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Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps

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Presentation by Delia Grace for ILRI Annual Program Meeting, Addis Ababa, 15 April 2010

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Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps

  1. 1. Livestock and human health: the good, the bad, the gaps Delia Grace, ILRI ILRI APM, Addis Ababa, April 2010
  2. 2. Human Health Bads & Goods Huge impact Moderate or ? impact Small impact Zoonoses EID Drug resistance An.SF & Chronic dis. Occupational hazard Nutrition Dis. resistance Psycho-social benefits Ecosystem services
  3. 3. Big Bad: Zoonoses <ul><li>Most diseases (60%)are zoonotic </li></ul><ul><li>But most burden of disease is not </li></ul>But in poor countries 1 in 10 will die from a zoonosis Adapted from Ecker et al., BMC Microbiol. Killer infections
  4. 4. <ul><li>8 diseases > 90% of burden ( Diarr, Tb, Tetanus, Schisto, Leishman, sleeping sickness, Chagas, Arbov. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Not just human health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kill and sicken animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add risk to production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping small farmers out of markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposing penalties on informal sector </li></ul></ul>Roth et al., WHO Bull
  5. 5. Big bad: EID <ul><li>Newly discovered; </li></ul><ul><li>Recently increased in incidence or prevalence; </li></ul><ul><li>Recently expanded in geographic or climatologic range; </li></ul><ul><li>Jumped from animals to humans </li></ul>
  6. 6. Big bad: EID <ul><li>Even more EIDs are zoonotic (75%). </li></ul><ul><li>The worst diseases have come from animals: Smallpox, AIDS, Spanish Flu, Black Death </li></ul><ul><li>Currently most come from wildlife. </li></ul><ul><li>Appear to be increasing in incidence. </li></ul><ul><li>One new disease every 7 months. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Moderate bad: Drug resistance <ul><li>Using drugs in animals causes resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock drug use in poor countries probably not so important, use by poor farmers even less </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Human drug use far bigger cause of resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Big problem growth promoters & mass treatments </li></ul></ul>> 40% livestock < 3% vet drugs -- 3.
  8. 8. The health goods <ul><li>Animal source foods -> better nutrition-> help fight off disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong relation: diarrhoea, resp infect., tb, AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable: influenza, typhus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little: malaria, plague, tetanus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem services: regulation of disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing disease spillovers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering disease control options </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canaries in the mine </li></ul>
  9. 9. Consensus <ul><li>It’s big and looming larger </li></ul><ul><li>Its complicated </li></ul><ul><li>‘One world, One health’ way forward </li></ul>
  10. 10. Randolph et al., JAS Randolph et al., JAS Animals Owned Nutritional (Growth) Status Health Status + + Probability of Zoonotic Disease Animal Production Food Crop Production Food Crop Sales Animal & Product Sales + + + + - HH Income + + (Child) Dietary Intake + Level of Care/Feeding Behaviour + Labor Allocated to Livestock + - Labor Demands on (Female) Caregiver Hired Labor - Total Labor Demands + + + Health Inputs + Food Crop Purchases ASF Purchases HH Crop Consumption HH ASF Consumption + + + - + Nutrient Interactions Chronic Disease Risk + - Land allocation to feed Traction, nutrient cycling + - + + + + + (Female) Caregiver Income + + Wage Labour by (Female) Caregiver - - + Environmental Toxin Concentration - + Cognitive Performance + + AIDS Complications - Arrows between variables indicate hypothesized causal relationships. The + or - signs indicate hypothesized direction of effects. test test
  11. 11. Controversies <ul><li>We’ve never had it so good versus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We face unprecedented threats and impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A warmer, wetter, sicker world versus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many other drivers more important than climate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Being poor makes you sick versus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being sick makes you poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emerging infectious disease versus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglected tropical disease </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Malaysia: climate and malaria 1967-1971 : MEP 1982: Vector-borne Diseases Control Program- Policy, program & strategy development 2003: National Drug Resistance Surveillance Program 1961: Pilot Malaria Eradication Project 2006: National Treatment Review Committee: ACT 1990-92 : Field trial on insecticide treated bednet (ITN) 1993: Nationwide Use of ITN 2004: Renewed studies on simian malaria 1972-1981: Anti-Malaria Program 0 50000 300000 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 Number of Cases Temperature 25 30
  13. 13. Gaps <ul><li>Risk assessment & communication </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management </li></ul><ul><li>One World, One Health into action </li></ul><ul><li>Managing EID globally and zoonoses locally </li></ul>
  14. 15. Human health Bads & Goods Take homes <ul><li>60% of diseases are zoonotic. </li></ul><ul><li>One in 10 people in poor countries will die of a zoonotic disease </li></ul><ul><li>75% of Emerging Infectious Diseases are zoonotic. </li></ul><ul><li>Expect a new EID every 7 months. </li></ul><ul><li>What you worry about and what will kill you are probably not the same… </li></ul>
  15. 16. Thank you for your attention