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Group and intergroup processes

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Group and intergroup processes

  1. 1. GROUP AND INTER GROUP PROCESS: GROUP INFORMATION AND GROUP PROCESSES Dishant Jojit James PALB 5138 Jnr MSc (Agri) Dept. of Agricultural Extension UAS (B)
  2. 2. GROUP • A group is a unit of two or more people in reciprocal communication and interaction with each other. • Group formation promotes discipline, loyalty, group responsibility and group pressure among employees. • Group member’s roles include knowledge contributor, process observer, people supporter, challenger, listener, mediator, gatekeeper and take-charge leader.
  3. 3. • Definition: According to Bogardus • “As a collection of people, two or more, who have common objects of attention, who are stimulating to one another and who have common loyalty who participate in similar activities.” • Webster’s Dictionary defines a group as “a number of persons near, placed, or classified together.”
  4. 4. GROUP INFORMATION 1. FORMAL GROUP: Is one deliberately formed by the organization to accomplish specific tasks and achieve goals. • Examples of formal or work groups include departments, projects, task force, committees and search teams to find a new executive. 2. INFORMAL GROUP: Is one which emerges over time through the interaction of workers. Although the goals of these groups are not explicitly stated, informal groups typically satisfy a social or recreational purpose. • Members of department who dine together occasionally would constitute an informal group.
  5. 5. INTERGROUP PROCESS • Intergroup relation between two or more groups and their respective members is often necessary to complete the work required to operate a business. Many times, groups inter-relate to accomplish the organization’s goals and objectives. Definition • According to Thomas(1976) Intergroup behaviour, or the way groups interact with other groups, is best examined in terms of the frequency and interaction type the groups engaged in.
  6. 6. Intergroup process in HRD 1.Horizontal strain: Involves competition between functions Example: sales versus production 2. Vertical strain: Involves competition between hierarchical levels Example : union versus management, foreman versus middleman.
  7. 7. Improving the quality of intergroup relations in an organization • Superordinate goals • Negotiation • Intergroup team development • Reducing the need for intergroup conflicts • Resource allocation process should be fair.
  8. 8. GROUP PROCESS Group process refers to how an organization's members work together to get things done. Group process refers to what happens within groups including communication, decision making, leadership, motivation and cohesiveness, norms, roles, power and control dynamics, synergy, social loafing or free riding, social facilitation effect etc.
  9. 9. • Group Cohesiveness: Group cohesiveness refers to extent to which members of the group are attracted towards each other demonstrated through unity in the group, conformity to the norms of the group and willingness to continue in the group. • Synergy: The concept of synergy has been derived from biology that refers to an interaction of two or more substances that generates an outcome which is different from the individual addition of the substances. • Social loafing or free riding: Tendency of individuals to reduce their effort or contribution in the group situation. • Social facilitation effect: Phenomenon in which individual's performance improves or deteriorates in presence of others.
  10. 10. • Group process can occur from within the group, outside of the group and anytime of year. • Effective organizations take a close look at how members work together, which roles they fill and whether members are contributing equally. • Through group process, observation and analysis can help identify problems early, thus alleviating the need for a major overhaul as the year progresses.
  11. 11. Questions to ask yourself as you begin observing a group. • Communication: • Who talks? For how long? How often? • At whom do people look when they speak? • Who talks after whom? Who interrupts whom? • What style of communication is used (assertions, questions, tone of voice, gestures, etc.)? • Who sits where? Do the same people always sit in the same place?
  12. 12. • Participation •Who are the high participants? Who are the low participants? •Do you see any shift in participation (e.g., highs become quiet; lows suddenly become talkative)? What are possible reasons for this in the group's interaction? •How are the silent people treated? How is their silence interpreted? •Who talks to whom? •Who keeps the ball rolling?
  13. 13. • Decision Making • Does anyone make a decision and carry it out without checking with other group members (self-authorized)? • Does the group drift from topic to topic? Who topic- jumps? Who supports other members' suggestions or decisions? Does this support result in the two members deciding the topic or activity for the group? How does this affect the other group members? • Is there any attempt to get all members participating in a decision (consensus)? What effect does this seem to have on the group? • Does the executive board make all of the decisions or do the members?
  14. 14. Importance of Developing an Effective Team • It may seem unrealistic to view a planning body as a team, but certain committees or task forces will need to operate as a team to complete such tasks as needs assessment, developing the comprehensive plan, development of a continuum of care, or setting up quality improvement procedures. • Developing an effective team from a diverse group of planning body members requires an understanding of group process.
  15. 15. Models of Group Development • One way of understanding group process is through looking at models of group development. • The most common model is Tuckman’s (1965)model. It’s a five-stage model of group development that can lead to formation of “high-performance teams”. • It breaks development into the following five stages:
  16. 16. Stage 1: Forming In the forming stage, a group attempts to define the task and decide how it will be accomplished. Members may feel excitement, anticipation, and optimism or suspicion, fear, and anxiety about the work ahead. The group also attempts to determine acceptable group behavior and how to deal with group problems, and begins to develop group identity.
  17. 17. Stage 2: Storming In this stage, members may resist the tasks at hand or may resist approaches different from those each individual is comfortable using. Common group behavior during this stage includes establishment of unrealistic goals, concern about excessive work, defensiveness and competition among the members—who may argue even when they agree on the real issues—and questioning of suggested approaches. Some groups fail to get beyond this stage, and remain in conflict.
  18. 18. Stage 3: Norming In this stage, groups begin to develop a sense of team closeness, and are more willing to discuss the team’s dynamics and to express criticism constructively. The group attempts to reach harmony or avoid personal conflict by establishing ground rules. Group members might begin to feel a sense of relief that things are going to “work out.” Planning bodies often use the development or revision of bylaws and policies as a way to document the norming stage.
  19. 19. Stage 4: Performing In this stage, group members have a better understanding of each other’s strengths and weaknesses, and are able to work through group problems. They often feel close to the team and satisfaction with the team’s progress. Effective committees, and in some cases whole planning bodies, can become high-performing teams, in spite of disagreements over priorities and other decisions. They have learned to work together effectively and to disagree without losing mutual respect.
  20. 20. Stage5: Adjourning Tuckman(1977) refined the model to include a fifth stage to address how the group begins to disengage and move on to new tasks potentially beyond the team. • The stages 1 to 5 would not apply for a group that disbanded and never worked together.
  21. 21. Another model for looking at the development of effective work groups is the “Cog’s Ladder” Model, which identifies additional stages of group development The politeness stage • Members are getting acquainted with each other, sharing only some information and being careful in their interactions. The “why are we here” stage • The group begins to clarify purpose, share values, and form cliques or subgroups. The bid for power stage • There is competition among some members for control of the group. The constructive stage • collaboration and consensus building occurs among members; shared leadership, and a group identity develops. The “esprit” stage • group interaction reflects creativity, trust, caring, openness, respect, and acceptance.
  22. 22. Case study on Group process and organizational performance “Relation of employee attitudes on job-related matters to feeling that group discussions with supervisor are worthwhile” Reference: From Rensis Likert, New Patterns in Management(New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., ) pp. 26-43 The frequency of work-group meeting, as well as the attitude and behavior of the superior toward the ideas of subordinates, affects the extent to which employees feel that the superior is good at handling people.
  23. 23. 1.Of the workers in work groups where the men feel that the supervisor likes to get their ideas and tries to do something about the ideas, the percentage who feel the supervisor is good in dealing with people when the meeting are held frequently 74% when the meeting are held occasionally 61% when the meeting are held seldom 57% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% when the meeting are held frequently when the meeting are held occasionally when the meeting are held seldom
  24. 24. 2.But of the workers in work groups where the men feel that the supervisor is not interested in their ideas, that it is just talk, and they don’t really get a hearing for their ideas, the percentage who feel the supervisor is good in dealing with people • when the meeting are held frequently 25% • when the meeting are held occasionally 20% • when the meeting are held seldom 12% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% when the meeting are held frequently when the meeting are held occasionally when the meeting are held seldom
  25. 25. 3. Of the workers in work groups where no meeting are held 0% 20% 40% 60% 1 no meeting held no meeting held 39% Feel their supervisor is good in dealing with people
  26. 26. Conclusion of this case study • From the above findings it is found that of the who report that supervisor holds meeting frequently and that he “ likes to get our ideas and tries to do something about them” 74% percent feel that their supervisor is good in dealing with people. • On the other hand, of those who say their boss seldom holds meeting and when he does, “its just talk, we don’t really get hearing for our ideas,”12% percent feel that their supervisor is good in dealing with people. • Of the those who say their supervisor never holds meeting, 39 percent feel that he is good in dealing with people.
  27. 27. Conclusion • Group is a collection of people to achieve a common goal. Group members should be independent in terms of tasks, goals and feedback, rewards for effective functioning of business organization. Hence, groups play a major role in sharing common identity, have membership roles and make decision effectively. • Intergroup behaviour, or the way groups interact with other groups, is best examined in terms of the frequency and interaction type the groups are engaged in. Intergroup behaviour is influenced factors beyond interaction types. Examples of these include interdependence, organizational culture, past history, and organizational social networks.
  28. 28. References • Fredric M. Jablin, Linda Putnam (2000). The new handbook of organizational communication; advances in theory.p.168. • Nadler L Ed, 1984, the handbook of Human Resource Development, John Wiley and sons, New York. • Tompkins, Jonathan R, “Organization Theory and Public Management” Thompson Wadsworth (2005) • Emerging human resource development- S.K Bhatia • •