1. BASICS OF AQUACULTURE – DEFINITION AND SCOPE
Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms
including fish, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic
Farming implies some form of intervention in
the rearing process to enhance production, such
as regular stocking, feeding, protection from
Farming also implies individual or corporate
ownership of the stock being cultivated (As per
• Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is
the controlled cultivation or farming of
aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans,
mollusks, algae and other organisms of value
such as aquatic plants-Wikipedia
• Propagation of aquatic organism under
controlled, semi-controlled or stimulated
• Simply put Agriculture in Water
3. Purpose of Aquaculture
•Utilization of available natural water resources
•To increase production and per capita
consumption and income
•Sports and game purpose.
•Upliftment of socioeconomic status of people
•Create employment opportunities.
•Utilization of byproducts like fish, liver oil, fish
protein concentrate, etc.
• Aquaculture is the important source of excellent quality
protein and healthy oils
• Future for fish production is dependent on aquaculture
• Due to production of fish at low cost, it can be supplied
at an affordable price even to poorer peoples
• Cultured fishes contrary to captured fish are free from
• provides good quality food for the growing population
• Increases employment opportunity
• Importantly, compensates dwindling capture fishery
•The infrastructure development for aquaculture
will affect the local flora and fauna like wetlands
•The untreated effluent discharged with heavy
organic load adversely affect local ecosystem
•Farming of exotic species would bring with new
pathogen to the new environment
•Disease and parasite transfer from captive stock
•Introduction of alien species in native water
6. Aquaculture-Latest viewpoint
•The aquaculture sector has become a modern,
dynamic industry that produces safe, high valuable
and high quality products, and has developed the
means to be environmentally sustainable.
•In recent years it has led to substantial socio-
economic benefits- increased nutritional levels,
income, employment and foreign exchange.
•Vast un-utilized and under-utilized land and water
resources under culture.
•To fill the “food gap” of the future the productions
from Agriculture and Aquaculture have to be
improved in a sustainable way.
8. Aquaculture Resources of India
Length of Coastline : 8129 Km
Exclusive Economic Zone : 2.02 m.km2
Continental shelf: 0.5 m.km2.
Marine resource potential : 3.9 MMT
P. level of exploitation : 3.32 MMT
Inland resource potential : 4.5 MMT
P. level of exploitation : 2.04 MMT
Brackish water are : 1.2 m ha
Freshwater area : 5.4 m ha
Sea farming area : 8.5 m ha
9. Scope of Aquaculture
• Phenomenal growth of fisheries and aquaculture in India in the last 30 years.
• Capture fisheries production in the country stabilised but the growth in inland
aquaculture witnessing tremendous growth during the past three decades.
• The additional demand for fish consumption must be achieved only through
• India is the second largest producer of farmed fish in the world after China and
accounts for more than 8% of global aquaculture production.
• Freshwater aquaculture contributes 85-90% of the farmed fish.
• In 2018-19, India was the second largest producer of fish in the world with a total
production of 13.4 million t comprising 3.7 million t from marine and 9.7 million t
from inland sector.
• Major constraints in capture fisheries production are depleted stocks due to habitat
degradation, overexploitation, poor governance, climate change, in addition to
harvest and post-harvest losses.
• India’s share in global production has increased steadily from about 6% in the
2000s to 7% in 2010 and now to above 10% in 2021.
• Indian aquaculture market reached a volume of 11.40 Million Tons in 2021.
• The market is predicted to reach 18.40 MT by 2027.
11. Scope of Aquaculture
• Traditional farming and agricultural methodologies unable to scale to meet nutritional
needs of world populace
• Most of the future food requirements will be met from the sea through aquaculture.
• Aquaculture will innovate new technologies and methods so that people in the next 25
years will have access to the nutrients without degrading the environment.
• Oceans and waterways cover about 70% of the planet, but still only about 5% of food
production comes from the water.
• Aquaculture in 2015 surpassed wild fisheries as a source of seafood for human
• Aquaculture is now the fastest growing agriculture sector with production exceeding that
of beef and meat.
• Aquaculture industry in 2018 reached an estimated $232 billion in revenue, for 80 million
metric tons of food (FAO, 2018).
• Expected to reach $275 billion by 2025
• Asia has dominated aquacultural production with 89% of the output of aquaculture
originated in Asia in 2016, with China contributing about 62%.
• Carp comprise four of the top 10 aquaculture species globally.
• Tilapia and shrimp have become truly global aquaculture species.
• About 25% contributed by mollusks.
12. Scope of Aquaculture
• Freshwater aquaculture systems primarily confined to Rohu,
Catla and Mrigala, with exotic species such as silver carp, grass
carp, and common carp forming the second important group.
• magur (Clarias batrachus) receiving certain level of attention.
• Pangasius spp., has higher growth potential and ready market
• Labeo calbasu, Labeo gonius Labeo bata, Labeo dussumeri,
Labeo fimbriatus, Barbodes carnaticus, Puntius pulchellus,
Puntius kolus, Puntius sarana, and Cirrhinus cirrhosa potential
and cultured at low level based on wild seed collection.
• The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii
cultured/fattened at a low level in some parts of Andhra
13. • In the brackish water sector, the shrimp, Penaeus monodon and P.
indicus are dominant.
• In the last 10 years Litopennaeus vannamie culture is fast developing in
• The finfish species like the seabass (Lates calcarifer) and grouper
(Epinephelus spp.), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), pearl-spot (Etroplus
suratensis), milk fish (Chanos chanos) are promising and ideal but poorly
• The potential culturable marine finfish species in future are Epinephelus
malabaricus, E. coioides, E. tauvina, E. fuscoguttatus, Cromileptis
altivelis, Rachycentron canadum, Trachinotus blochii, Coryphaena
hippurus, Psettodes erumei, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, and Pampus
Scope of Aquaculture
14. Scope of Aquaculture
Shrimp production from coastal
aquaculture increased from 84000 MT in
2008 to 8.43 lac MT during 20-21.
Given the available potential it is
expected to grow further in the coming
19. History of Aquaculture
• Aquaculture has a history of about 4000 years.
• Culture of fishes in freshwater ponds is the earliest form
• The practice took its roots in China. The first known
treatise on aquaculture is believed to have been written
around 500 BC by Fan Lei, a Chinese politician turned fish
• He clearly stated in his book the existence of fish culture
• Over the years, the practice of pond culture spread to
almost all parts of the world and is used for culturing a
wide variety of organisms in freshwater, brackish water
and marine environments.
• The earliest specics cultured was the common carp
(Cyprinus carpio), a native of China. It was subsequently
introduced in several parts of Asia and the world.
20. History of Aquaculture
• Pond culture is the earliest form of aquaculture with its origin dating
back to 1400-1137 BC.
• Pond culture was carried out mostly using stagnant waters.
• Pen culture originated only early 1900s in Japan.
• It spread to Indonesia, China and Philippines slowly during early part of
• The oldest form of coastal aquaculture is probably oyster farming in
Japan around 2000 years ago.
• Culture of other molluscs seems to have developed much later.
• Culture of milk fish, (Chanos chanos) and other brackishwater species in
embanked coastal areas known as tambaks originated in Indonesia in
• The farming of molluscs and seaweeds in open marine waters became
popular in the third world countries during 1900s.
• The most important species for culture in South-east Asia are mussles,
clams, scallops (mainly Crassostrea species).
• The culture of the seaweed Porphyra is believed to have started as early
as 1596 and 1614 in Hiroshima Bay.
21. Origin of Aquaculture in India
• Coastal aquaculture is an ancient practice in India.
• In the early part of 19th Century carp spawn from rivers in Bihar and West
Bengal were collected and utilized for culture.
• The earliest forms of coastal aquaculture was practiced in the backwaters
of Kerala and the Sunderban mangrove swamps of West Bengal for several
• For quite long time a rotation of agricultural and aquacrops was practiced, for
paddy cultivation and for prawn and fish cultivation in Kerala.
• The first scientifically designed fish farm was constructed by the then Madras
Fisheries Department in Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh in 1911.
• The government began taking keen interest in the development of fisheries
only in 1944.
• Aquaculture after independence received a boost with the establishment of
fisheries department in every state.
• Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE) was created by Ministry of
Agriculture on 6 June, 1961 at Mumbai.
• Government of India in 1974 started two all India fisheries training centers,
one for the 'inland fisheries at Barrackpore in West Bengal and other for
marine fisheries at Mandapam Camp in Tamil Nadu.
22. Institute and State Year
ICAR – CMFRI-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi, Kerala 1947
ICAR – CIFT-Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Kochi, Kerala 1957
ICAR – CIFE-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, Maharashtra 1961
MPEDA-Marine Products Export Development Authority, MPEDA, Kochi 1972
ICAR – NBFGR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, Uttar
ICAR – CIFA-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneshwar,
ICAR – CIBA- Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai, Tamil
ICAR – National Centre for Coldwater Fisheries Research, Bhimtal,
8.NRCCF: National Research Centre on Coldwater Fisheries, Bhimtal,
Coastal Aquaculture Authority of India 2005
PREMIER FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE RESEARCH
INSTITUTES OF INDIA
23. Institute and State Year
NFDB-National Fisheries Development Board, 2006
CICEF-Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fisheries 1968
CIFNET-Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical & Engineering Training 1968
FSI- Fisheries Survey of India 1946
PREMIER FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE RESEARCH
INSTITUTES OF INDIA
Early 90s witnessed aggressive development of brackishwater
shrimps, P. indicus and P.monodon.
In recent years, Litopenneaus vennamei is the candidate species
of choice for culture due to its high resistance to disease, short
culture period and fast growth
25. Global Status of Aquaculture
• The global aquaculture market is expected to
grow from $33.58 billion in 2021 to $37.39
billion in 2022 at a compound annual growth
rate of 11.3%.
• The aquaculture market is expected to grow
to $50.38 billion in 2026 at a CAGR of 7.7%.
• Inland aquaculture recorded a tremendous
growth in Asia
• Asian countries are the primary producers due
to factors such as pre-existing aquaculture
practices, population and economic growth,
relaxed regulatory framework and expanding
•The main fish types in aquaculture are carps, mollusks, crustaceans,
mackerel, sea bream, and others.
•Potential of molluscs and seaweeds underexploited
•consumption anticipated to increase by 16.3% by 2029.
•Management of pathogens, parasites and pest a major challenge
•Climate change is not factored in
27. Present Status of Aquaculture in India
• Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing sectors in India accounting 15% of
global aquaculture production.
• On average, India is the 3rd largest fish-producing country in the world that
accounts for a 7.56% share of global food production. Apart from this, India is
the 2nd largest fish producer after China, through aquaculture.
• Despite the strong position and positive growth potential, the sector is
fraught with challenges in quality infrastructure, tech adoption, and financial
• Similar to marine capture production, fishing operations in inland waters
were severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020,
• with the economy showing signs of recovery, the rise of technology-driven
solutions, and species diversification on the anvil, 2022 is slated to be a good
year for the Indian aquaculture industry
• Largest fish farim states in India are-Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Gujarat,
Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Daman, Dieu, Puducherry, Odisha, Karnataka,
28. Types of Aquaculture
• There are several classifications of aquaculture practices, depending on
the different aspects and situations involved. Based on the various factors
affecting aquaculture, the following classifications are given.
Based on Salinity
• Freshwater Aquaculture-Farming of aquatic animals and plants in zero
saline water, inland based. Catla, Rohu, Mrigal, Silver carp, Grass carp,
Common carp and Fresh water prawn.
• Brackishwater Aquaculture -Brakishwater is a mixture of seawater and
freshwater with a salinity less than 30ppt. Estuaries, backwaters, creeks
and mangrove waterways- Over 25 species of commercially important
fishes, shrimps, crabs and mollusks offer a wide scope for farming in
• Marine Aquaculture –Mariculture-Farming of aquatic animals and plants
in sea water -commercially important fishes and shell fishes, seaweeds are
done in open sea by installing cages.
29. Types of Aquaculture
Based on Intensity
• Extensive Aquaculture- Extensive fish farming system is the least managed form of
fish farming, in which little care is taken. This system involves large ponds
measuring 1 to 5 ha in area with stocking density limited to only less than 5000
fishes/ha. No supplemental feeding or fertilization is provided. Fish depends only
on natural foods. Yield is poor (500 to 2 ton/ha) and survival is low. The labour and
investment costs are low and this system results in minimum income.
• Semi-Intensive- Semi-intensive fish culture system is more prevalent and involves
rather small ponds (0.5 to 1 hectare in area) with higher stocking density (10000 to
15000 fish/ha). In this system care is taken to develop natural foods by fertilization
with/without supplemental feeding. However, major food source is natural food.
Yield is moderate (3 to 10 ton/ha) and survival is high.
• Intensive Based on culture species-Intensive fish farming system is the well-
managed form of fish farming, in which all attempts are made to achieve
maximum production of fish from a minimum quantity of water. This system
involves small ponds/tanks/raceways with very high stocking density (10-50
fish/m3 of water). Fish are fed completely formulated feed. Good management is
undertaken to control water quality by use of aerators and nutrition by use of
highly nutritious feed. The yield obtained ranges from 15 to 100 ton/ha or more.
Although the cost of investment is high, the return from the yield of fish exceeds
to ensure profit.
30. Types of Aquaculture
Ultra-intensive marine shrimp culture systems are at the
opposite end of the spectrum from extensive culture
comparable to factories. Ultra-intensive culture "ponds" are
little more than culture vessels through which large
amounts of materials and energy are passed under the
close attention of skilled attendants and business
managers. These shrimp factories produce large amounts
of shrimp on very small land areas. Stocking densities in
excess of 100 late-PL or juveniles/m2, with survival similar
to intensive culture (80 to 90%). A nearly complete
or complete diet is fed but may by supplemented with fresh
feeds. Water exchange usually exceeds 100%/day. Aeration
may rely in part on pure oxygen injection.
31. Types of Aquaculture
Based on Species Numbers
• Monoculture-Monoculture is a fish production system in which
only one fish species is reared in a culture system. The major fish
varieties reared in monoculture system are trout, tilapia,
catfishes, carps, shrimp etc. Monoculture of high-value, market-
oriented fish species in intensive system is a common practice
throughout the world. Supplementary feeding is compulsory to
• Polyculture-two or more different fish species are farmed or
culture of fish along with some other aquatic animals like shrimp
or prawn. In this system of culture species with different habitats
and different food preferences are stocked together in such
densities that there will be almost no competition for food or
space. Polyculture practices give higher yield than monoculture
under the same conditions for freshwater carp farming.
Common fish species in Indian polyculture are catla, rohu, mrigal,
silver carp, grass carp and common carp, and this system is
sometimes called as composite fish culture. The biological basis of
polyculture is different fish species grow together in a pond with
difference in feeding and living behavour.
32. Types of Aquaculture
Based on Enclosure
• Pond culture
• It is the most common method of fish culture. Many freshwater and
brackish/marine water species cultured in this method. Water is maintained
in an enclosed area by artificial construction of dike/bund, where aquatic
animals are stocked and grown. Physical and chemical property of the pond
water is manupulated and maintained to the advantage of cultured
organism. Ponds are usually filled by rain, canal water and by man made
bores. They differ widely in shape, size, topography, water and soil qualities.
• Pond culture can be freshwater, brackish and marine waters. Species suited
for pond culture are fishes, crustaceans and molluscs. Both warm- and cold-
water species could be cultivated in ponds. Major species that could be
cultured include Salmo spp., Tilapia spp.,Cyprinus carpio, Mugil spp., Lates
calcarifer, Clarias spp., Labeo rohita, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Aristichthys
nobilis, etc. Among and crustaceans, species such as Penaeus indicus, P.
monodon, Macrobrachium rosenberghii and Litopennaeus vennamei could
be cultured in ponds. Major advantage of pond culture is many of the water
and soil quality parameters are under the farmer’s control and maintainable
in order to get a good growth and harvest
33. • Cage culture
• Pen culture
• Race-way culture
Based on Integration
• Agriculture cum fish farming
• Animal Husbandry cum fish farming