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Action research is an actual research
Teacher research is def ined by who
conducts the research (a teacher).
Classroom research is def ined by the
setting or place in which the data are
Bridget L on g def in ed
classroom research as all or part of
whose data are de r ive d from the
ob s er vation or m eas urem ent of the
classroom per for m an ce of te achers and
If students f ill out a questionnaire about
t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a n g u a ge l e s s o n s o r
classroom, would it f it the def inition of
classroom research according to what Long
So, if the answer is NO. What can we do
to add a classroom research in this
Classroom Research according to
Classroom research is
just that research that concentrates on the
inputs to the classroom (the syllabus, the
teaching materials) or the outputs (learners
achievement scores). So, for Allwright
“c l a s s r o o m r e s e a r c h” i s n o t j u s t t h e s e t t i n g o r
p l a c e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n b u t , m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y, a s
the object of the investigation.
According to Brindley “teacher
research” is often connected with the concept of
teacher development and empowerment because
by investigating teaching and learning processes in
classroom, we (teachers) ourselves learn more
about the craft (ability) and the science of teaching
so that we may improve our work as teachers.
So, according to what Allwright
says about Teacher Research,
does it always take place in
So, if the answer is NO, Could you
give an example of Teacher
Research out the classroom?
The term action research is an approach to
collecting and interpreting data that involves a
clear, repeated cycle of procedures.
The researcher follows the next steps to achieve an
The researcher begins by planning an action to
address a problem. Ex: Asking questions to
prove students' understanding to the topic
during three classes.
2. The next step is the systematic observation of the
outcomes (results) of the action. The observation is
done through a variety of procedures (audio or video
recordings, teacher's diary entries, observer's notes,
etc.) for collecting data.
Ex: if students have problems to understand the
topic, the teacher may record his/her students'
answers in order to discover the main reason of the
3. After observing the apparent results of the
action, the researcher reflects on the outcome
and plans a subsequent action, after which the
cycle begins again.
Ex: After the teacher has observed which is the
main problem of their students'
understanding. He can try to bring more
integrated activities in order to help students
to understand the topic quicker.
To summarize, we can say the following:
Classroom Research refers to the location and the
focus of the study.
2. Teacher Research refers to the agents who conduct
Action Research denotes a particular approach, a
codified but flexible set of procedures.
Can classroom research, teacher
research, and action research fit
The answer is Yes, and the following statement proves it:
Classroom research conducted by teachers using the action
Ex. Inside the classroom (classroom research) the teacher
(teacher research)wants to know why his/her students have
some problems with pronunciation, so he/she decides to
carry a tape recorder (action research)in order to listen
which are the most difficult phonemes to his/her students.