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Although annual per capita fish consumption in Low-Income Food Deficit Countries (LIFDCs) has been growing the rate of growth has been small. Moreover, in southern Africa, where fish constitutes more than half of all animal protein consumed, per capita consumption has actually been falling due to a combination of population growth, static or reducing supplies from capture fisheries, increased cost of imports and the failure of aquaculture.
A weakness of our research approach to date has been its piecemeal nature. By this I mean…To address this, our initiative is adopting 4 key features for a ‘business unusual’ approach
Mobilizing AR4D partnerships to improve access to critical animal-source foods
Mobilizing AR4D partnershipsto improve access to critical animal- source foods Tom Randolph GCARD 2 Pre-Conference Meeting Punta de Este, Uruguay, 27 October 2012
The flow1. How we have framed the context for the Program2. Our approach: what is different3. The critical role of development partnerships4. The development partnership challenge (and our objective today!)
The challenge Can research accelerate livestock and aquaculture development to benefit the poor? o Mixed record to date o Systematic under-investment o Also related to our research-for-development model? Focus of new CGIAR Research Program o Increase productivity of small-scale systems o ‘by the poor’ poverty reduction o ‘for the poor’ food security
Correcting perceptions1. Animal-source foods are a luxury and bad for health, so should not promote2. Small-scale production and marketing systems are disappearing; sector is quickly industrializing3. Livestock and aquaculture development will have negative environmental impacts
Our underlying hypothesis Livestock and Blue Revolutions: accelerating demand in developing countries as urbanization and incomes rise Industrial systems will provide a large part of the needed increase in supply to cities and the better-off in some places But the poor will often continue to rely on small-scale production and marketing systems If able to respond, they could contribute, both increasing supplies and reducing poverty …and better manage the transition for many smallholder households
Managing the transition Estimates for smallholders in Africa and Latin America (Wiggins 2012; Dorward 2009) : 1/3 Will ‘step up’ to become commercial farmers 1/3 Will ‘step out’ and work for other, go to the city 1/3 Could go either way Can 2/3 be enabled to develop into commercial producers, accumulate capital and transition out of agriculture? deeper rural economic growth avoid social disruption (Johnston et al. 1995)
But productivity gap remains despiteinvestment in livestock development Meat (kg output/kg biomass/yr) 0.2 1980 2005 0.17 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.04 Africa Latin America South Asia Industrialized Countries Biomass is calculated as inventory x average liveweight. Output is given as carcass weight. Source: (Steinfeld et al 2006)
But productivity gap remains despiteinvestment in livestock development (2) Milk (kg/cow/yr) 6350 1980 2005 4226 1021 1380 904 411 397 517 Africa Latin America South Asia Industrialized Countries Source: (Steinfeld et al 2006)
Aquaculture lagging tooannual growth rate of aquaculture 2007-2015 needed to satisfy fish demand source: Cai (2011)
A smarter approach? Drawing from recent experiences, can we accelerate research to impact? Objective of new CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish
GoalMore milk, meat and fish by and for the poorTo sustainably increase the productivity ofsmall-scale livestock and fish systems to increasethe availability and affordability of animal-sourcefoods for poor consumers and,in doing so, reduce poverty through greaterparticipation by the poor along the whole valuechains for animal-source foods.
Basic Idea: Solution-driven R4D to achieve impact Traditional approach was piecemeal Past research has focused specific aspects of given value chains, commodities and country. Consumers ...in Country A Inputs & Services Production Processing Marketing Consumers ...in Country B Inputs & Services Production Processing Marketing Consumers ...in Country C Inputs & Services Production Processing Marketing Consumers ...in Country D
Approach: Solution-driven R4D to achieve impact#1: Addressing the whole value chain#2+3: Working directly to impact at scale with development partners R4D integrated to transform selected value chains In targeted commodities and countries. Consumers Major intervention with development partners Value chain development team + research partners Strategic L&F CRP Cross-cutting Platforms • Technology Generation • Market Innovation • Targeting & Impact INTERVENTIONS TO SCALE GLOBAL RESEARCH OUT REGIONALLY PUBLIC GOODS
#4 Focus, focus, focus!Working in only 9 target value chains
Status Partnership of 4 CGIAR Centers ILRI WorldFish Center CIAT ICARDA Officially started January 1st, 2012 Engaging with partners Consolidating ongoing activities, and developing strategy by component and value chain
3-year Budget Envelope by Component ProgramTOTAL Approved = US$99.6m Management2/3’s funding secured $5.6m Institutional Overhead $16.3m Targeting, Gender and Impact Technology $13.3m Development $43.3m Value Chain Development $20.9m
Approach: Solution-driven R4D to achieve impactHow we are visioning the evolving roles of development partnership Along the Impact Pathway Research Relative degree of involvement Knowledge partners Experiments partner Evaluation Evidence Attracting Assessment investment Mobilization Best bets Implementing large-scale interventions Design Piloting Lessons Advocacy Context Dissemination Development partners Year 1 Year 8-12 Program horizon in a target value chain
Approach: Solution-driven R4D to achieve impact Different types of partners will be needed… ResearchRelative degree of involvement partners CGIAR Universities NARS ARIs Media International NGOs Consumer Local NGO/CBOs Private Sector lobbies Community development SMSE Livestock/aquaculture Commercial Development Inputs/services Producer organizations partners Year 1 Year 8-12 Program horizon in a target value chain
Approach: Solution-driven R4D to achieve impactRelative degree of involvement Different modalities… Research partners • Work as an alliance with common objective CGIAR Universities • Establish long-term strategic NARS ARIs partnership Media International NGOs Consumer Local NGO/CBOs Private Sector lobbies Community development SMSE Livestock/aquaculture Commercial Development Inputs/services Producer organizations partners Year 1 Year 8-12 Program horizon in a target value chain
The AR4D Partnership Challenge ‘Partnership’ often form of subcontracting Recent experiences highlight difficulties Different motivations, ways of measuring success Different ways of working: timeliness, definition of evidence
The AR4D Partnership Challenge Development view of Research partners Too slow, inefficient Imposes own solution, doesn’t listen Extractive, doesn’t feed back Doesn’t share credit Research view of Development partners Executes a formula without analysis No rigorous evaluation, so limited ‘learning’ Driven by the anecdotal Identified as a ‘critical success factor’ to achieve impact in our program Head of Development Partnership as member of management team
Our objective today Analyse what makes AR4D partnerships work/fail How do their incentives to partner align/differ? How do their expectations align/differ? What principles, processes, modalities help create healthy partnership?
Output: a partnership strategy Purpose: create and nurture effective partnership between research and development actors for an accelerated AR4D process to achieve impact at scale Strategic objectives: what will success look like? Number of partnerships established meeting criteria? % of funds mobilized by development partners Development partners sharing in governance? Critical success factors: Ex. Articulating a common purpose Actions?
CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish livestockfish.cgiar.orgCGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. The CGIAR ResearchProgram on Livestock and Fish aims to increase the productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems in sustainableways, making meat, milk and fish more available and affordable across the developing world.