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# Atkinson Cycle, Ericsson Cycle And Stirling Cycle

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The Cycles of power transmission, Atkinson, Ericsson and Stirling had given contributions to develop power transmission systems. The gifs of applications have also been provided to let the viewers figure out the concept clearly.

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### Atkinson Cycle, Ericsson Cycle And Stirling Cycle

1. 1. Atkinson Cycle, Ericsson Cycle and Stirling Cycle -by Group 11 [Dhaval Shukla, Abhishek Singh R., Abhishek Singh Aman Singh] -Engineering Thermodynamics -A.C.E.T.
2. 2. Atkinson Cycle  The Atkinson cycle was conceived and developed by a British engineer, Dr. James Atkinson.  This cycle consists of two adiabatic processes, a constant volume and a constant pressure processes.
3. 3. Atkinson Cycle  Fig. 1.1, shows the Atkinson cycle plotted on p-V and T-s diagram.
4. 4. Atkinson Cycle  The point 1 represents that the cylinder is full of air with volume V₁, pressure p₁, and absolute temperature T₁. a) Process 1-2: This process represents the isentropic compression of air from state-1 to state-2. b) Process 2-3: Heat is supplied to the compressed air at constant volume from an external source. The pressure rises and the ratio α=p₃/p₂ is called the explosion ratio.
5. 5. Atkinson Cycle c) Process 3-4: The increased high pressure exerts a greater amount of force on the piston and pushes it forward. Expansion of working fluid takes place isentropically up to the lowest pressure p₁=p₄ of the cycle, and work is done by the system. d) Process 4-1: This process represents the rejection of heat by air at constant pressure. Hence volume and temperature of air decreases to initial value. Therefore, a cycle is completed.
6. 6. Atkinson Cycle  Calculation of air standard efficiency Consider ‘m’ kg of air in the cycle. 3 2 4 1 3 2 4 1 Heat supplied at constant volume, ( ) Heat rejected at constant pressure, ( ) Net work done, Heat supplied - Heat rejected = ( ) - ( ) S v R p net v p Q mC T T Q mC T T W mC T T mC T T       
7. 7. Atkinson Cycle   3 2 4 1 3 2 4 1 3 2 Air standard efficiency, work done η= Heat supplied ( ) ( ) = ( ) γ( ) =1 1 v p v mC T T mC T T mC T T T T T T        
8. 8. Atkinson Cycle γ-1 γ-11 2 1 1 2 γ-13 3 2 2 1 2 From isentropic compression process 1-2, From constant volume process 2-3, α=α From isentropic expansion process 3-4, V T T T r V p T T T T r p         
9. 9. Atkinson Cycle   γ-1 γ-1 3 3 1 4 3 3 4 1 4 γ-1 2 1 3 2 3 1 4 γ-1 3 1 γ-1 4 4 4 1 1 = = From constant pressure process 4-1, V V V T T T V V V V V T V V V V T V r V V T T V                             Q
10. 10. Atkinson Cycle       1 γ 1 1 γ-1 γ-1 1 1 1 γ γ-1 Substituting the value of temperatures in equation 1 , we get 1 γ α - η α γ α 1 η 1 2 α -1 T T T r T r r                     
11. 11. Atkinson Cycle  Which is the required equation for air standard efficiency of the cycle.  The idea of the Atkinson cycle is to get more work than that given by Otto cycle.  The area 4 onwards represents this increased work.  Further it is to be noted that heat rejection occurs at lower average temperature (T₅ being higher than T₁).
12. 12. Atkinson Cycle  This aspects make Atkinson cycle more efficient than Otto cycle.  However, it is very difficult to construct an engine working on Atkinson cycle.
13. 13. Atkinson Cycle  Application of Atkinson Cycle: Atkinson Differential Engine (Opposed Piston Engine) Atkinson Gas Engine with Intake
14. 14. Atkinson Cycle  Application of Atkinson Cycle: Rotary Atkinson Cycle Engine
15. 15. Ericsson Cycle  The Ericsson cycle is named after inventor John Ericsson, who designed and built many unique heat engines based on various thermodynamic cycles.  He is credited with inventing two unique heat engine cycles and developing practical engines based on
16. 16. Ericsson Cycle  His first cycle is now known as the closed Brayton cycle, while his second cycle is what is now called the Ericsson cycle.  The Ericsson cycle consists of two isothermal and two constant pressure processes.  The p-V and T-s diagram with the mainframe structure of Ericsson Cycle is shown in Fig.1.2:
17. 17. Ericsson Cycle
18. 18. Ericsson Cycle  The processes taking place in Ericsson cycle is given below: a) Process 1-2: At a constant temperature the pressure of air is increased, therefore the compression takes place. b) Process 2-3: The increased pressure during this process is maintained and further heat is added to the cylinder.
19. 19. Ericsson Cycle c) Process 3-4: Now, the temperature is again maintained constant and the volume of air increases. Therefore the expansion takes place. d) Process 4-1: Again maintaining the pressure constant, heat is removed from the cylinder system. Hence the process reaches to its initial state, making the process reversible cyclic process.
20. 20. Ericsson Cycle  The thermal efficiency of Ericsson Cycle is given below: thη 1 , H L H L H H L T T T T T where T Higher Temperature and T Lower Temperature      
21. 21. Ericsson Cycle  Application of Ericsson Cycle: Ericsson Engine Ericsson Cycle Engine
22. 22. Stirling Cycle  The Stirling cycle was introduced by Dr. Robert Stirling over the improvement of ideal Otto and Diesel cycles.  The Stirling cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the general class of Stirling devices.
23. 23. Stirling Cycle  The Stirling cycle consists of two isothermal and two isochoric processes.  The p-V and T-s diagrams of Stirling cycle has been given below:
24. 24. Stirling Cycle  The processes occurring in a Stirling Cycle is given below: a) Process 1-2: The volume of gas increases at a constant temperature. Therefore, the process is called isothermal expansion process. b) Process 2-3: The increased volume now is maintained constant and heat removal is offered. Therefore, the process is called Isochoric heat-removal process.
25. 25. Stirling Cycle c) Process 3-4: In this process again temperature is maintained constant and pressure increases. Therefore, isothermal compression takes place. d) Process 4-1: Now, the heat is added at a constant volume. Therefore, the process is called isochoric heat addition process. Hence, the process reaches to its initial state. Therefore, cycle is completed.
26. 26. Stirling Cycle  The thermal efficiency of Stirling Cycle is given below: thη 1 , H L H L H H L T T T T T where T Higher Temperature and T Lower Temperature      
27. 27. Stirling Cycle  Application of Stirling Cycle: Stirling Engine Alpha Stirling Engine
28. 28. Stirling Cycle  Application of Stirling Cycle: Four phase Stirling Cycle Engine (Ideal Stirling Engine)
29. 29. Thank you!