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MACRO AND MICRO LEVEL
CONSIDERATIONS FOR MORE EFFECTIVE
SELECTION OF COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS AND
INTRODUCTION ...
CONTENT
1.KEY OBJECTIVES
2.SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (SD) GOALS AND
MACRO-LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS: SD GOALS
INTER-DEPENDENCY
3....
At the end of the workshop, participants will:
 Appreciate the interrelatedness of the SDGs
 Appreciate the relevance of...
MACRO LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS
 Sustainable Development Macro level considerations will
include, looking at the goals and man...
INTERRELATEDNESS OF THE SD GOALS
Sustainable Development challenges are:
 Interrelated/inter-dependent
 Call for integra...
1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the
poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic
resou...
1.a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety
of sources, including through enhanced development
coopera...
https://www.tias-web.info/wp-
content/uploads/2016/02/OConnor_SDGs_as_a_network_of_targets4_02022016.pdf
SOME CONSIDERATIO...
https://www.tias-web.info/wp-
content/uploads/2016/02/OConnor_SDGs_as_a_network_of_targets4_02022016.pdf
SOME CONSIDERATIO...
SD GOALS
Zero
Hunger
Good
Health &
Well-
being
Quality
Educatio
n
Gender
Equality
Clean
Water &
Sanitatio
n
Affordab
le &
...
SDG 4: Quality Education
SDG 9: Industry, Innovation & Infrastructure
SDG 11: Sustainable Cities & Communities
SDG 12: Res...
5
CONTINUOUS AND
IMPROVING SUSTAINABILITY
SDG 4: Quality Education
SDG 9: Industry, Innovation &
Infrastructure
SDG 11: Su...
The figure above tries to explain four interdependent critical factors (Peaceful society, unpolluted
environment, wisely m...
The above figure tried to explain the benefits of sustainable development but this time using three
critical factors on th...
MICRO LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS
 Micro level considerations will include the following:
 Considering individual stand alone i...
It is important to subject every new community
development intervention to the two stage micro
level selection approach.
...
Sustainability Filters assess if the proposed
implementation process for the intervention will take care
of the following:...
The other set: Sustainability Enhancers are factors when
present make interventions more sustainable using the 5 As
(Adapt...
Affordable: Intervention should be cheap enough to
attract more investors and ensure mass production,
replication and ado...
Appropriate: Is the technology relevant to the level of
development of the beneficiaries?
It will not be useful providin...
SUSTAINABILITY
FILTERS
 Beneficiary
driven
 Environmentall
y friendly
 Integrated
approach
SUSTAINABILITY
ENHANCERS
 A...
THE THREE FACTOR DRILL DOWN
ANALYSIS APPROACH
 The analysis gives us the opportunity to look at
complex issues with a vie...
USE OF THE THREE FACTOR DRILL DOWN
APPROACH
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
Ensure
beneficiary
capacity building
Use
participatory
approach
Target to
address core
problems as
perceived by
beneficiar...
Prioritise use of
community
resources/ inputs
Identify
other relevant
projects for
synergy and no
duplication
Identify and...
Beneficiaries
can technically
manage project
on completion
Intervention
costs are
within budget
Maintenance
costs have
bee...
Beneficiaries
have capacity
to utilise
project
Project
is relevant
to address
identified
needs
Needs of vulnerable
groups ...
BENEFICIARY DRIVEN
• Use participatory
approach
• Target to address core
problem
• Build beneficiary
capacities
ENVIRONMEN...
RATIONAL FOR ADOPTED PROCESS
 Enhance community participation in projects
planning, implementation, takeover and
ownershi...
THANKS FOR LISTENING
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
GROUP DISCUSSION 1:
SCENARIO: A Need Assessment conducted in a rural
community (A) with mainly very poor and illiterate
pe...
CONTINUATION OF GROUP DISCUSSION 1:
Other Issues:
 Community wants a hall for meetings and also to
generate income, as th...
Possible interventions:
Hand/Mono pumps in 10 strategic
places in community (10,000 USD)
with 1,000 USD as annual
maintena...
Possible interventions:
Health awareness campaigns,
medical outreach interventions etc.
(10,000 USD)
Ventilated pit latrin...
GROUP DISCUSSION 2
SCENARIO:
 A nation B has over 90% of its population as highly
religious, they dislike abortion and fa...
CONTINUATION OF GROUP DISCUSSION 2
 Current estimates indicate that if this trend continues,
many more of its citizens wi...
1. https://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=https%3A%2F%2Fc1.staticflickr.co
m%2F7%2F6213%2F6351083982_b6d47d4553_b.jpg&img...
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Macro and Micro Level Considerations for More Effective Selection of Community Development Interventions and Introduction of New Technologies

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Workshop: Macro and Micro Level Considerations for More Effective Selection of Community Development Interventions and Introduction of New Technologies
Mr. Anthony Wakwe Lawrence, RCE Greater Yenagoa
11th Global RCE Conference
7-9 December, 2018
Cebu, the Philippines

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Macro and Micro Level Considerations for More Effective Selection of Community Development Interventions and Introduction of New Technologies

  1. 1. MACRO AND MICRO LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS FOR MORE EFFECTIVE SELECTION OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS AND INTRODUCTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES BY SIR ANTHONY WAKWE LAWRENCE COMMUNITY INTER-RELATIONS AND CONCILIATION INITIATIVE (CIRCI) & RCE GREATER YENAGOA SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  2. 2. CONTENT 1.KEY OBJECTIVES 2.SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (SD) GOALS AND MACRO-LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS: SD GOALS INTER-DEPENDENCY 3. MICRO-LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS A.STAND-ALONE INTERVENTIONS B.SUSTAINABILITY FILTERS TO ENHANCE SD FUNCTIONALITY C.SUSTAINABILITY ENHANCERS TO IMPROVE SD SUCCESS RATE 4. SYNDICATE SESSION AND GROUP REPORTING SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  3. 3. At the end of the workshop, participants will:  Appreciate the interrelatedness of the SDGs  Appreciate the relevance of macro and micro level considerations to effectively achieve the SDGs  Appreciate and be able to apply sustainability filters in enhancing project functionality.  Appreciate and be able to apply sustainability enhancers in enhancing project success rate KEY OBJECTIVES SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  4. 4. MACRO LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS  Sustainable Development Macro level considerations will include, looking at the goals and managing the processes from holistic perspectives and exploiting their interdependencies for synergistic effects.  This therefore will include among others:  Critical review of the SDGs from an holistic perspective at the international, national or community levels.  Monitoring and evaluation of performances of the individual nations and the UN efforts towards achieving the SDGs.  Engaging of recalcitrant governments on how they can support the process for better performance  Formulating process enhancing policies, strategies, protocols etc. SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  5. 5. INTERRELATEDNESS OF THE SD GOALS Sustainable Development challenges are:  Interrelated/inter-dependent  Call for integrated solutions Demonstrating SDG interrelatedness/interdependency with SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere 1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day (SDG 8: Decent work and economic growth) 1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions (SDG 5: Gender equality & SDG 10: Reduce inequalities) 1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable (SDG 10: Reduce inequalities) SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  6. 6. 1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance (SDG 8: Decent work and Economic growth, SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and infrastructure, SDG 10: Reduce inequalities, SDG 11: Sustainable cities and communities, SDG 15: Life on Land & SDG16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions) 1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters (SDG 11: Sustainable cities and communities & SDG 13: Climate actions) SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  7. 7. 1.a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions (SDG 17: Partnership for the goals) 1.b Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender- sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions (SDG 5: Gender equality, SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and infrastructure, SDG 10: Reduce inequalities & SDG16: Peace, Justice and Strong institutions) https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  8. 8. https://www.tias-web.info/wp- content/uploads/2016/02/OConnor_SDGs_as_a_network_of_targets4_02022016.pdf SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  9. 9. https://www.tias-web.info/wp- content/uploads/2016/02/OConnor_SDGs_as_a_network_of_targets4_02022016.pdf SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  10. 10. SD GOALS Zero Hunger Good Health & Well- being Quality Educatio n Gender Equality Clean Water & Sanitatio n Affordab le & Clean Energy Decent Work & Economi c Growth Industry, Innovati on & Infrastru cture Reduce d Inequalit y Sustaina ble Cities & Commu nities Respons ible Consum ption & Producti on Climatic Action Life below Water Life on Land Peace Justice & Strong Institutio ns Partne rship for the Goals SDG 2 SDG 3 SDG 4 SDG 5 SDG 6 SDG 7 SDG 8 SDG 9 SDG 10 SDG 11 SDG 12 SDG 13 SDG 14 SDG 15 SDG 16 SDG 17 SDG 1 No poverty SDG 2 Zero Hunger SDG 3 Good Health & Well- being SDG 4 Quality Education SDG 5 Gender Equality SDG 6 Clean Water & Sanitation SDG 7 Affordable & Clean Energy SDG 8 Decent Work & Economic Growth SDG 9 Industry, Innovation & Infrastructure SDG 10 Reduced Inequality SDG 11 Sustainable Cities & Communities SDG 12 Responsible Consumption & Production SDG 13 Climatic Action SDG 14 Life below Water SDG 15 Life on Land SDG 16 Peace Justice & Strong Institutions PAIRWISE COMPARISON ANALYSIS DIRECT & INDIRECT INTER- RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE SDG(S) >99% (135/136) inter-dependency achieved SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  11. 11. SDG 4: Quality Education SDG 9: Industry, Innovation & Infrastructure SDG 11: Sustainable Cities & Communities SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and production SDG 17: Partnership for the Goals *MANAGE HUMAN POPULATION * PROHIBIT PRODUCTION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION SDG 3: Good Health and Well-being SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy SDG 13: Climatic Action SDG 14: Life below Water SDG 15: Life on Land SDG 1: No poverty SDG 2: No Hunger SDG 8: Decent Work & Economic Growth SDG 5: Gender Equality SDG 10: Reduced Inequality SDG 16: Peace, Justice & Strong Institutions EFFECTIVE & IMPROVING GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMEN T ENCOURAGE TRANSFORMATIVE CAPACITIES AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT ENCOURAGE PEACE & JUSTICE ENCOURAGE HEALTHY LIVING EVIDENCE OF ECONOMIC GROW TH PLACING OF SD GOALS INTO 5 GROUPS : CONCEPT 1 DUE TO THE INTERDEPENDENCIES, SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS ARE SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  12. 12. 5 CONTINUOUS AND IMPROVING SUSTAINABILITY SDG 4: Quality Education SDG 9: Industry, Innovation & Infrastructure SDG 11: Sustainable Cities & Communities SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and production SDG 17: Partnership for the Goals *MANAGE HUMAN POPULATION * PROHIBIT PRODUCTION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION 1 SDG 13: Climatic Action SDG 14: Life below Water SDG 15: Life on Land 2 SDG 3: Good Health and Well-being SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy SDG 1: No poverty SDG 2: No Hunger SDG 8: Decent Work & Economic Growth 3 4 SDG 5: Gender Equality SDG 10: Reduced inequality SDG 16: Peace, Justice & Strong Institutions Sustainable Economic Growth Balanced Ecosystem SL Satisfied peopleSL SLSL Satisfied people SL= Sustainable Living 1= PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT 2= ENHANCE HEALTHY LIVING 3= EVIDENCE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH 4= ENHANCE PEACE & JUSTICE 5 = CONTINUOUS AND IMPROVING PLACING OF SD GOALS INTO 5 GROUPS: CONCEPT 2 5 SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  13. 13. The figure above tries to explain four interdependent critical factors (Peaceful society, unpolluted environment, wisely managed resources and controlled human population) and that together they enhance sustainable development. http://www.eajournals.org/journals/international-journal-of-development-and- economic-sustainability-ijdes/vol-5-issue-5-september-2017/sustainability-filters-enhancers-towards-improving- intervention-functionality-sustainable-advancement-holistic-concept/ SOME MACRO LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL: USING PRIORITY FACTORS (NIGERIA) SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  14. 14. The above figure tried to explain the benefits of sustainable development but this time using three critical factors on the assumption that the forth factor (Peace) is given as being in place. http://www.eajournals.org/journals/international-journal-of-development-and-economic-sustainability-ijdes/vol-5-issue-5- september-2017/sustainability-filters-enhancers-towards-improving-intervention-functionality-sustainable-advancement- SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  15. 15. MICRO LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS  Micro level considerations will include the following:  Considering individual stand alone interventions that are aimed at improving sustainable development:  Developing greener machines utilising non- fossil fuels.  Developing energy efficient machines.  Better ways to manage the environment and the ecosystem and reducing population pressure on natural resources.  Prohibition of weapons of mass destruction etc.  Considerations to improve SD delivery of interventions SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  16. 16. It is important to subject every new community development intervention to the two stage micro level selection approach. Sustainability Filters Sustainability Enhancers Sustainability criteria can be used to test suitability of new technology and it examines issues that would enhance project or intervention success after implementation. MICRO LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS: USING PRIORITY FACTORS SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  17. 17. Sustainability Filters assess if the proposed implementation process for the intervention will take care of the following: Ensure the participation and involvement of the target beneficiaries in the planning, implementation and management of the project. Ensure that possible health, safety, social and other environmental impacts of implementing the intervention have been evaluated and mitigation measures put in place towards addressing implied negative impacts. Ensure that the intervention has considered all the critical success factors in holistic manner and is using integrated and coordinated approach both at the supra-system (system and its external environment) SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  18. 18. The other set: Sustainability Enhancers are factors when present make interventions more sustainable using the 5 As (Adaptable, Affordable, Available, Applicable and Appropriate): Adaptable: Intervention should be easily modifiable and usable in other circumstances that beneficiaries may be exposed to. Interventions that can be easily replicated will be more easily mass-adopted. Processing machines that use only electricity as energy source Available: Interventions should be available if others want to replicate it and spare parts also available. You need to assess if the people will be able to secure spare parts to maintain the project on completion. Imported processing machines that cannot by fabricated in the nation and spare parts must be imported. SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  19. 19. Affordable: Intervention should be cheap enough to attract more investors and ensure mass production, replication and adoption. Consider cost benefits and appropriate substitutes before investing adopting technologies Applicable: Interventions should be able to effectively resolve and address the developmental and other related problems that it intends to address. It should be relevant to the needs of the people. Super Cassava Hybrid SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  20. 20. Appropriate: Is the technology relevant to the level of development of the beneficiaries? It will not be useful providing:  a public water scheme whose source of power will be from the national electricity grid and if there is no constant electricity supply in that location  a water system public toilet without associated support water scheme. Provide computers to a school if there are competent operators Beneficiaries should be trained on how to operate the equipment. SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  21. 21. SUSTAINABILITY FILTERS  Beneficiary driven  Environmentall y friendly  Integrated approach SUSTAINABILITY ENHANCERS  Adaptable  Affordable  Available  Applicable  Appropriate TRUE SUSTAINAIBILIT Y TRUE SUSTAINABILITY SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  22. 22. THE THREE FACTOR DRILL DOWN ANALYSIS APPROACH  The analysis gives us the opportunity to look at complex issues with a view to effecting maximum impact only using few manageable factors .  In this regard, we tried to identify three priority factors in each situation for the analysis.  The approach is in line with Poreto Principle of 80/20 rule, which shows that a vital few among many factors account for the majority of impact in most situations  Fund raising, soliciting community/donor support, distribution of wealth etc. https://www.projectsmart.co.uk/pareto-analysis-step-by-step.php SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  23. 23. USE OF THE THREE FACTOR DRILL DOWN APPROACH SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  24. 24. Ensure beneficiary capacity building Use participatory approach Target to address core problems as perceived by beneficiaries Enhance d stability Enhanced acceptabilit y Enhance d durabilit y Beneficiary driven Integrated approach Environmentally friendly ENHANCING SUSTAINABILITY FUNCTIONALITY SUSTAINABILITY FILTERS SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  25. 25. Prioritise use of community resources/ inputs Identify other relevant projects for synergy and no duplication Identify and involve all key stakeholders Intervention complies with all regulative requirements Intervention is not harmful to humanity Intervention does not destroy the ecosystem SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  26. 26. Beneficiaries can technically manage project on completion Intervention costs are within budget Maintenance costs have been planned for Releva nt Flexible Useful Affordability Applicability Adaptability ENHANCING SUSTAINABILITY SUCCESS RATE SUSTAINABILITY ENHANCERS SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  27. 27. Beneficiaries have capacity to utilise project Project is relevant to address identified needs Needs of vulnerable groups considered / income generation Modifiable to suit new circumstances Technology available to new entrants Spare-parts are readily available SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  28. 28. BENEFICIARY DRIVEN • Use participatory approach • Target to address core problem • Build beneficiary capacities ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY • Not harmful to humans • Not harmful to ecosystem • Aligns to regulative requirements INTEGRATED APPROACH • Involves all stakeholders • Identify other relevant projects and no duplication • Prioritize use of community resources/inputs S U S T A I A N A B I T Y F I L T E R S AFFORDABILITY • Cost of project • Cost of post completion maintenance • Technical requirements ADAPTABILITY • Modifiable to changes • Technology is available to new entrants • Spare-parts are available APPLICABILITY • Beneficiaries have capacity to utilise project • Project will address identified need • Needs of vulnerable groups considered S U S T A I A N A B I T Y E N H A N C E R S IDENTIFIED PROBLEM TO BE ADDRESSED IDENTIFIEDINTERVENTIONS SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  29. 29. RATIONAL FOR ADOPTED PROCESS  Enhance community participation in projects planning, implementation, takeover and ownership  Ensure sustainable development education and capacity building are incorporated into community engagement and facilitating their participation  Reduce white elephant, none functional projects in the communities  Ensure scarce resources are better utilized for the benefit of beneficiaries SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  30. 30. THANKS FOR LISTENING SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTIONS
  31. 31. GROUP DISCUSSION 1: SCENARIO: A Need Assessment conducted in a rural community (A) with mainly very poor and illiterate people showed that they lacked in order of priority the following; 1. Incessant water borne disease incidents because community members defecate in the open or into the same stream they use for drinking. 2. No potable drinking water. Community members travel a distance to fetch water from a stream. 3. No community meeting place and no source of income for managing community.
  32. 32. CONTINUATION OF GROUP DISCUSSION 1: Other Issues:  Community wants a hall for meetings and also to generate income, as they hope to rent to a Church to use on Wednesdays and Sundays and to rent to others on Saturdays for weddings, funerals and other celebrations.  What will be your advice, using SD micro level approach?  What are the SD Goals that your interventional programme has addressed?  Note that community leadership prefer modern projects and dislike hand-pumps, neighbourhood water scheme and pit latrines for no justifiable reasons.  Total fund available for intervention is 100,000 US Dollars. 26.5
  33. 33. Possible interventions: Hand/Mono pumps in 10 strategic places in community (10,000 USD) with 1,000 USD as annual maintenance cost. Neighbourhood water scheme points in 2 strategic points to cost 20,000 USD with 2,000 USD as annual maintenance cost. Big Reticulated water scheme with distribution lines to cost 70,000 USD with 6,000 USD as annual maintenance cost.
  34. 34. Possible interventions: Health awareness campaigns, medical outreach interventions etc. (10,000 USD) Ventilated pit latrine at 5 points (5,000 USD) Public toilet with dedicated water system and electric power (10,000 USD) with additional maintenance and cleaning cost of 3,000 USD Community town-hall for 50,000 USD
  35. 35. GROUP DISCUSSION 2 SCENARIO:  A nation B has over 90% of its population as highly religious, they dislike abortion and family planning regulations with the belief that children are blessings from God. The perception is that unconsciously, every tribe of the nation is encouraging increase in birth rate among its people, as a way of enhancing its political voting power in the future.  The nation also has over 60% of its population as very poor, lacking employment opportunities and are mostly illiterates. Due to high population growth rate, the economy, life expectancy, hunger, societal strife, pressure on inadequate development interventional facilities/infrastructures etc. are all increasing at fast
  36. 36. CONTINUATION OF GROUP DISCUSSION 2  Current estimates indicate that if this trend continues, many more of its citizens will continue to risk their lives migrating to ‘greener pastures’ in the developed nations as refugees.  The Government of this nation is worried and has approached your team to advise on interventions it can use to manage this problem.  They are willing a spend a reasonable amount of its revenue to address the problem and is willing to partner any other nation or international body for the same reason.  Considering the importance of community education and other emerging interventions that can enhance the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals,
  37. 37. 1. https://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=https%3A%2F%2Fc1.staticflickr.co m%2F7%2F6213%2F6351083982_b6d47d4553_b.jpg&imgrefurl=https%3A %2F%2Fwww.flickr.com%2Fphotos%2Fshareresearchconsortium%2F63510 83982&docid=zaY0GE9qEbemYM&tbnid=_2ysbrjcitVgCM%3A&w=815&h=1 024&source=sh%2Fx%2Fim 2. https://www.amazon.co.uk/Governance-Peaceful-Coexistence-Sustainable- Advancement- ebook/dp/B079HJBWX8/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1527510031&s r=1-1&keywords=some+governance+and+peaceful+coexistence+issues 3. http://www.eajournals.org/journals/international-journal-of-development-and- economic-sustainability-ijdes/vol-5-issue-5-september-2017/sustainability- filters-enhancers-towards-improving-intervention-functionality-sustainable- advancement-holistic-concept 4. https://www.projectsmart.co.uk/pareto-analysis-step-by-step.php 5. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld 6. https://www.tias-web.info/wp- content/uploads/2016/02/OConnor_SDGs_as_a_network_of_targets4_02022 016.pdf REFERENCES

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