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Today we will be exploring our hopes and dreams for our children and the things that we can do to give them a good start in life. It may come as a surprise and a relief that the most important things we can do for our children are really very simple. The best start in life comes from a safe, secure, consistent and loving relationship between you and your child.
Activity: One day my baby will . . . (15 minutes) The purpose of this activity is to:Identify the long-term goals that participants have for their children.Identify the things that could help or prevent achievement of those goals. Directions:Distribute copies of Handout 5A.1 (One day my baby will . . .). Ask participants to write down (or draw pictures) of the hopes and dreams they have for their children as well as the things that will help or stand in the way of their children in achieving these goals. Allow about 5 minutes for participants to think and write.
Lead a discussion of each of the questions on the handout, listing the goals, helps, and obstacles on the board or easel pad.When you have gone through each of the questions, process the ideas, emphasizing the role of the brain in preparing their children for success. You may want to use the following or similar questions: What do you think will make the difference between those who reach their goals and those who do not? As you look at the lists of things that will help or hurt your children in the future, what seem to be the most important resources?
When both parents participate in parenting responsibility, the child is more likely to be successful and well-adjusted in life as a result. In our culture, mothers and female role models provide the nurturing and sensitivity that children need. Fathers or male role models provide the playfulness and willingness to take chances which also are helpful to a child’s development. Let’s list some of the things we traditionally expect mothers and fathers to do for their infants. As parents call out duties, write them on the “Mother’s Role” and “Father’s Role” work sheets.As you talk, hold the model baby in your arms. Treat the model as a real infant. One of the things that happens when we begin to care for an infant is that we remember our own infancy. These memories are buried deep in our subconscious. As we interact with our own infants, these memories come closer to the surface. They still may not be completely conscious, but they do influence the way we react to infants. We tend to parent in the ways we were parented. This may be good or bad. In families we have traditional roles for family members that are often based on needs that no longer exist. In a traditional family, the woman’s job is to take care of the home, and the man’s job is to go out and work and make a living. How many of us today have traditional homes? Why? Allow for discussion bringing out economic and social changes in our society. Use the two blank sheets or blank posters to list changes in roles. The roles of male and females in the family are slowly adapting to these changes, but sometimes we fall back into old patterns that may no longer make sense. Both males and females work outside the home and help support the family. Children need both male and female role models. The best way for them to get these role models is through interaction with both parents. The daily activities such as diapering, feeding and bathing provide wonderful opportunities for mothers AND fathers to interact with their children. These are no longer considered just “women’s work” but are opportunities to express love.Lay the model baby down. What we need is to practice positive parenting skills and get rid of negative parenting skills. By working to become a positive parent, you can help give your child confidence. Researchhas shown that children who are not held and loved do not thrive. Some of them do not survive, even though their basic needs for food and other physical things are met. Your baby needs love and nurturing from both the male and female figures in his life. This need begins at the moment of birth. Today it is a common practice for the father to be present in the delivery room and for both mother and father to be given time to interact with the baby immediately after birth.
Diapering is one task that you will repeat many times. Although many jokes are made about this part of infant care, it is a very important job and not all that unpleasant. This job is not so gender-specific. Both mothers and fathers can be a part of caring for the baby and changing his diaper. Before your baby is born, you will decide on the type of diapers you will use. Show examples of various types of diapers. Purchase a supply to have on hand when you come home from the hospital. You can choose to use disposable diapers, cloth diapers, or combination of the two. You may wish to use this opportunity to discuss the cost differences among disposable, pre-folded and traditional cloth diapers. Also include discussion of the resources of time, cost of utilities, detergent, etc. in using cloth versus disposable diapers. You should expect to use from 10-12 diapers every day for the first few months. That’s more than 300 diapers a month. If you are using cloth diapers, you will need about 5 dozen. You may want to look at the prices of disposable diapers in this area and compare them to cloth diapers. You may have no choice if you do not have access to a washing machine on a regular basis. Many types of disposable diapers do a good job of protecting the baby from wetness and may not have to be changed as often as a cloth diaper, but either diaper should be changed immediately if it becomes soiled. Dirty diapers contain bacteria that can lead to severe diaper rash.
Display poster “How to Change a Diaper.” These are the basic steps in changing a diaper: Use the model baby to demonstrate each step as it is discussed. Assemble supplies and clean diapers. You may want to set up a changing table or place supplies for changing in a basket or other container. You will need: Clean diapers (it is a good idea to have more than one at hand)Warm, wet washcloth or basin of warm water and washclothDiaper pins if using cloth diapers (stick them in a bar of soap to make it easier to pin the diaper)Petroleum jelly, diaper rash ointment if neededAlcohol and cotton balls if the umbilical cord has not healedGauze squares for circumcisionLotion and/or powder if desiredWaste can or diaper pail for soiled diapersBe sure you have everything you will need because the baby must not be left alone on the changing table or bed. If you forget something, you will have to carry the baby with you to get it. Even newborn babies can roll over and wiggle. 2.Lay baby flat in a safe place. You can use a bed or table. Cover the area with an absorbent pad. 3.Remove the soiled diaper. If using disposable diapers, discard. Place cloth diapers in a large bucket or diaper pail. If the diaper is heavily soiled, set it aside to be rinsed before it is placed in the diaper pail. 4. Wipe the baby clean with the washcloth. Always wipe girls from front to back. Be careful to clean all the little creases. If your boy baby was circumcised, just wipe off the end of the penis. If he was not circumcised, clean the tip only as far back as the skin moves easily. Don’t force it back.
5.Treat diaper rash, umbilical cord and circumcision if necessary. Zinc oxide ointment (sometimes referred to in stores as diaper rash cream) provides protection for areas with a rash so that they can heal. Petroleum jelly also provided protection from moisture. The best treatment for diaper rash is exposure to the air. Let you baby lay on an absorbent pad without a diaper for a while if the room is warm. If the diaper rash does not improve in a few days or if it becomes very red and irritated, have a doctor look at it. Put a little alcohol on a cotton ball and wipe the umbilical cord, being sure the base of the cord is well-saturated. After it has dried and fallen off, continue to treat the area for 2-3 days. Put petroleum jelly on a boy’s circumcised penis and cover with a square of gauze each time the diaper is changed until the circumcision is healed. 6. Apply lotion if desired. Baby lotion smells nice and may be used if you like them. They are not necessary, however. Some babies are allergic to the perfumes, so stop using them if a rash appears. Powders should not be used because they can be inhaled in baby’s lungs. Powder can also accumulate in the creases of the legs and cause irritation. 7. Lift the baby’s bottom. 8. Place a clean diaper under the baby. 9. Pull diaper up between the baby’s legs. 10. Tape or pin the diaper in place. 11.Place the baby in a safe place
12. Dispose of used diaper properly.13.Wash your hands thoroughly. Later in the class, you will have the opportunity to practice and to look at several types of diapers.
Bathing is a good example of an activity that can become a special time for parent and child. If you are a first-time parent, it may seem scary at first, but a little planning can make it a good experience.Display poster “Bathing.” Plan to bathe the baby about three times a week. Bathing too often may cause rashes and other skin irritations. Choose a time when you are not likely to be interrupted. This means not answering the phone or door. It is also unsafe to talk on a portable or cellular phone while bathing the infant because the phone may fall into the water causing electrocution. A small basin or baby tub is best to use for a small baby. Avoid using the sink because the hot water faucet can cause burns. Assemble all supplies before beginning the bath. You will need: Tub or basinWarm waterWashclothTowelsMild soapDiaper changing suppliesSoft toothbrush if there is cradle cap
Display poster “Sponge Bath.” Until the umbilical cord has dried and dropped off, give your baby a sponge bath. 1. Put some warm water in the basin. Test it with your elbow to be sure it is not too hot.2.Lay the baby on an absorbent pad or towel. 3. One area at a time is washed, rinsed and dried. The rest of the baby is kept covered. 4. Work from the head down. Clean each eye with a corner of the washcloth.5.Wash the baby’s eyes first. Use a different cotton ball or a different corner of a washcloth for each eye. Why? To avoid the potential spread of infections. Do not use soap. Use plain water on the eyes and face. Clean all skin folds carefully. Point to the skin folds on the face.6. Do not clean the ears with cotton swabs. Cotton swabs can leave tiny fibers that can cause irritation. Use the washcloth only. Clean ears with a washcloth.
7. You may use a little mild soap on the baby’s body. Rub the washcloth on the soap bar. 8. Pay special attention to skin folds like the neck, elbows and knees. Remove the diaper shirt. Soap the neck and chest areas. 9. Rinse and dry carefully after cleaning. Rinse the cloth and clean off soap. Dry clean areas. 10. Clean the diaper area and change the diaper. Remove the diaper, wash area with soapy cloth, rinse and dry. 11. Treat the umbilical cord and circumcision. Treat the umbilical cord and circumcision. Apply alcohol to cord, petroleum jelly to penis if the model is a boy. 12. Put a clean diaper on the baby. Replace diaper.
After the cord has dropped off, your baby will be ready for a tub bath. Display poster “Tub Bath.” Pretend to pour water into tub. 1. Put 2-3 inches of warm water in the tub. Test temperature with elbow. 2Test it with your elbow. You may place a small towel or washcloth in the bottom to prevent slipping.Do not actually fill the tub with water if you are using the models since they tend to fill up with water if immersed. 3. Undress the baby and gently lower him into the water. You will have to support his head while you are bathing him. The first few times it may help to have a helper. Demonstrate use of different corner for each eye, etc.4. Clean the eyes and face with plain water just as you did with the sponge bath. 5. The scalp can be cleaned with a soft brush and mild soap or shampoo. Be very gentle because the skull is not fully developed and has soft spots called fontanel. Indicate location of fontanel. Rub soft toothbrush across the bar of soap. Rub scalp gently. You can easily see where these are located in the top of the head. Rinse the head with clear water. 6. Wash the rest of the body with soapy cloth. Don’t use very much soap because the baby’s skin is dry already and it will be hard to rinse off. Rub cloth across the soap and demonstrate cleaning body.
7. Rinse all soap off carefully. Rinse out the washcloth and use it to rinse the head and body. 8. Take the baby out of the tub and lay him or her flat on a towel. Remove from tub and lay on towel. 9. Dry carefully, paying special attention to folds of skin. Demonstrate drying. Be sure that one hand is on the baby at all times. 10. Diaper and dress the baby. Put a clean diaper on the infant model. Make sure you dry your baby carefully and thoroughly and tend to diaper rash needs immediately . We do not want our babies to be sick because they have not been cared for properly. When babies are sick they become irritable and fussy. We want to make sure our babies are healthy and happy when caring for them. Your child will tell you when she is unhappy of course by crying.
Lets watch what the 10 things every child needs says CARE.
Display chart on Normal Newborn Appearance. Pause and allow time for responses. Work the following facts into the discussion. Even though you have gone through many months of pregnancy and imagined what this moment would be like, you may be surprised at the appearance of your newborn. The umbilical cord has been cut and secured with a clamp. The babies have lots of wrinkles. The color of a newborn may be bluish, especially the hands and feet because it takes time to achieve good blood circulation.As you look at these three newborn babies, what similarities do you see? As we look at all of these normal newborns, you can see that there are all types of babies just as there are all types of parents. From the first moment, your baby is an individual and you will begin learning about her special characteristics. You will have time to look more carefully at the chart later. What was the first sound your baby made? Wait for responses. If this is a class of expectant parents, modify the question. Display poster, transparency, or slide “Why Do Babies Cry.” Crying is the way that a newborn communicates with the world. It is the only way your infant has of expressing needs. There are many reasons for an infant’s crying.
Crying is the way that a newborn communicates with the world. It is the only way your infant has of expressing needs. There are many reasons for an infant’s crying. 1. UncomfortableThe baby may be sick, hungry, thirsty, wet, cold and/or too hot 2. In painThe baby may have an open diaper pin, gas and/or earache. 3. LonesomeThe baby may need to be reassured that someone is there. Part of development is learning that people and things exist even when we cannot see them. 4. TiredSome babies cry themselves to sleep. 5. Needs to cryCrying is a way for babies to “let off steam.” Many babies have a regular fussy period during the day, often in late afternoon. When you are caring for a baby, you get lots of advice. Some people may tell you to ignore crying because if you respond to it you will “spoil” the baby. Care experts tell us that there is no such thing as a spoiled baby. When you respond to a baby’s crying, you teach your baby that there is someone there for him. This gives him security and trust.
You can do many things to calm a crying infant. First, look for a physical cause. If it has been two or more hours since the last feeding, hunger may be the cause. Check the diaper to see if it needs to be changed. Look at the baby’s clothing to see if it is uncomfortable. Look for open pins, too tight clothes, too many clothes or not enough clothing. Infants are more sensitive to cold than adults, but this does not mean they should be bundled up on a hot day. A lot of body heat is lost through the scalp because there are so many blood vessels there. You may have noticed that in the delivery room, the hospital puts a knit cap on your baby. This was to help keep it warm. You may want to use a similar cap, particularly in cold weather. If you recently fed the baby, it may have an air bubble which needs to be burped up. If you listen closely to your baby’s cries, you will soon be able to hear differences which will help you find the problem. Your baby could be sick. One sign of illness is fever. If you suspect an illness, check the baby’s temperature. Since a tiny infant cannot hold a thermometer in her mouth as an adult can, temperatures are taken either rectally or under the arm. Armpit temperature is the safest and easiest to take.
The modern digital thermometer is easier to read and use than the mercury thermometer. Let’s go over the steps in taking temperature. Demonstrate with model. 1. The digital thermometer resets itself. All you have to do is turn it on.2. Place the thermometer securely under the baby’s armpit.3. Hold the thermometer in place until it beeps. 4. The digital thermometer will show the temperature on the display. Show the digital thermometer again and point to the display. 5. Adults usually have their temperature taken orally. Normal oral temperature is 98.6 degrees. Normal armpit temperatures are about 1degree lower. Display poster, “Reading Temperatures.” 6. The digital thermometer will show a 3-digit number with a decimal. On this thermometer, 98.6 would be called ninety-eight point six or ninety-eight and six-tenths. This is normal temperature in the mouth. Under the arm normal temperature is about one degree less or 97.6. A temperature above normal levels is usually a symptom of illness and is called a fever. In an infant under 3 months, a fever is unusual and a doctor should be consulted. A fever is not as significant in older babies but should be monitored carefully. Fever is a sign of sickness and should be discussed with a doctor. You can also use a temperature strip, which is placed on the infant’s forehead. Show samples of the strips. It will tell you if fever is present, but it will not give a reading that is as accurate as the digital thermometer.
Hold up the bulb syringe. Demonstrate each step, using the bulb syringe and the baby model. 1. Squeeze the air from the syringe.2. Place the tip in one nostril.3. Use your finger to gently close the other nostril.4. Release the bulb.5. Clean it in warm water.6. Repeat for the other nostril.7. Clean the bulb thoroughly in hot water.
Display poster, “Signs of Illness.” You have an information sheet in your folder on home remedies. You can do many things at home, but sometimes you need to call a doctor. These are some indications that it is time to seek medical help: 1. Fever2. Runny nose3. Vomiting4. Diarrhea5. Blood or Mucus in Stool6. Cough7. Change in Behavior What are some examples of changes in behavior that may tell you your baby is sick? Encourage discussion and bring out answers such as: Doesn’t move as much; is very fussy; sleeps more than usual or less than usual; scratches or hits at an ear.Next class we will learn about ways to calm a crying baby but lets revisit when it is important to call the doctor with an activity.
A situation card is drawn and read aloud by the teacher. Players respond with “yes,” indicating that a doctor should be called or “no,” indicating that a doctor should not be called. The teacher then reads the correct response with a brief explanation. When five correct answers are given, the player gets a completion sticker.
“One day my baby will . . .” Paid for by a grant from the Louisiana Department of Social Services, Family Support Program, as a part of the Strategies to Empower People (STEP) program. Visit our PPSP 1A-2 website at www.lsuagcenter.com, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center.
“One day my baby will . . .”• As you think about your baby’s future, what are your hopes and dreams for your baby?• What things could make it difficult for your hopes and dreams to be fulfilled?• What things could make it more likely that your hopes and dreams would be fulfilled? PPSP 1A-3
Goals for Your Child• Why is it so important to be a good parent?• Holding, talking to and responding to your baby helps them feel secure and loved• This is important to a child’s brain development especially during the first 3 years of life PPSP 1A-4
Keys to a $uccessful Future WTTW Chicago and the Chicago Production Center (Producer). (1999). Ten things every child needs for the best start in life! [DVD produced for Robert R. McCormick Tribute Foundation].. Interaction Reading Communication Touch Relationship Care Play Self-esteem Music SafetyVisit our website: www.lsuagcenter.comLouisiana State University Agricultural Center, William B. Richardson, Chancellor, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, David Boethel, Vice Chancellor and DirectorLouisiana Cooperative Extension Service, Paul Coreil, Vice Chancellor and DirectorIssued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture. The Louisiana Cooperative Extension Serviceprovides equal opportunities in programs and employment. Paid for by a grant from the Louisiana Department of Social Services, Family Support Program, as a part of the Strategies to Empower People (STEP) program. Visit our PPSP 1A-6 website at www.lsuagcenter.com, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center.
Parent ResponsibilityMother’s Role Father’s Role Paid for by a grant from the Louisiana Department of Social Services, Family Support Program, as a part of the Strategies to Empower People (STEP) program. Visit our website at www.lsuagcenter.com, Louisiana State University PPSP 1A-7 Agricultural Center
Diapering• Diapering is a task you will repeat many times.• Purchase a supply to have on hand when you come home from the hospital.• Cloth diapers vs. disposable• You should expect to use from 10-12 diapers every day for the first few months.
How To Change A Diaper1. Assemble supplies and clean diapers.2. Lay baby flat in a safe place.3. Remove soiled diaper. If using disposable diapers, discard.4. Wipe the baby clean with the washcloth. PPSP 1A-9
5. Treat diaper rash, umbilical cord andcircumcision if necessary.6. Apply lotion if desired.7. Lift the baby’s bottom.8. Place a clean diaper under the baby.9. Pull diaper up between the baby’s legs.10. Tape or pin the diaper in place.11. Place the baby in a safe place PPSP 1A-10
12. Dispose of used diaper properly.13. Wash your hands thoroughly. NEVER LEAVE THE BABY ALONE ON THE CHANGING TABLE. PPSP 1A-11
Bathing• Bathing that can become a special time for parent and child.• Bathe the baby about 3 times a week.• Choose a convenient time.• Use small basin or tub for a small baby.• Assemble all supplies before beginning bath PPSP 1A-12
Sponge Bath1. Put some warm water in the basin.2. Lay the baby on an absorbent pad or towel.3. Clean one area at a time.4. Work from head to toe.5. Wash baby’s eyes first.6. Do not clean ears withcotton swabs. PPSP 1A-13
7. Use mild soap.8. Pay special attention to skin folds.9. Rinse and dry carefully.10.Clean the diaper area.11. Treat the umbilical cord, circumcision.12.Put a clean diaper on the baby. PPSP 1A-14
Tub Bath1. Put 2-3 inches of warm water in tub.2. Test the water with your elbow.3. Undress the baby and gently lower into water.4. Clean the eyes & face with plain water.5. Clean the scalp with a soft brush.6. Wash the body with soapy water. PPSP 1A-15
7. Rinse all soap off.8. Take the baby out of tub.9. Dry carefully.10. Diaper and dress the baby. PPSP 1A-16
Why Do Babies Cry?1. Uncomfortable2. In Pain3. Lonesome4. Tired5. Need to Cry PPSP 1A-19
Checklist for Baby’s CriesPhysical Cause?Need to be Changed?Clothing uncomfortable ?Need to burp?Sick? PPSP 1A-20
Reading Temperatures • 98.6 degrees = normal temperature in mouth • 97.8 degrees= normal temperature under arm PPSP 1A-21
Using a Bulb Syringe1. Squeeze the air from the syringe.2. Place the tip in one nostril.3. Use your finger to gently close the othernostril.4. Release the bulb.5. Clean it in warm water.6. Repeat for the other nostril.7. Clean the bulb thoroughly in hot water PPSP 1A-22
Signs of Illness1. Fever2. Runny Nose3. Vomiting4. Diarrhea5. Blood in Mucus or Stool6. Cough7. Change in Behavior PPSP 1A-23