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Additive manufacturing metal

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Additive manufacturing metal

  1. 1. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises. All Rights Reserved We deliver Global Engineering Solutions. Efficiently.December 31, 2012 Additive Manufacturing
  2. 2. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises  Definition and Various Techniques  Areas/Industries of application and adoption  Features/Benefits  Limitations  Example of company that manufacture equipment for additive manufacturing  Cost Illustrations  Examples of adoption Index 2
  3. 3. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises  Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital model.  Where an object is created by laying down successive layers of material.  Traditional machining techniques (subtractive processes) which mostly rely on the removal  AM process takes virtual designs from computer aided design (CAD) or animation modelling software, transforms them into thin, virtual, horizontal cross- sections and then creates successive layers until the model is complete.  Though many techniques are available, Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and Stereolithography (SLA) are popular. Of these, DMLS and SLS have been widely adopted. Additive Manufacturing 3
  4. 4. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises Various Techniques 4 Additive technologies Base materials Selective laser sintering (SLS) Thermoplastics, metal powders, ceramic powders Direct Metal laser sintering (DMLS) Almost any metal alloy Fused deposition Modelling (FDM) Thermoplastics, eutectic metals Stereolithography (SLA) Photopolymer Digital Light Processing (DLP) Liquid resin Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) PLA, ABS Melted and Extrusion Modelling (MEM) Metal wire, plastic filament Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) Paper, metal foil, plastic film Electron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloys Selective heat sintering (SHS) Thermoplastic powder Powder bed and inkjet head 3D printing, Plaster-based 3D printing (PP) Plaster Source: AIM practice, Infotech, Secondary research incl. Wikipedia
  5. 5. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises Areas of Adoption 5 Adoption of Rapid Prototyping in respective industries Additive Manufacturing (AM) Industry projected to be a $5.2 billion industry by 2020 – Wohlers Associates Industries such as auto and consumer have maximum adoption rates of additive manufacturing – prime reasons being additive manufacturing aids in reduction of their ‘prototyping to manufacturing’ life span thus reducing time to market Aerospace and military agencies have a lower adoption rates due to regulatory complexities and size complexities Source: AIM practice, Infotech, Secondary research incl. Wikipedia
  6. 6. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises Benefits/Features 6  Helps reduce the need for tooling (moulds/jigs)  Simplifies the supply chain & reduces capital investment - helps variablizing costs of jigs and fixtures  Enables complex geometries  Part consolidation, Optimized geometries, Personalized & customized products  Enables weight reduction and optimization  For e.g. Virgin Atlantic’s first class monitor arm weighs 0.8 kg if machined while 0.37 kg if done through additive mfg.  EADS quotes that about 150 kg can be reduced from aircraft if 1000 parts are manufactured through AM techniques i.e. $13.5 M in fuel savings alone per aircraft over 30 years life span  Enables carbon foot print reduction by 50% on a typical long-haul application  Enables faster design to build cycles by cutting down the lead time required for prototyping and mfg. phases  Enables new business and supply chain models  Distributed manufacture with less transportation - production closer to the consumer Source: AIM practice, Infotech, Secondary research, Econolyst report
  7. 7. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises Limitations 7 • Large volumes production may not be feasible. • Process Certification for each Part production. • Limitation on machine table size. • Huge size parts cannot fit the table size. • Initial machine investment & maintenance are very high Benefits Challenges Source: AIM practice, Infotech, Econolyst
  8. 8. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises 8 Laser Sintering Process Technique ….. Not subject to the EAR per 15 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Part 734.3(b)(3) • Laser-sintering is an additive layer manufacturing technology and the key technology for e-Manufacturing. • It enables the fast, flexible and cost-effective production of products, patterns or tools directly from 3D models • Production of tooling inserts, prototype parts and end products using Direct Metal Laser Sintering Process Description • Building part layer-by-layer • Starting with thin powder layer on platform • Fusing powder in shape of 2D cross-section • Lowering platform about next layer thickness • Filling lowered volume with powder and fusing again Beam Source Powder Laser Beam Source: AIM practice, Infotech, primary research with supplier, secondary research
  9. 9. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises 9 Laser Sintering Process Technique ….. Not subject to the EAR per 15 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Part 734.3(b)(3) Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) • Process used for Aero engine parts Manufacture and Repair or Tooling development • The technology fuses metal powder into a solid part by melting process through focussed Laser beam. • Additive manufacturing process layer by layer • Parts produced with high Accuracy, Surface quality and excellent Mechanical properties • Material ranging from Steel to Super- Alloys and Composite metals can be processed • Cost effective mfg. of raw parts substitution of castings. • Mfg. of tooling, rig and development of hardware. • Mfg. of functional structures to reduce weight and cost. • Compressor vane segments with integrated honeycombs (IN718). A DMLS Machine Raw material manufacture Compressor Vane segments with honeycombs Hydraulic manifold - Structures development Source: AIM practice, Infotech, primary research with supplier, secondary research
  10. 10. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises 10 A DMLS Machine Cost - EOS Not subject to the EAR per 15 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Part 734.3(b)(3) Machine Cost : Euros 600,000 Machine cost Includes: • Machine Installation • Customization settings • Training • Warranty period DMLS Machine Machine Cost • The machine cost : Euros 600,000* (Installation +Training+ Warranty Period). • The Time required to market the Parts produced would take minimum 1 year – after machine installation. * Import duty charges not considered in the cost  Determine material property database  Define process and quality specifications  Improve productivity  Establish a robust manufacturing process  Generate experience as supplier Conditions - Time to Market Source: AIM practice, Infotech, primary research with supplier
  11. 11. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises 11 Comparison - NRE vs. Variable Cost Not subject to the EAR per 15 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Part 734.3(b)(3) NRE’s • Facility – Machine and Manpower. • 3D Model - CAD Software. • Technical training Variable Cost • Materials used for production process • E.g. DMLS for Aero requires IN718 or TI64 types of metal powders which cost approx. EUR 150 - 500 per kg depending upon the grain size. Typical wastage is around 3-5%. So a kg of part will require about the same quantity of metal powder • Maintenance expenses (10-20% of the fixed cost) • Plus other operational expenses such as power, fuel etc. Source: AIM practice, Infotech, primary research with supplier Powder / Consumables Cost of Powder Euros/ Kg EOS Maraging Steel MS1 235.00 EOS Stainless Steel GP1 80.00 EOS Stainless Steel PH1 90.00 EOS CobaltChrome MP1 280.00 EOS Titanium Ti64 (dangerous good - special packaging required) 485.00 EOS Nickel Alloy IN718 155.00 EOS Nickel Alloy IN625 155.00
  12. 12. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises 12 Profile of EOS – Supplier of Equipment … Not subject to the EAR per 15 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Part 734.3(b)(3) DMLS Machine (EOSINT M280) EOS supplies to MTU • Partially MTU (USA) is using this process for manufacturing of Aero engine parts and development of Rigs / tools. • MTU have 6 EOSINT Machines – 4 Production machines & 2 Technology machines. Source: AIM practice, Infotech, primary research with supplier
  13. 13. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises Applications 13
  14. 14. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises Metal Applications 14
  15. 15. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises Aerospace Applications 15
  16. 16. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises Potential Aero Engine parts 16 • Nose cone • Swriler • Vanes • Blades • Variable Geometry parts • Honeycombs • Panels • Fairings • Bearing Cases • Discs • Rings • Blisk • Cases Parts Category
  17. 17. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises 17 Outlook for Additive Manufacturing (AM) Source: Boeing Research • New materials are becoming available for AM processing • Benefits of AM will be extended beyond current applications with new materials • Patent system and excessive litigation, have slowed development in AM • These technologies are viable in high labour cost nations, even in the face of competition • AM equipment needs to become more robust, look to CNC and injection moulding history • Analysis methods need to grow with new geometric capabilities
  18. 18. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises. All Rights Reserved We deliver Global Engineering Solutions. Efficiently.www.infotech-enterprises.com Thank You
  19. 19. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises 19 Few benefits/features of DMLS in aerospace sector Not subject to the EAR per 15 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Part 734.3(b)(3) Benefits • No tooling • Long product lifetime • Storage of tools and fixtures • Modifications and upgrades • Spare parts on demand • Design for function not for production • Weight reduction • Integrated subsystems • New functionality • Highest flexibility • Investing in parts not in tools • Just in Time Investment
  20. 20. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises 20 DMLS Specifications and Logistics Not subject to the EAR per 15 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Part 734.3(b)(3) EOSINT M280 – Technical Data Machine Cost : Euros 600,000 Machine cost Includes: • Machine Installation • Customization settings • Training • Warranty period DMLS Machine
  21. 21. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises 3D Printer – Working Principle 3D Printer - SST1200es 21
  22. 22. © 2011 Infotech Enterprises 22 Laser Sintering Process Not subject to the EAR per 15 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Part 734.3(b)(3) EOS materials • EOS Systems can process a variety plastic and metal powder materials. Laser Sintering Technology • Laser-sintering is an additive layer manufacturing technology and the key technology for e-Manufacturing. • It enables the fast, flexible and cost-effective production of products, patterns or tools directly from 3D models • Production of tooling inserts, prototype parts and end products using Direct Metal Laser-Sintering (DMLS). Process Video

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