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Monitoring of Migration Data and Policy Changes | Conducted in Ukraine, Poland, Czechia and Slovakia

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The publication presents results of the monitoring of available
migration data and policy changes conducted in Ukraine, Poland, Czechia and Slovakia in September 2015 – June 2016.
The monthly reports served as a statistical and policy basis for
our field qualitative study presented in Volume I of the book
(Ukrainian migration in times of crisis: forced and labour mobility)

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Monitoring of Migration Data and Policy Changes | Conducted in Ukraine, Poland, Czechia and Slovakia

  1. 1. Monitoring of Migra on Data and Policy Changes Conducted in Ukraine, Poland, Czechia and Slovakia (September 2015 — June 2016) Dušan Drbohlav, Marta Jaroszewicz, Markéta Seidlová, Dita Čermáková (editors) MONITORINGOFMIGRATIONDATA ANDPOLICYCHANGESCONDUCTED 9 788074 440472
  2. 2. Monitoring of Migra on Data and Policy Changes Conducted in Ukraine, Poland, Czechia and Slovakia (September 2015 — June 2016)
  3. 3. Charles University Faculty of Science Prague 2016 Monitoring of Migra on Data and Policy Changes Conducted in Ukraine, Poland, Czechia and Slovakia (September 2015 — June 2016) Dušan Drbohlav, Marta Jaroszewicz, Markéta Seidlová, Dita Čermáková (editors)
  4. 4. Editors: Dušan Drbohlav, Marta Jaroszewicz, Markéta Seidlová, Dita Čermáková Published by Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Albertov 6, Prague 2, Czechia; ksgrrsek@natur.cuni.cz Cover photo: AP Photo / Sergei Grits (Kiev, Ukraine, December 2013) First published. © Charles University, Faculty of Science, 2016 ISBN 978-80-7444-047-2 SFPASlovak Foreign Policy Association
  5. 5. This publication originated in the framework of the project Ukraine’s migration monitoring: forced and labour mobility (2015–2016) financed by the International Visegrad Fund. The project was carried out by Geomigrace from Charles University (Czechia), together with the Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW) from Poland, the Slovak Foreign Policy Association, and ‘Europe without Barriers’ from Ukraine. The publication presents results of the monitoring of available migration data and policy changes conducted in Ukraine, Poland, Czechia and Slovakia in September 2015 – June 2016. The monthly reports served as a statistical and policy basis for our field qualitative study presented in Volume I of the book (Ukrainian migration in times of crisis: forced and labour mobility).
  6. 6. Table of contents UKRAINE Main trends and figures of migra on from and in Ukraine Kateryna Kulchytska September 2015 14 October 2015 17 November 2015 19 December 2015 21 January 2016 22 February 2016 25 March 2016 27 April 2016 29 May 2016 33 June 2016 36 POLAND Ukrainian migra on in Poland: figures and trends Marta Jaroszewicz September 2015 40 October 2015 42 November 2015 44 December 2015 46 January 2016 48 February 2016 51 March 2016 54 April 2016 57 May 2016 61 June 2016 65 CZECHIA Ukrainian migra on in Czechia: facts and figures Markéta Seidlová September 2015 72 October 2015 74 November 2015 76 December 2015 78 January 2016 80 February 2016 83 March 2016 86 April 2016 88 May 2016 91 June 2016 93
  7. 7. SLOVAKIA Ukrainian ci zens in Slovakia: migra on overview Vladimír Benč September 2015 98 October 2015 102 November 2015 108 December 2015 111 January 2016 114 February 2016 118 March 2016 122 April 2016 127 May 2016 129 June 2016 132
  8. 8. List of tables UKRAINE Tab. 1 Total Schengen visas issued to Ukrainians in 2014–2015 30 Tab. 2 First instance decisions on applica on for asylum from Ukrainians in EU member states in January–March 2016 34 POLAND Tab. 3 Visas issued by Polish consulates to Ukrainians (2013–2015) 58 Tab. 4 Visas issued by Polish consulates to Ukrainians by place of consulate (2015) 58 Tab. 5 Visas issued by Polish consulates to Ukrainians and their type (2013–2015) 62 Tab. 6 Visas issued by Polish consulates to Ukrainians by place of consulate (2015) 62 Tab. 7 All valid permits issued to Ukrainian na onals in Poland by 31 December of each year 65 Tab. 8 Number of visas issued by Poland in Ukraine in 2013–2015 66 CZECHIA Tab. 9 Applica ons for short-term visas to Czechia 94 SLOVAKIA Tab. 10 Number of valid residence permits of third countries na onals in Slovakia (top 10 countries, 2013 and 2014) 100 Tab. 11 Illegal migra on in the territory of the Slovak Republic (Ukrainian ci zens) in 2012–2014 100 Tab. 12 Asylum applica ons submi ed in Slovakia (2012–2015) 100 Tab. 13 Overview of persons and vehicles crossing the external border legally at border crossing points by the direc on of crossing (2012–2015) 104 Tab. 14 Overview of persons and vehicles crossing the external border legally by individual border crossing points (2012–2015) 104 Tab. 15 Overview of third country na onals who entered the territory of the Schengen area legally and stayed illegally in EU/SR (overstayers) (2013–2015) 106 Tab. 16 Overview of third country na onals who entered the territory of the Schengen area legally and stayed illegally in EU/SR (overstayers) (2014–2015) 108 Tab. 17 Overview of persons and vehicles crossing the external border legally at border crossing points by the direc on of crossing (January–September 2015) 112 Tab. 18 Overview of persons and vehicles crossing the external border legally by individual border crossing points (January–September 2015) 112 Tab. 19 Effec ve returns from the territory of the SR disaggregated by country of return in 2014–2015 115 Tab. 20 Number of decisions on expulsion issued in 2013–2015 116
  9. 9. Tab. 21 Effec ve returns of illegal migrants from the territory of Slovakia to a third country in 2014 by the type of return in 2014–2015 116 Tab. 22 Overview of persons and vehicles crossing the external border legally at border crossing points by the direc on of crossing (2012–2015) 118 Tab. 23 Overview of persons and vehicles crossing the external border legally by individual border crossing points (2012–2015) 118 Tab. 24 Top na onali es with valid residence permit – third countries na onals in Slovakia (2013 versus 2015) 120 Tab. 25 Number of valid residence permits of third country na onals in Slovakia on 31 December 2014 and on 31 December 2015 by the purpose of their residence 121 Tab. 26 Overview of illegal migra on on the territory of the Slovak Republic in 2014 and 2015 122 Tab. 27 Illegal stayers disaggregated by na onality and place of detec on (2014–2015) 124 Tab. 28 Illegal border crossings – top 10 na onali es (2014–2015) 124 Tab. 29 Visa applica ons and granted visas by the embassies of the Slovak Republic by visa type and na onality of applicants – top 10 na onali es (2013–2015) 128 Tab. 30 Security checks related to visa applica ons (2012–2015) 129 Tab. 31 Visa refusal rate by consulates of the Slovak Republic by na onality of applicants – top 4 na onali es (2012–2015) 130 Tab. 32 Recommenda ons to reject visa applica ons according to the hit in Schengen informa on system – top 10 na onali es (2013–2015) 130 Tab. 33 Number of security checks of invita ons for visa applica ons (2012–2015) 131 Tab. 34 Employment of foreigners in Slovakia (at the end of a year, 2008–2015) 132 Tab. 35 The employment of migrants and third-country na onals in the Slovak Republic according to the dura on of employment by 31 December 2015 133 Tab. 36 The employment of migrants and third-country na onals in the Slovak Republic in accordance with the prac ce of the profession by 31 December 2015 133 Tab. 37 The employment of migrants and third-country na onals in the Slovak Republic by their level of educa on by 31 December 2015 134
  10. 10. List of figures UKRAINE Fig. 1 Number of registered IDPs in September–October 2015 (in thousands) 17 Fig. 2 Number of registered IDPs in September–November 2015 (in thousands) 19 Fig. 3 IOM assistance to IDPs and popula on affected by conflict in Ukraine 23 Fig. 4 Surveyed IDPs by inten ons of migra on within the next 12 months by current labour market status (%) 31 POLAND Fig. 5 The evolu on of number of students from Ukraine in Poland (2005–2016) 67 CZECHIA Fig. 6 Share of Ukrainian migrants in the total popula on living in districts of Czechia (as of 31 December 2015) 81 Fig. 7 Share of Ukrainian migrants on the total popula on of foreigners living in the districts of Czechia (as of 31 January 2016) 84 Fig. 8 Share of Ukrainian migrants on the total popula on of foreigners living in the districts of Czechia (as of 31 March 2016) 89 Fig. 9 Granted asylum and subsidiary protec on to Ukrainians in Czechia (May 2015 – May 2016) 95 SLOVAKIA Fig. 10 Valid residence permits for Ukrainian ci zens in Slovakia (2012–2015) 99 Fig. 11 Visa applica ons versus granted visas to Ukrainian ci zens by Slovakia (2012–2015) 99 Fig. 12 The Schengen border between Slovakia and Ukraine and border crossing points 102 Fig. 13 Illegal crossing of the state border of the Slovak Republic (number of persons per month, 2012–2015) 103 Fig. 14 Illegal stay in the territory of the Slovak Republic (number of persons per month, 2012–2015) 107 Fig. 15 Illegal crossing of the state border of the Slovak Republic in 2015 (number of persons per month) 109 Fig. 16 Illegal stays in the territory of the Slovak Republic in 2015 (number of persons per month) 110 Fig. 17 Level of individual indicators of illegal migra on on the territory of the Slovak Republic (January 2014 – December 2015) 123 Fig. 18 Illegal crossings of the state border of the Slovak Republic and Ukraine (2012–2015) 123 Fig. 19 Visa applica ons and granted visa to Ukrainian ci zens by the Slovak Republic (2012–2015) 127
  11. 11. Ukraine MAIN TRENDS AND FIGURES OF MIGRATION FROM AND IN UKRAINE Kateryna Kulchytska
  12. 12. 14 UKRAINE SEPTEMBER Security factors influencing Ukrainian migra on pa ern The poor economic situation and the bloody armed conflict are factors that could po- tentially and significantly increase the migration of Ukrainians to the countries of the European Union (EU). However, this phenomenon has been observed so far mainly in Poland, and it is more accurate to speak about residents of western Ukraine. This is prob- ably the result of two factors: Firstly, the forced migrants from the Donbas have still not developed their migration networks within the EU (in contrast to Russia). Secondly, they still hope that the conflict is temporary, and that they will be able to return to their homes and usual places of residence. At the same time, due to the conflict in the East of Ukraine, the EU itself fears the import of various security threats into its territory, including terrorism, extremism and principally the uncontrolled proliferation of arms along the part of Ukraine’s border with Russia which is controlled by pro-Russian separatists (approximately 400 km). One solution that could appease these concerns of the EU would be the creation by Ukraine of a well-controlled zone which would isolate the territory occupied by the separatists; another solution would be the creation of a database and of a system of passes which would prevent members of organised crime groups and terrorist organisations from entering Ukrainian territory and obtaining Ukrainian biometric passports. In the autumn of 2014, the Ukrainian government began to construct a so-called ‘wall’, a system of fortifications along the ceasefire line (trenches, barbed wire, and in the future electronic monitoring) and in January 2015, the government introduced a system for monitoring passenger transport out of the separatist-controlled territories. However, it is hard to believe that Ukraine can continue to build this reinforcement during intense exchanges of fire. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) Surprisingly, the conflict in the east of Ukraine has had only li le impact on the migration situation or on the refugee situation in the European Union. Given the huge number of internally displaced persons, the number of Ukrainians who have applied for refugee status in EU countries (around 10,000 people in 2014, mainly in Poland, Germany and Sweden) is quite modest. As is quite common throughout the world, the internal displacement in Ukraine is the product of a political crisis. The first wave of displacement occurred in March 2014 prior to Crimea’s referendum to join the Russian Federation. The second wave then fol- lowed a er Russia’s annexation of Crimea. The displaced population consisted mainly
  13. 13. UKRAINE 15 of pro-Ukraine activists, journalists, government officials, and Crimean Tatars (a Muslim ethnic minority group). According to the State Emergency Service of Ukraine, approximately 20,000 persons out of the total of 1.2 million IDPs in the country are from Crimea. Refugees/Asylum seekers from Ukraine In addition to internally displaced persons, many Ukrainians have reportedly sought ref- uge outside of the country. According to the figures provided by governments of receiving countries, as of April 30th, 2015, there were 822,700 Ukrainians who have sought asylum, residence permits, and other forms of legal stay in foreign countries, with the majority going to the Russian Federation (678,200) and to Belarus (81,070). In addition to these, there were also 3,648 applications for international protection in Germany, 3,270 in Poland, 2,647 in Italy, 1,637 in Sweden, 1,625 in France, and smaller numbers in Moldova, Romania, Hungary, and Slovakia¹. In 2014, we can speak about a spike of activity of Ukrainian asylum seekers in the EU², as the number of the applications from them increased 13-fold compared with the previous year. However, even 14,050 Ukrainian asylum applicants accounted only for 2.2% of the total number of asylum seekers in the EU from all non-member countries of EU. This trend also continued in the first half of 2015, when 11,440 Ukrainians applied for asylum in the EU-28. But the low speed of processing applications and the high level of rejection of these demands (74%) let us assume that Ukrainian applicants were not priority for EU administrations or not eligible for refugee status. For example, in the first half of 2015, in Poland, there were only 5 positive decisions for Ukrainians applying for asylum, and another 925 applications were rejected. Labour migrants The main destination countries of labour migrants were Russia, Poland, Italy and Czechia. The current number of labour migrants from Ukraine working abroad is prob- ably more than 1.2 million people due to socio-economic factors in Ukraine itself. One of the possible ways to track the actual number of Ukrainian labour migrants in the EU is to explore residence permit statistics. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that not all labour migrants are working with valid work permits. According to available data, the number of such permits for Ukrainians in the EU-28 increased by 4% in 2014 if compared with previous year. However, there is still no available information from 6 countries. In more detail, the Ukrainians worked usually for short periods (from 3 to ¹ “UNHCR Ukraine Operational Update, 11–30 April 2015,” UNHCR Kyiv, April 30, 2015, h p://reliefweb.int/ report/ukraine/unhcr-ukraine-operational-update-11-30-april-2015 ² h p://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_statistics
  14. 14. 16 UKRAINE 5 months) in Poland, while in Germany, Slovakia, Lithuania and France it was for more than 12 months. According to the Polish Ministry of Labour and Social Policy, Ukrainians have received 331,000 simplified certificates allowing them to work in Poland legally (an increase of 50% if compared to the previous year), as well as 26,000 work permits in 2014 (up to October). It should be also remembered that the actual number of Ukrainian citizens working in Poland is in fact lower, as the certificates give to their holders the right to work legally only for a period up to six months. Long-term migrants are those who have their residence permits in Poland; as of February 2015, Ukrainians held 48,000 valid residence permits. Interest in studying in Poland has also increased (supported by both scholarship programmes and the possibility to avoid military service). Many citizens of Ukraine have, however, in fact delayed their final decision to leave their home country: they only de- cided to formally legalise their stay in Poland, while in fact they have not yet le Ukraine. A new, disturbing phenomenon for the EU is the increased number of journeys un- dertaken by young men from western Ukraine to the EU countries bordering Ukraine in connection with the new wave of recruitment into the army announced at the end of January 2015. Irregular migrants Irregular migration (measured by illegal border crossings) on the EU borders with Ukraine has risen, but is still relatively low (a few thousand persons annually), and is not compa- rable with the situation in southern Europe (where 230,000 people tried to enter the EU illegally via the Mediterranean Sea last year). Despite the recent annexation of Crimea and the armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine, there have been no significant changes in irregular migration movements towards the EU. For example, in the first quarter of 2015, 32% fewer³ Ukrainians who were in the EU illegally were detected compared to the previous quarter. Frontex⁴ experts reported that in 2014 detections for illegal border-crossing and document fraud remain insignificant all along the green border with Ukraine. The num- ber of refusals of entry for Ukrainians in 2014 remained comparable to previous years. ³ h p://frontex.europa.eu/assets/Publications/Risk_Analysis/EB_Q1_2015.pdf ⁴ h p://statewatch.org/news/2015/jul/eu-frontex-fran-q1.pdf
  15. 15. UKRAINE 17 OCTOBER Internally displaced persons (IDPs) The number of internally displaced persons in Ukraine is gradually increasing. According to the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, there were 1,551,434 IDPs or 1,221,844 fami- lies from the conflict area of Donbas and annexed Crimea⁵ on 26th October 2015, which means an increase of 3% if compared with the numbers of September 2015⁶ (see Fig. 1). Most IDPs are from the Donbas area: they mostly resided near the conflict zone in the Luhansk, Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhe regions and Kyiv. Only 46% of families applied for financial aid (560,343) and most of them (530,010) received such assistance. Overall, the departments of Ministry of Social Policy transferred 2.69 billion hryvnias (UAH) to IDP families. Irregular migra on According to State Migration Service of Ukraine, the figures about irregular migration are as follows for the period from the beginning of the year 2015 till 30th October 2015⁷: 4,246 irregular migrants were detected; 3,500 decisions for forced return were made; ⁵ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=182887&cat_id=107177 ⁶ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=182036&cat_id=107177 ⁷ h p://dmsu.gov.ua/images/stat/migrants_30_10.pdf Fig.  Number of registered IDPs in September–October (in thousands) 1505,57 1551,434 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 September 2015 October 2015 Source: Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, 2015
  16. 16. 18 UKRAINE 242 irregular migrants were transferred to the administration of the State Border Service of Ukraine; 178 irregular migrants were placed in temporary accommodation centres. Unfortunately, there is no available information about the age, sex, place of birth or status (IDP) of detected irregular migrants, so it is not possible to have this information about the IDPs who irregularly crossed the border. Asylum seekers The last available data about asylum seekers from Ukraine are from 14th August 2015. According to UNHCR⁸, the majority of Ukrainian asylum seekers resided in the Russian Federation (383,300). Much smaller numbers of asylum seekers from Ukraine were regis- tered in Poland (3,900), Belarus (1,200) and Moldova (200). The number of asylum seekers in other countries neighbouring Ukraine does not exceed 60 individuals. ⁸ h p://unhcr.org.ua/en/2011-08-26-06-58-56/news-archive/1231-internally-displaced-people
  17. 17. UKRAINE 19 NOVEMBER Internally displaced persons (IDPs) The number of internally displaced persons in Ukraine continues to increase. According to the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, there were 1,621,030 IDPs or 1,279,918 families from the conflict area of Donbas and annexed Crimea⁹ on 30th November 2015, which means an increase of 4.5% if compared with the numbers of October 2015 and of 7.5% if compared with the numbers of September 2015¹⁰ (see Fig. 2). Most IDPs are from the Donbas area: they mostly resided near the conflict zone in the Luhansk, Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhe regions and Kyiv city. Only 38% of families applied for financial aid (621,636) and most of them (582,149) received this assistance. Overall, departments of Ministry of Social Policy transferred 2.84 billion hryvnias (UAH) to IDPs’ families. Irregular migra on According to the State Migration Service of Ukraine, the figures for irregular migration are as follows for the period from the beginning of the year 2015 till 27th November 2015¹¹: 4,612 irregular migrants were detected; 3,838 decisions for forced return were made; ⁹ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=183887&cat_id=107177 ¹⁰ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=182036&cat_id=107177 ¹¹ h p://dmsu.gov.ua/images/stat/migrants_27_11.pdf Fig.  Number of registered IDPs in September–November (in thousands) 1505,57 1551,434 1621,03 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 September 2015 October 2015 November 2015 Source: Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, 2015
  18. 18. 20 UKRAINE 243 irregular migrants were transferred to the administration of the State Border Service of Ukraine; 146 irregular migrants were placed in temporary accommodation centres. As in the previous month, there is still no available information about the age, sex, place of birth or status (IDP) of detected irregular migrants, so it is still not possible to have this information about the IDPs who irregularly crossed the border. Asylum seekers As of 30th November 2015, the last available data about asylum seekers are still those from 14th August 2015¹². According to UNHCR, the majority of Ukrainian asylum seekers resided in the Russian Federation (383,300). Much smaller numbers of asylum seekers from Ukraine were registered in Poland (3,900), Belarus (1,200) and Moldova (200). ¹² h p://unhcr.org.ua/en/2011-08-26-06-58-56/news-archive/1231-internally-displaced-people
  19. 19. UKRAINE 21 DECEMBER Internally displaced persons (IDPs) The number of internally displaced persons in Ukraine is gradually increasing. According to the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, there were 1,621,000 IDPs from the conflict area of Donbas and annexed Crimea on 26th October 2015¹³. Most IDPs are from the Donbas area: they mostly resided near the conflict zone in the Luhansk, Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhe regions and Kyiv city. Irregular migra on According to the State Migration Service of Ukraine, the figures for irregular migration are as follows for the period from the beginning of the year 2015 till 31st December 2015¹⁴: 5,151 irregular migrants were detected; 4,305 decisions for forced return were made; 252 irregular migrants were transferred to the administration of the State Border Service of Ukraine; 171 irregular migrants were placed in temporary accommodation centres. Asylum seekers The report by the UN refugee agency (UNHCR) states that a total of 271,200 Ukrainians have applied for refugee status or temporary asylum in Russia since the outbreak of the Ukraine conflict in 2014. About 19,000 Ukrainians also applied for asylum in another 67 other countries. Of these, the countries with the highest numbers of Ukrainian asylum seekers are Germany (2,700); Poland and Italy (with roughly 2,100 each) and France (1,400). ¹³ h p://www.dcz.gov.ua/statdatacatalog/document?id=351058 ¹⁴ h p://dmsu.gov.ua/images/stat/migrants_31_12.pdf
  20. 20. 22 UKRAINE JANUARY Internally displaced persons (IDPs) As of 18th January 2016, the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine has reported a total of 1,684,815 registered IDPs. According to the information from structural departments of social protection of the population of the Regional state administrations, there are 1,332,405 registered families from Donbas and Crimea. More than 695,000 displaced families have applied for state financial aid and over 652,000 families have received it. The total amount of the funds transferred to IDPs at the beginning of 2016 was 24,058,000 UAH¹⁵. To meet the needs of displaced persons, international organizations actively partici- pated in the assistance to IDPs. As of mid-January, the IOM had assisted almost 75,000 vulnerable internally displaced persons and conflict-affected people in 21 regions of Ukraine (see Fig. 3). They were provided with cash assistance, medicine, hygiene items, clothes and shoes, household items, legal counselling and psychological support, as well as with livelihood support¹⁶. The most difficult problem for the IDPs remains the provision of housing. Currently, there are only two options for the rese lement of IDPs: in the private sector (rented houses and apartments) or in state-owned properties (hotels, dormitories, summer camps, health resorts, boarding houses, etc.). For the Lviv region, which is very popular among displaced persons, the se lement ratio in the private and public sectors is 90% to 10%. A very similar situation can be observed all over Ukraine: only a small propor- tion of displaced persons live in state-owned properties. The usual problem with the buildings designed for temporary accommodation of IDPs, is the delay of state funding. The state has assumed its obligation to compensate for the expenses associated with the accommodation of displaced persons, but in reality, it fails to do so to the level needed. As result, many buildings cannot continue to provide help to displaced persons. At the same time, some displaced persons with disabilities (including disabled children) have the opportunity to live in wellness boarding houses and in health resorts. For example, approximately 2,100 people with disabilities were se led in the Odessa province (which makes this the province with the largest number of displaced persons with disabilities): 900 of them were placed in health resorts and in boarding houses, whilst the remaining 1,200 were forced to find a place of residence by themselves. ¹⁵ www.mlsp.gov.ua ¹⁶ www.iom.org.ua
  21. 21. UKRAINE 23 Irregular migra on In order to cope with irregular migration, the EU has imposed strict measures, which could possibly lead to the southern and western regions of Ukraine becoming a transit point for illegal migrants to the EU, as is now the case for Hungary, Macedonia, Serbia, Italy, Croatia and Greece. However, with the onset of the cold season, the number of those willing to travel to the EU was considerably lower if compared with other periods of the year. Nevertheless, the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine and other law enforcement agencies still recorded cases of illegal border crossing a empts by small groups of mi- grants who were trying to enter the EU. Border guard services of EU neighbouring member-states reported 481 Ukrainians who tried to cross the borders irregularly, but they were returned home from the border¹⁷. As of 21st January 2016, 181 illegal migrants had been detected by the State Migration Service of Ukraine. ¹⁷ h p://frontex.europa.eu/assets/Publications/Risk_Analysis/EB_Q3_2015.pdf Fig.  IOM assistance to IDPs and popula on affected by conflict in Ukraine Source: IOM, 2016
  22. 22. 24 UKRAINE Asylum seekers As of 31st January 2016, the last available data about asylum seekers are still those of 14th August 2015¹⁸. According to UNHCR, the majority of Ukrainian asylum seekers resided in the Russian Federation (383,300). Much smaller numbers of asylum seekers from Ukraine were registered in Poland (3,900), Belarus (1,200) and Moldova (200). Given that active hostilities are continuing in the countries of origin of asylum seekers in Ukraine, and that EU member states are closing their borders to illegal migrants from North Africa and the Middle East, a flow of migrants (including those willing to travel to the EU) may flood into Ukraine at any moment. Labour migra on According to an expert forecast (prepared by the Bloomberg Agency), Ukraine’s GDP will grow by 1.2% in 2016 a er falling by 13% in 2015. However, according to another expert forecast, prepared by the Ministry of Economic Development of Ukraine in December 2015, Ukraine’s real GDP dropped only by 10.3% in 2015 (the most pessimistic estimate speaks about 13.5%, the most optimistic about 9%). However, it is expected that in 2016 it will grow by 1% (the most pessimistic assessment speaks about a decline of 3% in GDP, and the most optimistic speaks about growth of 2.9%). The inflation rate in January–De- cember 2015 was 143.3%, and in December 2015 alone it was 100.7%¹⁹. So the medium term forecast can expect an increase in the flow of labour migrants to the EU. ¹⁸ h p://unhcr.org.ua/en/2011-08-26-06-58-56/news-archive/1231-internally-displaced-people ¹⁹ www.me.gov.ua
  23. 23. UKRAINE 25 FEBRUARY Internally displaced persons (IDPs) As of 22th February 2016, the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine registered 1,734,958 IDPs. According to information from structural departments of social protection of the population of the regional state administrations, there are 1,374,054 registered families from Donbas and Crimea. More than 694,946 displaced families have applied for state financial aid, and over 652,000 families received it. The total amount of funds transferred to IDPs at the beginning of 2016 was 56,000 UAH²⁰. International organizations actively participate in assistance to IDPs in order to meet the needs of displaced persons. UNDP is actively implementing a project called “Rapid Response to Social and Eco- nomic Issues of Internally displaced persons in Ukraine” (USD 6.3 million), which aims to improve the livelihood of IDPs through employment and entrepreneurship opportunities, access to essential social services, building the capacity of the government to respond to IDPs issues and by promotion of reconciliation and social cohesion. Another UNDP project “Economic and Social Recovery of Donbas Region” (USD 5 mil- lion)aimstoimprovethelivelihoodoflocalpopulationsintheDonetskandLuhanskregions byboostingemploymentandopportunitiesforcreatinganincome.Itincludesprovisionof vocational training, support for small and medium-sized enterprises and businesses, and building the capacity of the government to create a positive business environment. UNICEF together with the Ministry of Education of Ukraine and local administrations continue to improve access to quality education for children affected by the conflict in Eastern Ukraine (a project worth USD 3.7 million). Thirty-five schools will be renovated in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions to ensure access to education for 10,000 children. Another 30,000 children will receive education kits – equipment and educational articles will be provided for 50 schools in the areas affected by the conflict. Irregular migra on Border guard services of EU neighbouring member-states reported 481 Ukrainians who tried to cross the borders illegally, but ended up being returned home from the border²¹. As of 21st February 2016, 541 illegal migrants were detected by the State Migration Service of Ukraine. ²⁰ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article;jsessionid=BB01C88093217A15B736FF1AAAA9 0FF8.app1?art_id=186344&cat_id=107177 ²¹ h p://frontex.europa.eu/assets/Publications/Risk_Analysis/EB_Q3_2015.pdf
  24. 24. 26 UKRAINE Asylum seekers As of the end of February 2016, the last available data about asylum seekers are still those of 14th August 2015²². According to UNHCR, the majority of Ukrainian asylum seekers resided in the Russian Federation (383,300). Much smaller numbers of asylum seekers from Ukraine were registered in Poland (3,900), Belarus (1,200) and Moldova (200). Some new figures on asylum seekers from Ukraine were, however, published in a re- port by the NGO “Slovo I Dilo”. According to this report, 900,600 people migrated from Ukraine during the years 2014–2015. Labour migra on The International organization for Migration (IOM) recently published the results of a survey on migration and remi ances in Ukraine²³. According to this study, the sum of money transferred back home by Ukrainians working abroad is higher than the sum of all the funds invested by foreign companies in the country and of money given by international donors to contribute to development. Ukrainian migrant workers transferred almost 2.8 billion USD in 2014 through formal and informal channels. In addition, about 100 million US dollars was received in goods as in-kind remi ances. The results of this study also show that the Russian Federation remained the main country of destination for Ukrainian migrant workers (30% of Ukrainian migrant work- ers) in 2014. The other most important destinations for long-term migrant workers were Poland (21%), Czechia (15%) and Italy (11%). ²² h p://unhcr.org.ua/en/2011-08-26-06-58-56/news-archive/1231-internally-displaced-people ²³ h p://www.iom.org.ua/sites/default/files/iom_migration_as_an_enabler_of_development_in_ukraine.pdf
  25. 25. UKRAINE 27 MARCH Internally displaced persons (IDPs) As of 4th April 2016, the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine registered 1,760,972 IDPs. According to the information from structural departments of social protection of the population, there were 1,407,382 registered families from Donbas and Crimea. 787,660 of the displaced families have applied for state financial aid, and over 736,000 families received it. The total amount of funds transferred to IDPs at the beginning of 2016 was more than 868,000 UAH²⁴. The State Security Service has strengthened control over social payments for regis- tered IDPs since February 2016. By the end of March 2016, the prosecutors had already begun 40 criminal proceedings against local officials who appointed social payments to fictitious IDPs²⁵. According to the Minister of Social Policy of Ukraine, Pavlo Rozenko, these criminal proceedings were initiated only against officials who appointed social payments for people registered at fictitious addresses in government-controlled areas. At the same time, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs stresses that the Ukrainian government has suspended social payments and started the procedure of verification for registered IDPs from five eastern Ukrainian re- gions (Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kharkiv, Zaporizhia and Luhansk) owing to suspicions of fraud schemes²⁶. As the official data are not available, the field reports have indicated that more than 600,000 IDPs may have had their social welfare payments suspended or in the process of their ultimate cancelation. International organizations actively participate in the assistance to IDPs in order to meet the needs of displaced persons. The IOM has launched a number of training sessions for self-employment and to boost micro-business development for IDPs and hosted community members in Donetsk, Luhansk, Kharkiv, Odesa, Zaporizhia, Poltava, Dnipropetrovsk, Vinnytsia, Lviv, Ternopil, Kyiv, Khmelnytsky, Zhytomyr, Cherkasy, Sumy, Mykolayiv, Kirovograd and Kherson regions²⁷. Currently, grants are being provided to the winners. UNHCR have provided 5 million UAH to support internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the framework of the “Station Region” project in Kharkiv region in 2016²⁸. Within this project, the IDPs will receive access to funding for community based initiatives, new ²⁴ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article;jsessionid=BB01C88093217A15B736FF1AAAA9 0FF8.app1?art_id=186344&cat_id=107177 ²⁵ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=187874&cat_id=107177 ²⁶ h p://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/bulletin_march_16_v1_eng.pdf ²⁷ h p://iom.org.ua/en/assisting-displaced-persons-and-affected-communities ²⁸ h p://unhcr.org.ua/en/
  26. 26. 28 UKRAINE vocational training, social counselling, and internet services at the community centres run by partner NGO “Station Kharkiv”. Irregular migra on Fromthebeginningoftheyeartill1stApril2016,1,376irregularmigrantsweredetectedbythe StateMigrationServiceofUkraine²⁹.1,240decisionsforforcedreturntoUkraineweremade as well as 83 decisions for forced deportation from Ukraine. 191 individuals were placed in temporaryaccommodationcentres.52individuals(including9Ukrainians)illegallycrossing the external borders of the European Union on the Eastern route³⁰ were also detected. Asylum seekers At the end of March 2016, the last available data about Ukrainian asylum seekers are those of 2015. The majority³¹ of Ukrainian asylum seekers were seeking refuge in the Russian Federation (459,500), and significantly smaller numbers in Italy (4,685), Germany (4,660), Spain (3,345) and Poland (2,295). According to the statistics of Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation, more than 414,000 Ukrainian citizens applied for temporary asylum in the Russian Fed- eration during the years 2014–2015 and 96% of them received a positive decision³². Only 325 Ukrainian citizens have received refugee status in the Russian Federation although 6,000 have applied for it. The number of asylum seekers from Ukraine in Belarus is sig- nificantly lower. According to the statistics of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Belarus, 1,600 Ukrainian citizens applied for asylum there and 1,000 received subsidiary protection³³ during the years 2014–2015. Labour migra on According to the survey on migration and remi ances in Ukraine, conducted by the In- ternational Organization for Migration, it is expected that 1.6% of the total population of Ukraine will be engaged in long-term labour migration by 2016³⁴. The Russian Federation, Poland, Czechia, Italy and Belarus are the top five destination countries and account for about 80% of total current short-term and long-term emigration from Ukraine. The main sectors of employment of migrants are construction, manufacturing, hospitality, domestic care and agriculture. ²⁹ h p://dmsu.gov.ua/images/stat/migrants_01_04_16.pdf ³⁰ h p://frontex.europa.eu/trends-and-routes/migratory-routes-map/ ³¹ h p://unhcr.org.ua/en/2011-08-26-06-58-56/news-archive/1231-internally-displaced-people ³² h ps://www.fms.gov.ru/about/activity/stats/Statistics/Predostavlenie_ubezhishha_v_Rossijskoj ³³ h p://mvd.gov.by/main.aspx?guid=69883 ³⁴ h p://www.iom.org.ua/sites/default/files/iom_migration_as_an_enabler_of_development_in_ukraine.pdf
  27. 27. UKRAINE 29 APRIL Internally displaced persons (IDPs) Armed conflict in the eastern Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea has caused massive rese lement inside Ukraine. On 4th May 2016, the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine registered 1,783,361 IDPs or 1,441,324 families from Donbas and Crimea. 816,021 displaced families have applied for state financial aid, and more than 762,000 families received it. The total amount of funds transferred to IDPs since the beginning of 2016 is already 1,164,797 UAH³⁵. A new Ministry for Temporary Occupied Territories and Internally Displaced Persons of Ukraine, headed by Vadym Chernysh³⁶, was created on 20th April 2016. One of the biggest challenges faced by this newly established Ministry is the issue of social pay- ments. According to the UN, the Government suspended payments to 600,000 IDPs in February 2016 in order to verify their status, because of suspicion of fraud schemes. The humanitarian community called upon the Government to halt the suspensions and draw up a scheme for the prevention of fraud based on national and international human rights standards³⁷. Ukrainian NGOs have also prepared a proposed resolution for the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (No. 509, “On account of internally displaced persons”) in order to avoid irreparable consequences for IDPs who would be le without means of subsist- ence³⁸. The international organizations still continue to assist IDPs. In April 2016, the UNHCR renovated the surgical unit at the Mariupol Oncology Dispensary where 2,878 IDPs were treated during 2015³⁹. In addition, a new Centre for support to the family, the elderly and protection of women was opened in Sviatohirsk, Donetsk region (a government- controlled area) with the support of UNHCR. Besides Sviatohirsk, such centres will also run in Sloviansk and in Krasnyi Lyman. IDPs and local residents will have access to a wide range of services, including legal, social and psychological assistance, employment ad- vice, vocational training, etc.⁴⁰ The UNHCR also provided non-food items and emergency shelter to more than 3,000 people⁴¹ in April 2016. ³⁵ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=188646&cat_id=107177 ³⁶ h p://www.kmu.gov.ua/control/ru/cardnpd?docid=248982208 ³⁷ h p://www.un.org.ua/en/information-centre/news/3834-10-things-you-need-to-know-about-ukraines- crisis ³⁸ h p://donbasssos.org/220160427_lyst/ ³⁹ h p://unhcr.org.ua/en/2011-08-26-06-58-56/news-archive/1585-unhcr-renovates-surgery-unit-at-mari- upol-oncology-dispensary ⁴⁰ h p://unhcr.org.ua/en/2011-08-26-06-58-56/news-archive/1588-centers-for-idps-and-local-communities- opened-in-northern-donetsk-with-support-of-unhcr ⁴¹ h p://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/5614d3û9.pdf
  28. 28. 30 UKRAINE Irregular migra on FFrom the beginning of the year till 29th April 2016, 1,785 irregular migrants were detected by the State Migration Service of Ukraine⁴², which means that their number continues to grow. 1,632 decisions for forced return to Ukraine were made, as well as 101 decisions for forced deportation from Ukraine. 190 individuals were placed in temporary accom- modation centres. Asylum seekers As of the end of April 2016, data about Ukrainians who applied for asylum in 2016 are available only for some EU member states. According to the older data, the majority⁴³ of asylum seekers from Ukraine went to the Russian Federation (459,500). Significantly smaller numbers were registered in Italy (4,685), Germany (4,660), Spain (3,345) and Poland (2,295). Labour migra on The ILO Decent Work Technical Support Team and the Country Office for Central and Eastern Europe have conducted a targeted survey of 2,000 IDPs aged 18–70 years in June 2015 in 9 regions of Ukraine, titled “Employment needs assessment and employability of internally displaced persons in Ukraine”. According to the results of this survey, the majority of IDPs (61%) do not plan to move somewhere else within next 12 months⁴⁴. About 17% plan to return to their previous place of residence, 6.6% would probably move ⁴² h p://dmsu.gov.ua/images/stat/migrants_29_04_2016.pdf ⁴³ h p://unhcr.org.ua/en/2011-08-26-06-58-56/news-archive/1231-internally-displaced-people ⁴⁴ h p://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---europe/---ro-geneva/---sro-budapest/documents/publica- tion/wcms_457535.pdf Tab.  Total Schengen visas issued to Ukrainians in – Schengen State Uniform visas applied for Total uniform visas issued (including MEV) Mul ple entry uniform visas (MEVs) issued 2014 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 Czechia  59,607  65,729  58,382  62,893  17,468  23,692 Hungary 118,740 118,045 117,177 115,983  62,665  66,543 Poland 566,976 472,584 556,503 457,803 368,515 330,736 Slovakia  49,466  45,727  48,840  44,466  35,251  31,828 Source: h p://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/visa-policy/index_en.htm
  29. 29. UKRAINE 31 to some other city in Ukraine or outside it, and 16% did not provide any definite answer regarding their migration intentions (see Fig. 4). So, according to the results of this survey, the IDPs are most probably not going to become new labour migrants. Visa sta s cs According to visa statistics (see Tab. 1), Poland remains the main destination country for Ukrainian visa applicants. More than 472,000 Ukrainians applied for short-term visas and 466,000 for long-term visas to Poland during 2015⁴⁵. It is the highest number among ⁴⁵ h p://udsc.gov.pl/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/UKRAINA-28.02.2016-r..pdf Share of MEVs on total number of uniform visas issued Uniform visas not issued Not issued rate for uniform visas 2014 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 29.9% 37.7%  1,191  2,816 2.0% 4.3% 53.5% 57.4%  1,522  2,013 1.3% 1.7% 66.2% 72.2% 10,219 14,715 1.8% 3.1% 72.2% 71.6%    739  1,355 1.5% 3.0% Fig.  Surveyed IDPs by inten ons of migra on within the next months by current labour market status (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 No DIFFICULT TO SAY Back to the previous place of residence To Russia or other CIS country To Europe, USA or other countries (except occupied territories) All IDPs Source: ILO, 2015
  30. 30. 32 UKRAINE both Visegrad countries and Schengen-member states. However, if compared to 2014, the number of Ukrainian Schengen visa applicants to Poland decreased by 16%. One of the positive trends is the increased percentage of multiply entry visas issued to Ukrainians by Visegrad countries. In 2015 this increased by 4% for Ukrainian appli- cants to Hungary, by 6% for applicants to Poland, and by 8% for applicants to Czechia. The exception is Slovak visa practice, where the share of multiply entry visas slightly decreased (0.6%). The main concern of Ukrainian visa applicants is the level of visa refusals which in- creased among all Visegrad countries (see Tab. 1). The highest rates of visa refusals was registered in Czech consulates (4.3%), the lowest in consulates of Hungary (1.7%). The consulate-general of Poland in Vinnytsia made the (negative) record as it denied visas to 12% of applicants. Last year this consulate-general refused to issue visas to only 1.6% Ukrainians. The level of refusals also increased in the consulate-general of Poland in other cities of Ukraine, but the level of refusal was more “normal” (1.4–4.3%).
  31. 31. UKRAINE 33 MAY Internally displaced persons (IDPs) Armed conflict in the eastern Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea have caused massive rese lement inside Ukraine. As of 30th May 2016, the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine registered 1,787,019 IDPs or 1,447,762 families from Donbas and Crimea. 854,835 displaced families have applied for state financial aid, and over 797,000 families have received it. The total amount of funds transferred to IDPs since the beginning of 2016 is 1,416,106 UAH⁴⁶. Currently, experts of the Ministry of Social Policy are working on the creation of an IDP register, which will be managed by the Ministry of Social Policy and State Pension Fund. According to the head of this Ministry, Andriy Reva, the register will be launched in September 2016⁴⁷. The international organizations continue to assist IDPs. For example, the Govern- ment of Japan provided USD 13.64 million to support people and communities affected by the conflict in Eastern Ukraine. Together with international and Ukrainian partners the Government of Japan is undertaking joint efforts to provide life-saving humanitarian aid, and more medium to long-term recovery assistance to people living in conflict-affected areas in eastern Ukraine⁴⁸. The UNDP restored 19 Social Service Facilities for Vulnerable Citizens in Donbas, including healthcare facilities, rehabilitation services, educational services, shelter and help for the elderly, and social services⁴⁹. Irregular migra on From the beginning of the year till 27th May 2016, 2,160 irregular migrants were detected by the State Migration Service of Ukraine⁵⁰, which means that their number continues to growth. 1,986 decisions for forced return to Ukraine were made, as well as 109 decisions for forced deportation from Ukraine. 190 individuals were placed in temporary accom- modation centres. ⁴⁶ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=189640&cat_id=107177 ⁴⁷ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=189351&cat_id=107177 ⁴⁸ h p://www.un.org.ua/en/information-centre/news/3868-the-government-of-japan-provides-usd-13-64- million-to-support-people-and-communities-affected-by-the-conflict-in-eastern-ukraine ⁴⁹ h p://www.un.org.ua/en/information-centre/news/3861-undp-restored-19-social-service-facilities-for- vulnerable-citizens-in-donbas ⁵⁰ h p://dmsu.gov.ua/images/stat/migrants_29_04_2016.pdf
  32. 32. 34 UKRAINE Tab.  First instance decisions on applica on for asylum from Ukrainians in EU member states in January–March GEO First instance decisions Total posi ve decisions Rejected European Union (28 countries) 2,805 815 1,985 Belgium 80 25 55 Bulgaria 0 0 0 Czechia 145 15 130 Denmark 15 0 15 Germany 150 10 140 Estonia 20 15 5 Ireland 10 0 5 Greece 40 10 30 Spain 0 0 0 France 350 50 300 Croa a 0 0 0 Italy 1,045 555 490 Cyprus 0 0 0 Latvia 5 0 5 Lithuania 10 0 10 Luxembourg 0 0 0 Hungary 5 0 5 Malta 10 10 0 Netherlands 120 0 120 Austria 75 10 60 Poland 215 5 210 Portugal 105 100 0 Romania 0 0 0 Slovenia 0 0 0 Slovakia 0 0 0 Finland 15 0 15 Sweden 340 0 340 United Kingdom 40 0 40 Iceland 0 0 0 Liechtenstein 0 0 0 Norway 0 0 0 Switzerland 30 5 25 Total 2,835 825 2,015 Source: EUROSTAT, 2016
  33. 33. UKRAINE 35 Asylum seekers In May 2016, the data about Ukrainians who applied for asylum in the EU member states in 2016 are still available only for the first 3 months of the year. 3,640 Ukrainian asylum applications accounted for 1.2% of the total number of applications. The highest number of asylum seekers were registered in Spain (800), Italy (795), Germany (765) and Poland (320)⁵¹. The recognition rate differs between EU member states (see Tab. 2). In 8 EU member states all asylum applications from Ukrainians were rejected: in Denmark, in Ireland, in Lithuania, in Hungary, in the Netherlands, in Finland, in Sweden and in the United King- dom. Poland granted positive decisions only to 15 applicants and Czechia to 5 applicants. Slovakia did not consider any applications in the first three months of 2016. However, at least Italy accepted 555 asylum seekers from Ukraine (but also rejected another 490). ⁵¹ h p://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/asylum-and-managed-migration/data/database
  34. 34. 36 UKRAINE JUNE Internally displaced persons (IDPs) It’s important to stress that at the beginning of June 2016 the security situation in the east of Ukraine has again changed and tends to be very tense. According to the data of the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, the number of internally displaced persons from Crimea and Donbas increased by 4,627 people over the last two weeks of June. On 13th June 2016, 1,783,900 internally displaced persons or 1,444,165 families from Donbas and Crimea were registered by the social protection departments of regional and Kyiv city state administrations⁵². On 30th June 2016, there were already 1,788,527 internally displaced persons or 1,447,343 families from Donbas and Crimea registered by the social protection departments of regional and Kyiv city state administrations. 897,971 displaced families have applied for financial aid, and 837,138 of them received it. The total amount of funds transferred to IDPs since the beginning of 2016 is 1,650,066 UAH⁵³. One of the key issues remains and that is the common suspension of social assistance and pension payments for IDPs pending verification of residential addresses. It should be stressed that the re-registration process is more complicated for those living in non- government controlled areas due to the lack of information and the need to cross the line of contact, and this is even harder for the elderly and other vulnerable groups. The procedure for reinstatement from the submission of an application to the receipt of pay- ments takes approximately one month⁵⁴. Research presented by the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) jointly with the Ministry of Temporary Occupied Territories and Internally Displaced Persons shows the supportive a itude of hosting communities toward IDPs. The respondents tend to perceive IDPs as citizens who have found themselves in an unfavourable situation and are in need of help, while entitled to the same rights as others (89% Ukraine-wide, 96% in the cities with largest concentration of IDPs – CLP), and the respondents do not consider IDPs as responsible for the situation which they are trapped in. Nevertheless, hosting communi- ties (80% Ukraine-wide and 75% in CLP) still believe that civic duties (such as military conscription, for example) should be carried out by IDPs equally⁵⁵. The influx of IDPs into communities across Ukraine has placed extra pressure on local budgets as well as on the local social infrastructure. According to the survey series on ⁵² h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=190239&cat_id=107177 ⁵³ h p://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=190694&cat_id=107177 ⁵⁴ h p://unhcr.org.ua/a achments/article/1299/UNHCR%20UKRAINE%20Operational%20Update%20 10JUN16%20FINAL.pdf ⁵⁵ h p://www.un.org.ua/en/information-centre/news/3889-a er-two-years-of-displacement-hosting- communities-in-ukraine-remain-supportive-towards-idps-unhcr-study
  35. 35. UKRAINE 37 IDP integration recently launched by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), housing and lack of employment remain the biggest obstacles to the integration of IDPs. Only slightly more than a half of those employed before displacement managed to find a job in their new place of residence. About 40% of surveyed IDPs claim that they have to save even on food. About 70% of IDPs are renting accommodation and complain about high rents⁵⁶. Irregular migra on From the beginning of the year till 24th June 2016, 2,616 irregular migrants were detected by the State Migration Service of Ukraine⁵⁷, which means that their number continues to growth. 2,403 decisions for forced return to Ukraine were made as well as 136 decisions for forced deportation from Ukraine. 173 individuals were placed in temporary accom- modation centres⁵⁸. Asylum seekers The UNHCR, using particular national asylum authorities, have given the total number of Ukrainians currently seeking asylum or other forms of legal stay in neighbouring countries as 1,389,452, with the majority going to the Russian Federation (1,092,212) and Belarus (139,143). 261 Ukrainians have sought asylum in Moldova, 79 in Romania, 71 in Hungary and 26 in Slovakia. Since the beginning of the crisis till 10th June 2016, the top five receiving countries of asylum seekers from Ukraine within the EU were Germany (7,967 applications for international protection), Italy (7,267), Poland (5,153), France (3,176) and Sweden (2,742)⁵⁹. The same data source also reveals that there was a daily average net flow of 219 people leaving Ukraine for the Russian Federation at the time of reporting period (from 14th May to 10th June), which represents a reversal of the trend seen in recent months of more people entering Ukraine. ⁵⁶ h p://www.iom.org.ua/en/idps-and-host-communities-need-comprehensive-support-and-innovative- solutions-cope-recovery-and ⁵⁷ h p://dmsu.gov.ua/images/stat/migrants_27_05_2016.pdf ⁵⁸ h p://dmsu.gov.ua/images/stat/migrants_24_06_2016.pdf ⁵⁹ h p://unhcr.org.ua/a achments/article/1299/UNHCR%20UKRAINE%20Operational%20Update%20 10JUN16%20FINAL.pdf
  36. 36. 38 UKRAINE
  37. 37. Poland UKRAINIAN MIGRATION IN POLAND: FIGURES AND TRENDS Marta Jaroszewicz
  38. 38. 40 POLAND SEPTEMBER Main figures As of mid-September 2015, the number of long-term residence permits issued to Ukrai- nian citizens totalled 62,000 (for comparison the same number at the end of 2013 was 37,000). In 2015 (by mid-September) Ukrainian citizens submi ed 39,000 applications for temporary stay permits, 6,300 applications for permanent residence and 651 applications for the status of EU long-term resident. In total, Ukrainian citizens submi ed 63% of all applications for different type of residence permits. Moreover, in the first six months of this year Ukrainian citizens received 402,000 so-called “employer’s declarations” for short-term employment (a complementary scheme to work permits). For comparison, in the entire 2014, Ukrainians received 372,000 declarations. As far as asylum applications are concerned, in 2015 (till 24th September) Ukrainian citizens submi ed 1,865 applica- tions for international protection (compared with 2,318 in the whole of 2014). Irregular migra on There are no estimations of the possible stock of irregular migrants. No research on that subject has been conducted in Poland since the outbreak of armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine. However, the irregular migration of Ukrainians to Poland may be growing as there are an increasing number of illegal stay detections and refusals of entry. Main determinants As 2013–2014 Forecasting migration… research has shown (2014)¹, the main pull factors a racting Ukrainian migrants to Poland are language and cultural proximity, low costs of travel, and liberal migration and visa policies. Poland is currently the main destination state for Ukrainian migrants in the EU. Currently there is no statistical or qualitative evidence to determine whether the growth of migration from Ukraine is stimulated by war-related factors. ¹ M. Jaroszewicz, M. Lesińska (eds.) (2014): Forecasting Migration Between the EU, V4 and Eastern Europe. Impact of Visa Abolition. Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies.
  39. 39. POLAND 41 Migra on pa erns There are two significantly different types of migration pa erns represented by Ukrai- nians in Poland. The first one is short-term circular labour migration, governed by the liberal rules of short-term access to the Polish labour market. The bulk of the Ukrainian migrants who come to Poland are in this group and usually have no intention to stay in Po- land. The other group, smaller but constantly growing, are long-term migrants who look for permanent jobs in Poland, study there or are married to Polish citizens. A particular feature of Ukrainian migration in Poland is the predominance of women (around 60%).
  40. 40. 42 POLAND OCTOBER Main figures The migration dynamics in Poland are still characterized by a significant increase in the number of residence applications of different types made by Ukrainian citizens. In Janu- ary–October 2015, 55,000 Ukrainian citizens applied for residence permits in Poland (63% of all the residence applications submi ed in Poland). 47,500 Ukrainians asked for temporary stay permits and 7,278 asked for permanent residence. In general, between January and October 2015 foreign citizens submi ed more than 88,000 applications for residence permits of different types in Poland. In comparison, in a similar period in 2014 (i.e. January–October 2014) the observed growth in the number of all kinds of residence applications totalled 67%, mostly due to increased interest on the part of Ukrainians. In October 2015, only 7,331 Ukrainians applied for residence permits in Poland. However, the biggest increase can be observed in the case of short-term migration for labour purposes. In the first six months of this year (2015) Ukrainian citizens received 402,000 so-called “employer’s declarations” for short-term work (a complementary scheme for work permits). In comparison, in the whole of 2014 Ukrainians received only 372,000 declarations. Unfortunately monthly data related to the “employer’s declara- tions” are not yet available. As far as asylum applications are concerned, in 2015 (till 1st November) 2,016 Ukrai- nian citizens submi ed applications for international protection (in the whole of 2014 there were 2,318). While the growth in asylum applications was considerable in the first half of the year, currently we can observe a decrease. Currently the main nationality of people applying for asylum or other forms of protection in Poland are Russians (mainly inhabitants of Northern Caucasus). In October 2015, 115 Ukrainians submi ed asylum claims (while the number for Russians was 1,128, i.e. 10 times more). The newest trend with regard to Ukrainian asylum seekers in Poland is the growing numbers of Ukrainians who receive refugee status or subsidiary protection a er an appeal. Up to 1st November 2015, seven Ukrainians received refugee status in Poland and 14 received subsidiary protection. Irregular migra on There are no estimations related to the possible stock of irregular migrants. No research on that subject has been conducted in Poland since the outbreak of armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine. However, irregular migration of Ukrainians to Poland may be growing as there are an increasing number of illegal stay detections and refusals of entry.
  41. 41. POLAND 43 Main determinants As 2013–2014 Forecasting migration… research has shown (2014)², the main pull factors a racting Ukrainian migrants to Poland are language and cultural proximity, low costs of travel, liberal migration and visa policies. Poland is currently the main destination state for Ukrainian migrants in the EU. Currently there is no statistical or qualitative evidence to determine whether the growth in migration from Ukraine is stimulated by war-related factors. Migra on pa erns There are two significantly different types of migration pa erns represented by Ukrai- nians in Poland. The first one is short-term circular labour migration, governed by the liberal rules of short-term access to the Polish labour market. The bulk of Ukrainian mi- grants who come to Poland are in from this group and usually have no intention to stay in Poland. The other group, smaller but constantly growing, are long-term migrants who look for permanent jobs in Poland, study there or are married to Polish citizens. A notable feature of Ukraine’s migration in Poland is the predominance of women (around 60%). ² M. Jaroszewicz, M. Lesińska (eds.) (2014): Forecasting Migration Between the EU, V4 and Eastern Europe. Impact of Visa Abolition. Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies.
  42. 42. 44 POLAND NOVEMBER Main figures The migration dynamics in Poland are still characterized by a significant increase in the number of residence applications of different types issued to Ukrainian citizens, albeit this growth slowed down in the second half of this year. In January–November 2015, more than 63,000 Ukrainian citizens applied for resi- dence permits in Poland (63% of all residence applications submi ed in Poland). 54,208 Ukrainians asked for temporary stay and 8,050 asked for permanent residence. In general, in January–November 2015, foreign citizens submi ed more than 100,000 applications for different kinds of residence permits in Poland. In comparison to a similar period in January–November 2014, the observed growth in the number of residence permit applica- tions lodged by Ukrainian citizens rose by 153% in the case of temporary stay and 88% in the case of permanent stay. However, the biggest increase can be observed in the case of short-term migration for labour purposes. In the first six months of this year (2015), Ukrainian citizens received 402,000 so-called “employer’s declarations” for short-term employment (a complemen- tary scheme for work permits). For comparison, in the whole of 2014, Ukrainians received 372,000 declarations. Unfortunately monthly data related to “employer’s declarations” are not yet available. As far as asylum applications are concerned, in 2015 (till December 1st) 2,179 Ukrai- nian citizens submi ed applications for international protection (in the whole of 2014 it was 2,318). While there was a considerable growth in asylum applications in the first half of the year, currently we can observe a decrease. Currently the main nationality whose representatives ask for asylum or other forms of protection in Poland are Russians (mainly inhabitants of the Northern Caucasus). In November 2015, 34 Ukrainians submit- ted asylum claims (while the number for Russians was 193). Ukrainians accounted for 19% of asylum claims lodged in January–November 2015. The newest trend with regard to Ukrainian asylum seekers in Poland is the growing number of Ukrainians who received refugee status or subsidiary protection a er an appeal. Irregular migra on There are no estimations related to the possible stock of irregular migrants. Since the outbreak of armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine no research on that subject has been con- ducted in Poland. However the irregular migration of Ukrainians to Poland may be grow- ing as suggested by an increasing number of illegal stay detections and refusals of entry.
  43. 43. POLAND 45 Main determinants As 2013–2014 Forecasting migration… research has shown (2014)³, the main pull factors a racting Ukrainian migrants to Poland are language and cultural proximity, low costs of travel and liberal migration and visa policies. Poland is currently the main destination state for Ukrainian migrants in the EU. Currently there is no statistical or qualitative evidence to determine whether the growth of migration from Ukraine is stimulated by war-related factors. Migra on pa erns There are two significantly different types of migration pa erns represented by Ukrai- nians in Poland. The first one is short-term circular labour migration, governed by the liberal rules of short-term access to the Polish labour market. The bulk of Ukrainian migrants who come to Poland fall into from this group and usually have no intention to stay in Poland. The other group, smaller but constantly growing, are long-term migrants who look for permanent jobs in Poland, study there or are married to Polish citizens. A particular feature of Ukraine’s migration in Poland is the predominance of women (around 60%). ³ M. Jaroszewicz, M. Lesińska (eds.) (2014): Forecasting Migration Between the EU, V4 and Eastern Europe. Impact of Visa Abolition. Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies.
  44. 44. 46 POLAND DECEMBER Main figures The Polish Office for Foreigners has just published its report for 2015. According to its data, Ukrainians were the second most frequent nationality that asked for asylum in Poland (a er Russian citizens) in 2015. However, the gap between asylum claims submit- ted by Russians and those by Ukrainian citizens was high – 7,922 Russians asked for asylum compared with only 2,295 Ukrainians. Also interesting is that the majority of the applications by Russian citizens were submi ed in the second half of the year, while in the case of Ukrainian citizens they were in the first half of a year. With regard to newly submi ed applications in 2015, 1,594 Ukrainians asked for asylum in Poland for the first time. Around 50% of all asylum seekers in Poland were women and 46% were children. No Ukrainian citizen received refugee status on their first application. Six Ukrainians received so-called “tolerated stay” status. At the same time, the Ukrainian citizens were the largest group when it comes to the number of residence permit applications submit- ted – in 2015 they submi ed 68,000 applications for temporary and permanent stay. It is possible that refugee status or other forms of international or national protection will be issued to more Ukrainian citizens in the future. This is not related to the number of Ukrainians applying for citizenship (that is decreasing as indicated above). There are two other reasons for that. First of all, Ukrainian citizens have started more o en to appeal against negative asylum decisions issued in the first instance and in a few cases they have been successful. The second reason is that in 2015, the Polish government organized two campaigns of organized relocation of Ukrainian citizens of Polish origin. The family members of those relocated people who did not have a “Polish Card” asked for political asylum in Poland. Altogether 119 persons asked for political asylum, and out of them, 56 persons received it. However, the biggest increase in numbers can be observed in the case of short-term migration for labour purposes. In the first six months of this year Ukrainian citizens received 402,000 so-called “employer’s declarations” for short-term employment (a complementary scheme for work permits). For comparison, in the entire 2014, Ukrai- nians received 372,000 declarations. Unfortunately monthly data related to “employer’s declarations” are not yet available. The data for entire 2015 are expected to be available at the end of January 2016.
  45. 45. POLAND 47 Irregular migra on There are no estimations related to the possible stock of irregular migrants. Since the outbreak of armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine no research on that subject has been conducted in Poland. However the irregular migration of Ukrainians to Poland may be growing as there are an increasing number of illegal stay detections and refusals of entry. Main determinants As 2013–2014 Forecasting migration… research showed (2014)⁴, the main pull factors at- tracting Ukrainian migrants in Poland are language and cultural proximity, low costs of travel, liberal migration and visa policies. Poland is currently the main destination state for Ukrainian migrants in the EU. Currently there is no statistical or qualitative evidence to determine whether the growth in migration from Ukraine is stimulated by war-related factors. However, the large number of asylum applications submi ed by Ukrainian citizens in 2014 and 2015 as well as the small, albeit increasing, number of Ukrainians who receive refugee status, could suggest that this is the case. Migra on pa erns There are two significantly different types of migration pa erns represented by Ukrai- nians in Poland. The first one is short-term circular labour migration, governed by the liberal rules of short-term access to the Polish labour market. The bulk of the Ukrainian migrants who come to Poland fall into this group and usually have no intention to stay in Poland. The other group, smaller but constantly growing, are long-term migrants who look for permanent jobs in Poland, study there or are married to Polish citizen. A par- ticular feature of Ukrainian migration in Poland is the predominance of women (around 60%). ⁴ M. Jaroszewicz, M. Lesińska (eds.) (2014): Forecasting Migration Between the EU, V4 and Eastern Europe. Impact of Visa Abolition. Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies.
  46. 46. 48 POLAND JANUARY Main figures The Polish Ministry for Family, Labour and Social Policy has just published its report for 2015 (i.e. January till November 2015) on the number of labour permits issued and on the number of so-called “employer’s declarations” for short-term labour migrants issued in 2015. This is the most important source of information on the number of Ukrainian migrants living in Poland, as most of them stay in Poland within the framework of the facilitated labour migration scheme (that allows citizens of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine to work without work permits for up to 6 months in a year, holding only a national visa “D”, not a residence permit). According to that data, in January–October 2015, 665,956 declarations allowing short-term employment of foreign- ers were issued (a growth of 101% in comparison to data registered in the same period the previous year, i.e. 2014). It should however be emphasized that the biggest increase was recorded at the beginning of 2015, and then it was gradually decreasing in the fol- lowing months. According to the prognosis available for 2015 as a whole, fewer than 800,000 “employer’s declarations” were issued in 2015. 97.7% of all declarations issued in January–October 2015 were for Ukrainian citizens. Altogether 650,590 declarations were issued to Ukrainian citizens. Agriculture remains the main sphere of employment for which declarations were granted (38% of all declarations, although a huge increase has been noticed in other sectors including industry manufacturing, scientific and technical activities and administrative services. What is very interesting is the fact that the number of women who obtained an “employer’s declaration” has decreased. This fact requires further investigation to see whether it is a starting point for new migration pa erns. The Polish Office for Foreigners has just published its report for 2015. According to its data, Ukrainians were the second most frequent nation requesting asylum in Poland (a er Russian citizens) in 2015. However, the gap between asylum claims submi ed by Russians and by Ukrainian citizens was high – 7,922 Russians asked for asylum compared with only 2,295 Ukrainians. What is also interesting is that the majority of the applications by Russian citizens were submi ed in the second half of the year, while for Ukrainian citizens it was in the first half of the year. With regard to newly submi ed applications in 2015, 1,594 Ukrainians asked for asylum in Poland for the first time. Around 50% of all asylum seekers in Poland were women. 46% of all applicants were children. As for the positive asylum decisions issued in the first instance, no Ukrainian citizen received refugee status. Six Ukrainians received so-called “tolerated stay” status. At the same time, Ukrainian citizens were the largest group when it comes to the number of residence per- mit applications submi ed – in 2015 they submi ed 68,000 applications for temporary and permanent residence.
  47. 47. POLAND 49 It is possible that refugee status or other forms of international or national protec- tion will be issued to more Ukrainian citizens in the future. This is not related to the number of Ukrainians applying for citizenship (that is decreasing as indicated above). There are two other reasons for this. First of all, Ukrainian citizens have started more o en to appeal against negative asylum decisions issued in the first instance and in a few cases they were successful. The second reason is that in 2015, the Polish government has organized two campaigns of organized relocation of Ukrainian citizens of Polish origin. The family members of those relocated people who did not have a “Polish Card” asked for political asylum in Poland. Altogether 119 persons asked for political asylum, and of them, 56 persons received that status. When it comes to the visas issued by Polish consulates to Ukrainian citizens in 2015, altogether 924,000 visas were issued, of which there were 457,000 single visas (so-called Schengen visas) and 466,000 national visas (only those visas entitle the holder to short- term work in Poland). Irregular migra on There are no estimations related to the possible stock of irregular migrants. Since the outbreak of armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine no research on that subject has been con- ducted in Poland. However the irregular migration of Ukrainians to Poland is possibly growing, as can be seen from the increasing number of illegal stay detections and refusals of entry. Main determinants As 2013–2014 Forecasting migration… research has shown (2014)⁵, the main pull factors a racting Ukrainian migrants to Poland are language and cultural proximity, low costs of travel and liberal migration and visa policies. Poland is currently the main destination state for Ukrainian migrants in the EU. Currently there is no statistical or qualitative evidence to determine whether the growth of migration from Ukraine is stimulated by war-related factors. However the high number of asylum applications submi ed by Ukrainian citizens in 2014 and 2015 as well as the small, albeit increasing, number of Ukrainians who receive the refugee status could suggest so. The European migration crisis has accelerated the tense migration debate both in society and among the political elite. In general, anti-immigrant sentiments have grown as well as the level of xenophobia. Anti-refugee slogans have become one of the main subjects raised at public demonstrations. This has led also to an increase in a acks on a ⁵ M. Jaroszewicz, M. Lesińska (eds.) (2014): Forecasting Migration Between the EU, V4 and Eastern Europe. Impact of Visa Abolition. Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies.
  48. 48. 50 POLAND racial/ethnic basis, which were previously virtually absent in Polish society. The growing number of Ukrainians a empting to enter the Polish labour market has also raised fears among local workers over available jobs. In January in Kutno local inhabitants a acked a shelter occupied by Ukrainian labour migrants. At the same time Ukrainian migrants started to be more o en presented in public debate as being much closer to Poles in terms of cultural, language and ethnic composition than Muslim refugees from Syria or other conflict zones in the Middle East and Africa, who Poland has agreed to accept under EU-wide refugee re-se lement schemes. Migra on pa erns There are two significantly different types of migration pa erns represented by Ukrai- nians in Poland. The first one is short-term circular labour migration, governed by the liberal rules of short-term access to the Polish labour market. The bulk of the Ukrainian migrants who come to Poland are in this group and usually have no intention to stay in Poland. The other group, smaller but constantly growing, are the long-term migrants who look for permanent jobs in Poland, study there or are married to Polish citizen. A particular feature of Ukrainian migration in Poland is the predominance of women (around 60%). However, in 2015, for the very first time in many years, male immigrants predominated.
  49. 49. POLAND 51 FEBRUARY Main figures The Polish Ministry for Family, Labour and Social Policy has finally published its report for 2015 on the number of labour permits and the number of “employer’s declarations” for short-term labour migrants issued in 2015. This is the most important source of informa- tion on the number of Ukrainian migrants living in Poland as most of them stay in Poland within the framework of the facilitated labour migration scheme (that allows citizens of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine to work without work permits for up to 6 months in a year, holding only a national visa “D”, not a residence permit). Ac- cording to that data, in January–December 2015 782,222 declarations allowing short-term employment of foreigners were issued (a growth of more than 100% in comparison to data registered in the same period of the previous year). 98% of all declarations issued in 2015 were for Ukrainian citizens, with a total of 762,700 declarations issued to Ukrainians. It should be however emphasized that the greatest growth was recorded at the beginning of 2015 and it was gradually decreasing in the following months. The highest number of declarations were registered in February and March, then it decreased but stayed at a stable range of around 60,000 declarations per month for the rest of 2015. Most of the declarations were issued in the Mazovian district, followed by the Lower Silesia and Upper Silesia Districts. Agriculture remains the main sphere of employment for which declarations were concerned (38% of all declarations), although a big increase has been noticed in other sectors including industry manufacturing, scientific and technical activi- ties, and administrative services. What is very interesting is the fact that the number of women who obtained “employer’s declarations” has decreased. This fact requires further investigation to see whether it is a starting point for new migration pa erns. When it comes to work permits that Ukrainian citizens need to obtain in order to work legally in Poland for a period longer than 6 months in a year, 55,731 work permits were issued in 2015 to Ukrainian citizens. The Polish Office for Foreigners has just published its report for 2015. According to its data, Ukrainians were the second most frequent nation that asked for asylum in Poland (a er Russian citizens) in 2015. However, the gap between asylum claims submi ed by Russians and by Ukrainian citizens was high – 7,922 Russians requested asylum compared with only 2,295 Ukrainians. What is also interesting is that the majority of the applications by Russian citizens were submi ed in the second half of the year, while in the case of Ukrainiancitizensitwasinthefirsthalfoftheyear.Withregardtonewlysubmi edclaims in 2015, 1,594 Ukrainians asked for asylum in Poland for the first time. Around 50% of all asylum seekers in Poland were women and 46% were children. When it comes to the positiveasylumdecisionsissuedinthefirstinstance,noUkrainiancitizenreceivedrefugee
  50. 50. 52 POLAND status.SixUkrainiansreceivedso-called“toleratedstay”status.Atthesametime,Ukrainian citizenswereleadingwhenitcomestothenumberofresidencepermitapplicationssubmit- ted – in 2015 they submi ed 68,000 applications for temporary and permanent residence. It is possible that refugee status or other forms of international or national protection will be issued to more Ukrainian citizens in the future. This is not related to the number of Ukrainians applying for citizenship (that is decreasing as indicated above). There are two other reasons for that. First of all, Ukrainian citizens have started more o en to appeal against negative asylum decisions issued in the first instance and in a few cases they were successful. The second reason is that in 2015, the Polish government has organized two campaigns of organized relocation of Ukrainian citizens of Polish origin. The members of families of those relocated people who did not have a Polish Card asked for political asylum in Poland. Altogether 119 persons asked for political asylum, and of them, 56 persons received that status. When it comes to the visas issued by Polish consulates to Ukrainian citizens in 2015, altogether 924,000 visas were issued, including 457,000 single visas (so-called Schengen visas) and 466,000 national visas (only those visas entitle the holder to short-term work in Poland). In the first two months of 2016, 133 Ukrainian citizens submi ed first time asylum claims, while second claims were submi ed by 104 Ukrainians. In comparison to the equivalent time period of the previous year, the number of asylum claims made by Ukrainian citizens decreased by 55%. Moreover, in January–February 2014 four Ukrai- nians received subsidiary protection status. In terms of residence permit applications, in January–February 2016, Ukrainian citizens submi ed 11,252 applications for temporary stay and 1,181 applications for per- manent residence. Irregular migra on There are no estimations related to the possible stock of irregular migrants. Since the out- break of armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine no research on that subject has been conducted in Poland. However the irregular migration of Ukrainians to Poland is possibly growing as can be seen from the increasing number of illegal stay detections and refusals of entry. Main determinants As 2013–2014 Forecasting migration… research showed (2014)⁶ the main pull factors at- tracting Ukrainian migrants in Poland are language and cultural proximity, low costs of travel, liberal migration and visa policies. Poland is currently the main destination state for Ukrainian migrants in the EU. ⁶ M. Jaroszewicz, M. Lesińska (eds.) (2014): Forecasting Migration Between the EU, V4 and Eastern Europe. Impact of Visa Abolition. Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies.
  51. 51. POLAND 53 Currently there is no statistical or qualitative evidence to determine whether the growth in migration from Ukraine is stimulated by war-related factors. However the considerable number of asylum applications submi ed by Ukrainian citizens in 2014 and 2015 as well as the small, albeit increasing, number of Ukrainians who received refugee status could suggest that this is the case. The European migration crisis has accelerated the tense migration debate both in the society and among the political elite. In general, anti-immigrant sentiments have grown as well as level of xenophobia. Anti-refugee slogans have become one of the main subjects raised at public demonstrations. This has led also to an increase in a acks on a racial/ ethnic basis, which had previously been virtually absent in Polish society. The growing number of Ukrainians a empting to enter the Polish labour market has also raised fears among local workers over available jobs. In January in Kutno local inhabitants a acked a shelter occupied by Ukrainian labour migrants. At the same time Ukrainian migrants started to be more o en presented in public debate as being much closer to Poles in terms of cultural, language and ethnic composition than Muslim refugees from Syria or other conflict zones in Middle East and Africa, who Poland has agreed to accept under EU-wide refugee re-se lement schemes. Migra on pa erns Therearetwosignificantlydifferenttypesofmigrationpa ernsrepresentedbyUkrainians in Poland. The first one is short-term circular labour migration, governed by the liberal rules of short-term access to the Polish labour market. The bulk of the Ukrainian migrants who come to Poland fall into this group and usually have no intention to stay in Poland. The other group, smaller but constantly growing, are the long-term migrants who look for permanent jobs in Poland, study there or are married to Polish citizens. One notable feature of Ukrainian migration in Poland is the predominance of women (around 60%). However, in 2015, for the very first time in many years, the wave was predominated by male immigrants. Thefirstexaminationofin-depthmigrantinterviews,conductedwithintheframework ofourcurrentresearchprojectwith20Ukrainianmigrants,hasshowntheexistenceoftwo different migration models in use by Ukrainian citizens. The first model, more common for migrants from Western Ukraine who have contacts with Poland on a daily basis, is characterized by regular circular migration with more independent a empts to find a job, andbyonlyverylooselinkstotheconflictineasternUkraine(understoodasageneralfeel- ing–adecreasedlevelofsecurityandstability).Thesecondmodelismorecommonamong migrantsfromEasternUkraine,whocametoPolandwiththeintentionofstayingtherefor a couple of years. They usually rely on migration networks, do not use job advertisements available in Polish and their link to conflict in Eastern Ukraine is more straightforward – usually they are not the direct victims of armed conflict, but have social contacts with those openly affected. This hypothesis is preliminary and requires further confirmation.
  52. 52. 54 POLAND MARCH Main figures The Polish Ministry for Family, Labour and Social Policy has finally published its report for 2015 on the number of labour permits and the number of so-called “employer’s declarations” for short-term labour migrants issued in 2015. This is the most important source of information on the number of Ukrainian migrants living in Poland as most of them stay in Poland within the framework of the facilitated labour migration scheme (that allows citizens of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine to work without work permits for up to 6 months in a year, holding only a national visa “D”, not a residence permit). According to that data, in January–December 2015 782,222 declarations allowing short-term employment of foreigners were issued (a growth of more than 100% in comparison to data registered in the same period the previous year). 98% of all dec- larations issued in 2015 fall to Ukrainian citizens. Altogether 762,700 declarations were issued to Ukrainian citizens. It should be however emphasized that the greatest growth was recorded at the beginning of 2015, and it was gradually decreasing in the following months. When it comes to work permits that Ukrainian citizens need to obtain in order to work legally in Poland for a period longer than 6 months in a year, in 2015 55,731 work permits were issued to Ukrainian citizens. There is no data for the first three months of 2016. Data are published every six months. Expert interviews conducted in January–March 2016 within the framework of the cur- rent project confirmed, however, that the simplified legal migration scheme remains the main legal channel used by Ukrainian labour migrants. Moreover, according to experts’ knowledge, the number of Ukrainian citizens originating from Eastern Ukraine who use that scheme has probably increased. However, there is no statistical confirmation of this, as the Ministry for Family, Labour and Social Policy does not gather data broken down by the detailed place of origin. As far as the demographic characteristics of migrants applying for short-term labour visa are concerned, their main features have remained stable since 2012. The majority of applicants are in the 25–34 age range, a small number in the 34–45 range and only around 15% are in the 45–54 range. When it comes to applications for temporary residence permits, in the reporting period 18,213 Ukrainians submi ed such requests while 1,859 applied for permanent residence permits. The Polish Office for Foreigners has also published data for the first three months of 2016. In January–March 2016 (till 7th April) 194 Ukrainian citizens requested asylum for the first time (altogether total of 123 asylum claims were submi ed). When it comes to second (renewed) applications, 144 Ukrainian citizens applied (81 applications altogether). When comparing this with the same period in the previous year, we can observe a drop of
  53. 53. POLAND 55 58% in the number of asylum claims submi ed by Ukrainian citizens. In January–March 2016, six Ukrainians received subsidiary protection status. It is possible that refugee status or other forms of international or national protection will be issued to more Ukrainian citizens in the future. In 2015 the Polish government has organized two campaigns of organized relocation of Ukrainian citizens of Polish origin. The members of families of those relocated people who did not have a “Polish Card” requested political asylum in Poland. Altogether 119 persons asked for political asylum, and of them, 56 persons were successful. When it comes to the visas issued by Polish consulates to Ukrainian citizens in 2015, 924,000 visas were issued, and of these, 457,000 were single visas (so-called Schengen visas) and 466,000 national visas (only those visas entitle the holder to short-term work in Poland). In the first two months of 2016 133 Ukrainian citizens submi ed first time asylum claims, while repeat claims were submi ed by 104 Ukrainians. In comparison to the equivalent time period of last year the number of asylum claims made by Ukrainian citizens decreased by 55%. Moreover, in January–February 2016 four Ukrainians received subsidiary protection status. In terms of residence permit applications, in January–February 2016 Ukrainian citizens submi ed 11,252 applications for temporary residence and 1,181 applications for permanent residence. The Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs publishes its consular report annually. The report for 2015 was delayed and will be published in mid-April. However, more regular information available concerns local border-traffic permits. In January–March 2016 (till 7th April 2016) the Polish consulate in Lviv issued 9,121 permits and the Polish consulate in Luck only 5,369 permits. Irregular migra on There are no estimations related to the possible stock of irregular migrants. Since the out- break of armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine no research on that subject has been conducted in Poland. However the irregular migration of Ukrainians to Poland may be growing, as can be seen from the increasing number of illegal stay detections and refusals of entry. Main determinants As 2013–2014 Forecasting migration… research has shown (2014)⁷, the main pull factors a racting Ukrainian migrants to Poland are language and cultural proximity, low costs of travel and liberal migration and visa policies. Poland is currently the main destination state for Ukrainian migrants in the EU. ⁷ M. Jaroszewicz, M. Lesińska (eds.) (2014): Forecasting Migration Between the EU, V4 and Eastern Europe. Impact of Visa Abolition. Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies.
  54. 54. 56 POLAND Currently there is no statistical or qualitative evidence to determine whether the growth of migration from Ukraine is stimulated by war-related factors. However, the substantial number of asylum applications submi ed by Ukrainian citizens in 2014 and 2015 as well as the small, albeit increasing, number of Ukrainians who receive refugee status could suggest that this is the case. The European migration crisis has accelerated a heated migration debate both in the society as well as among the political elite. In general, anti-immigrant sentiments have risen as well as the level of xenophobia. Anti-refugee slogans have become one of the main subjects raised at public demonstrations. This has also led to an increase in a acks on a racial/ethnic basis, which were previously virtually absent in Polish society. The growing number of Ukrainians a empting to enter the Polish labour market has also raised fears among local workers over available jobs. In January in Kutno local inhabitants a acked a shelter occupied by Ukrainian labour migrants. At the same time Ukrainian migrants started to be more o en presented in public debate as being much closer to Poles in terms of cultural, language and ethnic composition, in comparison to Muslim refugees from Syria or other conflict zones in Middle East and Africa Poland has agreed to accept under EU-wide refugee re-se lement schemes. Migra on pa erns There are two significantly different types of migration pa erns represented by Ukrai- nians in Poland. The first one is short-term circular labour migration, governed by the liberal rules of short-term access to the Polish labour market. The bulk of the Ukrainian migrants who come to Poland come from this group and usually have no intention to stay in Poland. The other group, smaller but steadily growing, are the long-term migrants who look for permanent jobs in Poland, study there or are married to Polish citizens. One notable feature of Ukrainian migration in Poland is the predominance of women (around 60%). However, 2015 brought, for the very first time in many years, a wave predominated by male immigrants. The first examination of in-depth migrant interviews, conducted within the framework ofourcurrentresearchprojectwith20Ukrainianmigrants,hasshowntheexistenceoftwo different migration models in use by Ukrainian citizens. The first model, more common for migrants from Western Ukraine who have contacts with Poland on a daily basis, is characterized by regular circular migration with more independent a empts to find work, andbyonlyverylooselinkstotheconflictineasternUkraine(understoodasageneralfeel- ing–adecreasedlevelofsecurityandstability).Thesecondmodelismorecommonamong migrants from Eastern Ukraine, who came to Poland with the intention to stay there for a couple of years. They usually rely on migration networks, do not use job advertisements available in Polish and their link to the conflict in Eastern Ukraine is more straightforward – usually they are not the direct victims of armed conflict, but have social contacts with those openly affected. This hypothesis is preliminary and requires further confirmation.
  55. 55. POLAND 57 APRIL Main figures Simplified labour scheme and labour permits The Polish Ministry for Family, Labour and Social Policy has finally published its report for 2015 on the number of labour permits and of so-called “employer’s declara- tions” for short-term labour migrants issued in 2015. This is the most important source of information on the number of Ukrainian migrants living in Poland as most of them stay in Poland within the framework of the facilitated labour migration scheme (that allows citizens of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine to work without work permits for up to 6 months in a year, holding only a national visa “D”, not a resi- dence permit). According to that data, in January–December 2015 782,222 declarations allowing short-term employment of foreigners were issued (a growth of more than 100% in comparison to data registered in the same period last year). 98% of all declarations issued in 2015 were for Ukrainian citizens. Altogether 762,700 declarations were issued to Ukrainian citizens. There is no data for the first three months of 2016. Data are published every six months. Expert interviews conducted in January–March 2016 within the framework of the cur- rent project confirmed, however, that the simplified legal migration scheme remains the main legal channel used by Ukrainian labour migrants. Moreover, experts suggest that the number of Ukrainian citizens originating from Eastern Ukraine who use that scheme has probably increased. However, there is no statistical confirmation, as the Ministry for Family, Labour and Social Policy does not gather data broken down by the detailed place of origin. The demographic characteristics of migrants applying for short-term labour visas have remained largely stable since 2012. The majority of applicants are in the 25–34 age range, a small number in the 34–45 range and only around 15% are in the 45–54 range. Residence permits and asylum The Polish Office for Foreigners has also published its asylum data. In January–April 2016 (till 5th May) 244 Ukrainian citizens asked for asylum for the first time (altogether 160 asylum claims were submi ed). As to second (renewed) applications, 231 Ukrainian citizens applied (a total of 121 applications). In comparison to the equivalent time period of the last year the number of asylum claims made by Ukrainian citizens decreased by 50%. In January–March 2016 nine Ukrainians received subsidiary protection status. It is possible that refugee status or other forms of international or national protection will be issued to more Ukrainian citizens in the future. In 2015 the Polish government organized two campaigns of organized relocation of Ukrainian citizens of Polish origin. The members of families of those relocated people who did not have a “Polish Card” asked
  56. 56. 58 POLAND for political asylum in Poland. Altogether 119 persons asked for political asylum, and of those, 56 persons received it. When it comes to residence permits applications, in January–May 2016, Ukrainian citizens submi ed 23,918 applications for temporary residence and 2,392 applications for permanent residence. Consular data The Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs publishes its consular report annually. The report for 2015 was published in mid-April. According to the information provided in this report, Polish consulates issued 922,240 visas to Ukrainian citizens in 2015 (which means a 10% increase in comparison with last year – see Tab. 3). Among them, 554,255 were short-term visas allowing a stay in the EU for 90 days in a 3-month period (so-called Schengen visas) and 276,298 were so-called national visas allowing for a longer stay in a certain member country. Polish authorities have also published data on visas issued in the first two months of this year (till 29th February). Altogether 154,515 visas were issued (64,885 Schengen visas and 89,930 long-term visas). It indicates a huge growth (by 40%), but the trend may stabilise later during the year. Tab.  Visas issued by Polish consulates to Ukrainians ( – ) Year Type of visa Total number of visas issued Schengen visas issued Na onal visas issued 2013 720,125 527,706 192,419 2014 827,771 554,255 276,298 2015 922,240 456,085 466,155 Source: Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2016 The Polish consulate in Lviv in Ukraine has remained the place where Poland issues the biggest number of visas (as has been the case for many years), followed by Luck (also in Ukraine) and only a erwards by Minsk in Belarus (see Tab. 4). Tab.  Visas issued by Polish consulates to Ukrainians by place of consulate ( ) Year Place of consulate Lviv Luck Kyiv Vinnitsa Kharkiv 2015 380,087 228,923 111,756 91,494 75,330 Source: Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2016

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