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Generations of Computer.pptx

  1. Prepared by Fatima Urooj 1
  2. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER Computer is a modern electronic device which was basically designed to carry out arthematic or logical operations,but with the passage of time it was evolved to perform multitasking and programming. HISTORY OF COMPUTER Computer was not always in its modern developed form,rather it has gone a series of changes.Histroy of computer is a chain that runs from ancient Abacus to Analytical Engine of nineteenth century through the modern form of present age. 2
  3. Abacus •Earliest calculating device invented in China •Used to perform addition subtraction and multiplication •Used in Asian countries and China till the end of 20th century NAPEIR’S BONE •Invented by Scottish mathematician,John Napeir 3 Abacus
  4. COUNT.. •Used for division ,multiplication and finding square roots of numbers •Biggest invention was the invention of logarithm PASCALINE •Calculating machine invented by French mathematician in 1642 •It consisted of rotating wheels 4 Napier's Bone Pascaline
  5. •Perform subtraction and multiplication on whole numbers ANALYTICAL ENGINE •Invented by English mathematician Charles Babbage •A big calculating machine about the size of the room •Today’s modern computers are based on the idea of analytical engine 5 Analytical Engine
  6. Hollerith Disk •Tabulating machine invented by Herman Hollerith in 1890 •Consisted of card reader which sensed the holes in the card •Hollerith stared a company (Tabulating Machine Company) which later changed its name to IBM (International Business Machine) 6 Hollerith Disk
  7. Slide Rule •Invented by William Oughtred in 1920s •Consisted of slide,rule and transparent sliding cursor •Performed multiplication and division 7 Slide Rule
  8. Mark-1computer •Invented by Howard Aiken in 1944 •It could add three numbers having eights digits in one second •Print results on punched card or and electric typewriter •It was 50 feet long,8 feet high and weighted about 5 tons •Used 3000 electric switches Since than computer is evolving and not stopped yet 8 Mark 1 Computer
  9. generationS of computer First generation computer(1940-56) First generation computer used vacuum tubes for circuitry. its storage capacity was 20000 characters. Characteristics of first generation computer • Used machine language • Expensive and unreliable • Consumed lot of power • Generated lot of heat • Input was based on punched cards • Slow speed and small memory • Output displayed on printouts 9 Vacuum Tube
  10. COUNT.. Example; ENIAC,UNIVAC 1,IBM 604,EDSAC and Mark 1 10 UNIVAC 1 IBM 604
  11. SECOND GENERATION COMPUTER(1956- 63) Invented by three scientist William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. It replaced vacuum tube in second generation Characteristics of second generation computer •Smaller and faster •More reliable and cheaper •Used assembly language •Transistors increased the memory capacity and its speed 11 Transistor
  12. COUNT.. • High level of programming language like FORTRAN and COBOL were introduced in second generation computers • Used punched cards reader,magnetic tape,magnetic disks and printers • Example; UNIVAC II,IBM 7030,7780 and 7090,NCR 300 series, General Electric GE and Control Data Corporation’s CDC 1604 12
  13. THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS(1963-71) Third generation computers used Integrated Circuits also known as semiconductors which were developed in 1960s.IC chips contained large number of transistors. Its invention was a breakthrough in advancing computer technology. 13 UNIVAC II IBM 7030
  14. Characteristics of third generation computers •Used IC chips •IC improved the speed and memory of computer •IC chip increased the power and decreased the cost •Consumed less energy •Smaller in size, cheaper and more reliable •Used keyboard and monitor •These computers run different application programmes at the same time 14 IC Chips
  15. COUNT.. Examples ;Burroughs 6700,IBM System /360, System 3 and Control Data Corporation’s 3300 and 6600 computer 15 CDC 3300 Computer Burroughs 6700
  16. FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTER(1971-Present) Microprocessors is a single chip by the help of which thousands of integrated circuits were built on a single silicon chip. In this generation LSI(Large Scale Integration) and VLSI(Very Large Scale Integrations) chips having millions of transistors were developed. Characteristics of fourth generation computers • Development of microprocessors resulted in the development of microcomputers • Microcomputers were small in size and reliable • Consumed less power and affordable • Fast to compute and have large storage capacity 16
  17. COUNT.. •Operating system having Graphical User Interface (GUI) were developed in this generation •Large variety of software is available for use in micro computers •These computers support multimedia software that combine text,image,sound and video •These computer support large variety of portable and wireless input/output devices 17 Microprocessor
  18. Examples of microprocessors are Intel Pentium series, Dual Core,Core2 Duo,Core i3,i5,i7 and ADM Athlon Examples of fourth generation computers are IBM ThinkPad series,HP Pavilion series,Dell series,Apple’s MacBook Pro 18 HP Desktop Computer ThinkPad series
  19. FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTER (ai) The fifth generation of computer is based on artificial intelligence which is still in the process of development .The aim of fifth generation is to develop devices that can understand human languages and have thinking power. Characteristics of fifth generation computers • These computers are mainly based on Artificial intelligence(AI) • With the help of AI,it will minimize the need to write programs • These computers will allow the users to give commands in natural languages like English 19
  20. COUNT.. Examples ; robots and expert systems 20 AI ROBOTICS
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