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Pharmaceutical Industry training

Summer training of chemical Engineering at MDC pharmaceutical Industry

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Pharmaceutical Industry training

  2. 2. Introduction What is a Tablet? • Tablet is defined as a compressed solid dosage form containing medicaments with or without excipients. • According to the Indian Pharmacopoeia Pharmaceutical ,tablets are solid, flat or biconvex dishes, unit dosage form, prepared by compressing a drug or a mixture of drugs, with or without diluents. • The excipients can include diluents, binders or granulating agents, disintegrants, sweeteners or flavours and pigments.
  3. 3. Diluents: Diluents are fillers used to make required bulk of the tablet when the drug dosage itself is inadequate to produce the bulk. Ex.- Lactose, Sorbitol. Binders: These materials are added either dry or in wet- form to form granules or to form cohesive compacts for directly compressed tablet. Ex. - Acacia, Gelatin. Lubricants: Lubricants are intended to prevent adhesion of the tablet materials to the surface of dies and punches, reduce inter particle friction and may improve the rate of flow of the tablet granulation. Ex. - Stearic acid,talc. Excipients
  4. 4. Disintegrants: Added to a tablet formulation to facilitate its breaking or disintegration when it contact in water. Ex. - Starches are the most common disintegrating agents. Colours: The use of colours and dyes in a tablet has two purposes: (1) Product Identification (2) Production of more elegant product Ex.- D&C and FD&C dyes and lakes Flavors and Sweeteners: To enhance taste and make tablets visually attractive.Ex. – sucrose, dextrose, lactose.
  5. 5. Adavantages Of Tablet : • Lighter and compact. • Easiest and cheapest to package and strip. • Suitable for large scale production. Disadvantages Of Tablet : • Difficult to swallow in case of children and unconscious patients • Bitter tasting drugs, drugs with an objectionable odor or drugs that are sensitive to oxygen may require encapsulation or coating.
  6. 6. Unit Operations There are three methods of preparing tablet granulations. These are a) Wet granulation b) Dry granulation (also called "slugging") c) Direct compression. Wet Granulation : The most popular method (over 70% ) Granulation is done • To prevent segregation of the constituents of the powder blend. • To improve flowability of the powder mixture. • To improve homogeneity and thus ensure content uniformity
  7. 7. Wet Granulation Flowsheet
  8. 8. • The dry granulation process is used to form granules without using a liquid solution. • In this process, the primary powder particles are aggregated under high pressure. Dry Granulation
  9. 9. • Direct Compression is the simplest form of oral dosage production as it contains the fewest process stages, leading to a shorter process cycle and faster production times. • The ingredients are weighed, blended and then compacted directly following lubrication. Direct Compression
  10. 10. Sifter: An instrument used to sieve the ingredients of a tablet with a replaceable mess ware. In this technique, particles of powder mass are placed on a screen made of uniform aperture. The sifter is attached with a vibrator that helps in sieving the materials through the meshwork. Equipments
  11. 11. Planetary Mixer: Solutions of the binding agent are added to the mixed powders with stirring. The planetary mixer can mix a material of 100kg. The beater of the planetary mixer revolves 2-4times for each revolution of the head, providing double mixing action.
  12. 12. Mass Mixer: This is also mixing equipment used to mix dry as well is wet ingredients. The mixer has blades that are alternately arranged and is allows uniform mixing. The mass mixer is emptied by inverting it and scrapping off its ingredients.
  13. 13. Multi Mill: This is a hammer mill that uses a high speed rotor to which a number of swinging hammers are fixed. The unit is enclosed with chamber containing a grid or removable screen through which the material can pass. The material is fed from the top and ground by impact of hammers or against the plates around the periphery of the casing.
  14. 14. Spray Dryer: It consists of a chamber, containing horizontal arrangements of trays on which granules are dried. The drying process is accomplished by a gust of hot air driven by or blower through an electric heater and heat exchange.
  15. 15. The basic unit of any tablet press is a set of tooling consisting of two punches and a die which is called a station. The die determines the diameter or shape of the tablet; the punches, upper and lower, come together in the die that contains the tablet formulation to form a tablet. There are two types of presses: 1.Single -Punch The single-punch press has a single station of one die and two punches, and is capable of producing from 40 to 120 tablets per minute depending on the size of the tablet. 2.Rotary -Punch The rotary press has a multiplicity of stations arranged on a rotating table in which the dies are fed the formulation producing tablets at production rates of' from a few to many thousands per minute. Tablet Presses
  16. 16. Thank You