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Descriptive Epidemiology.pptx

  1. Descriptive Epidemiology KINE 3352
  2. REVIEW! 1) What are the two major types of epidemiology? 2) Which one is concerned with causation? 3) Which allows us to test hypotheses?
  3. Assumptions of Epidemiology • Human disease does not occur at random (Hippocrates fans!) • Causal and preventive factors can be identified • Subgroups of populations in different places and times
  4. Descriptive Epidemiology •How is descriptive epidemiology used to help accomplish this?
  5. Descriptive Epidmiology • Describes the existing distribution of variables without considering causation • Measure prevalence, incidence of disease • Generates hypotheses for analytic studies
  6. Descriptive Epi •What are the three tenets of descriptive epidemiology?
  7. Answer • Person • Place • Time
  8. What are examples of each? •Person: •Place: •Time:
  9. Examples • Person: age, sex, race/ethnicity, SES, occupation, lifestyle • Place: neighborhood, state, country, environment • Time: date of exposure, date of diagnosis, etc.
  10. Who gets disease? Example-Breast Cancer incidence and mortality by race/ethnicity
  11. Who Gets Disease? Breast Cancer Incidence by Age in the UK
  12. Place: Is there a geographic pattern? Example: Breast Cancer Incidence by State
  13. Time: When is the disease occurring? • Short-term fluctuations • Example? • Cyclic patterns • Example? • Secular trend- Wait! What is this? • Example?
  14. What is a “secular trend”? “A trend associated with some characteristic or phenomenon that is not cyclical or seasonal but exists over a relatively long period.” Make sense? Ok, back to our regularly scheduled programming… …So, what is an example of a “secular trend” in diseases we study?
  15. Time: When is the disease occurring? • Short-term fluctuations • Food borne outbreak • Cyclic patterns • Annual increases in influenza in cold months • Secular trends • Long term changes over decades of heart disease, cancer
  16. Examples of secular trends • Diagnostic/detection bias • Management of disease after diagnosis • Long-term food production or consumption • Tobacco popularity
  17. Types of descriptive studies • Case reports • Cross-sectional surveys
  18. “Your Health Depends on Where you Live”: real-life examples of descriptive epi Environmental Factors: • u_live (through 6 min.) Social Factors: • As you watch, notice examples of person, place and time fAu8bEOV9XSktM8EJwK2Hx1Qdf5 (Rishi Manchanda TED Talk) How do these examples of “upstream factors” in individual patients be extrapolated to the larger population and descriptive data collection