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Gender & emotion in the workplace (chapter 13)



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Gender & emotion in the workplace (chapter 13)

  1. 1. GENDER & EMOTION IN THE WORKPLACE (CHAPTER 13) Dr. Lora Helvie-Mason, COMS 404
  2. 2. Before you read…  Consider why there is a chapter on gender and emotion  Explore what you EXPECT this chapter will cover  Reflect on your own experiences in various organizations
  3. 3. Slow changes in the workplace  Women earned 62% of men’s wages  47% of mothers with children under 18 worked outside the home  Men earned the majority of degrees  Women earning 80% of men’s wages  Equity increases at younger age  71% of mothers with children under 18 worked outside the home  Women earn over 55% of all bachelor’s degrees and 60% of master’s 1970s 2008
  4. 4. Know the history  Equal Pay Act of 1963  Civil Rights Act of 1964  Pregnancy Discrimination Act  Civil Rights Act of 1991  Family Medical Leave Act  Millennial women are just as likely as men to want jobs with great responsibility. The education gap between women and men has significantly decreased. The family structure has changed for both men and women.
  5. 5. Slow changes in the family structure  The workplace isn’t the only aspect of our society that has changed—so, too, has the family structure  Is this relevant?  Absolutely!  Work-family and gender policies are tied together.  As our family structures have shifted, our expectations and needs from our workplace change
  6. 6. Changing for employees’ needs  Organizations are creating programs to meet the needs of the diverse employees in their care.  On-site daycare  Flextime  Various hours  Dependent care  Flexible spending accounts  Employee Assistance Programs
  7. 7. Discrimination & Unequal Treatment  Only about 15% of senior management positions in the U.S. are held by women.  The numbers decrease even more when you consider minority women with only 5.2% of them holding professional management positions.  Daily and Dalton (1999) wrote about the glass ceiling, a metaphorical boundary, based on misconceptions, stereotypes, and beliefs that keep certain groups of individuals from advancing into management positions.  The metaphor of the concrete ceiling was later developed to describe the plight of minorities who try to advance through seemingly impenetrable barriers.  Women tend to occupy caring professions or even caring positions in professional fields.
  8. 8. Discrimination  Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)  Sexual Harassment  Quid Pro Quo  Hostile work environment  Sometimes, discrimination is less visible than we may expect  Consider the fact that women are often not included in mentoring and networking opportunities (this impacts promotion/raises, etc.)  What is the difference between ―glass‖ and ―concrete‖ ceilings?
  9. 9. Pink Collar Work
  10. 10. Sexuality and Gender Identity  Issues around sexuality and gender identity have become more open in society, challenging workplaces to craft policies that prevent workplace discrimination.  2 million transgender professionals LEAVE work due to discriminatory practices  Sex – biolgoical classification  Gender – culturally defined set of behavioral, cultural, psychological, and social traits associated with one’s sex  Transgender – umbrella term for individuals with non-traditional gender identities  Policies are shaping and changing as gender identity and sexuality are more common topics in the workplace. Diversity awareness/training, among other suggestions, is essential to foster an inclusive work environment.
  11. 11. Emotions and employees  According to Rafaeli and Sutton (1989) it is important to know the rules for emotional management in order to understand organizational culture.  Appropriate emotional management will help an individual develop relationships and it can increase an individual’s chances of achieving career success.  Socialization research on a variety of service industries suggests that organizations choose employees who seem able to conform to certain emotional display rules.
  12. 12. Emotions and employees  Manage Emotions  Deep acting – emotional display that stems from more of a conditioned internal state  Surface acting – external state of emotion, it is a public display of emotions  Amplification  Initiate or enhance public displays of emotions  Suppression  Reducing or eliminating public displays of emotion
  13. 13. Socialization and Expectations  We typically have a set of thoughts about how an organizational will be. Slowly, as we interact with its members, we learn what is expected  Professional/Unprofessional  Consider how socialization occurs within the organizations you have been personally involved in.
  14. 14. Emotional Regulation  Emotional dissonance  Strain  Emotional labor  Frequency of appropriate emotional display  Attentiveness to required display rules  Variety of emotion required to be expressed  Burnout  Socialization
  15. 15. Work-Family Balance  Conflict  Health outcomes  ―Second Shift‖  Domestic labor  Career advancement implications  Depends on occupations  Stress  Some positives may exist (Greenhous & Powell)  Consequently, although the policies do exist in many organizations, working parents are still conflicted in how to balance their work and family lives in such a way that meets the needs of both their employee and their own families.
  16. 16. Telecommuting and Telework  Nilles defined as:  Telework is ―ANY form of substitution of information technologies (such as telecommunications and computers) for work- related travel‖ (p. 1).
  17. 17. Gender & Emotion in the Workplace