include Slidesgo Content in an online or offline database or file. - Offer Slidesgo templates (or modified versions of Slidesgo templates) for download. - Acquire the copyright of Slidesgo Content. For more information about editing slides, please read our FAQs or visit Slidesgo School: https://slidesgo.com/faqs and https://slidesgo.com/slidesgo-school

×