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International perspectives on One Health

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Presentation by Delia Grace, Bernard Bett, Christine Atherstone, Fred Unger, Hung Nguyen-Viet and Sinh Dang-Xuan at the Australian Veterinary Association Annual Conference, Perth, Australia, 5–10 May 2019.

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International perspectives on One Health

  1. 1. International perspectives on One Health Delia Grace, Bernard Bett, Christine Atherstone, Fred Unger, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Sinh Dang- Xuan Australian Veterinary Association annual conference Perth, Australia 5–10 May 2019
  2. 2. I have the following disclosures related to my presentation: •Funding Sources: Donors including ACIAR, BMGF, BMZ, DFID, IDRC, SIDA, USAID •Financial Interests: None •Other Interests: None
  4. 4. Improved food and nutrition security for health Improved natural resource systems and ecosystem services Reduced poverty ILRI and CGIAR contributions to the SDGs ILRI’s mission is to improve food and nutritional security and to reduce poverty in developing countries through research for efficient, safe and sustainable use of livestock — ensuring better lives through livestock.
  5. 5. ILRI Resources • Staff: 630+ • $ 80-90 million annual budget • 130 scientists from over 30 countries • One third of ILRI staff are women • Large campuses in Kenya and Ethiopia • Regional or country office in 14 countries
  6. 6. ILRI around the world Animal and Human Health
  7. 7. Mind the gap 7
  8. 8. Source: (Steinfeld et al. 2006) Some developing country regions have gaps of up to 430% in milk The production gap
  9. 9. 9 The death gap  Animal disease can be the bottleneck  ND Africa and Asia  ECF east Africa Young Adult Cattle 22% 6% Shoat 28% 11% Poultry 70% 30% Source: Otte & Chilonda; IAEA Annual mortality of African livestock ( Around half due to preventable or curable disease )
  10. 10. 10 The vet gap
  11. 11. The zoonoses gap
  12. 12. The reporting gap Reporting system Zoonoses Scope WAHID 33 Animal TAD Info 2 Animal Pro Med All All GLEWS 19 All Health Map All All Africa •253 million SLU •25 million lost annually Source: HealthMap • 12-13 million from notifiable disease • 80,000 reported == 99.8% un-reported
  13. 13. The costly gap Period Costs (conservative estimates) Annual average 6 outbreaks other than SARS -Nipah virus (Malaysia), -West Nile fever (USA), -HPAI (Asia, Europe), -BSE (US), -Rift Valley Fever (Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia) - BSE (UK) costs in 1997-09 only 1998-2009 38.7 SARS 2002-2004 41.5 Total in 12 year period (1998-2009) 80.2 6.7 b 13 Source World Bank 2012
  14. 14. One Health diseases ILRI is working on African swine fever Rift valley fever Peste des petits ruminants Highly pathogenic avian influenza Middle eastern respiratory syndrome Ebola Contagious bovine and caprine pleuropneumonia
  15. 15. You are called out and find a dying pig with unfamiliar symptoms. What do you do? 1. Call the police / vet authorities 2. Advise the farmer to sell it fast so he can recoup some loss 3. Take photos, notes and samples 4. Give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation 5. Kill it and eat it
  16. 16. African swine fever –bloody blackberry Many sudden deaths Bloody skin, eye Bloody guts Blackberry jam spleen Not definitive
  17. 17. ILRI is building a comparative blue-print of viral genome sequences Lay the genomic foundations to help understand the complex molecular epidemiology and disease
  18. 18. Potential points of disease interventions by mapping key drivers of disease spread
  19. 19. We have a challenge model for ASF that few groups have access to and allows laboratory testing of new vaccines Identification of candidate vaccine antigens o Test via live attenuated viral vaccines  made using genome editing tools, e.g., CRISPR/cas  made via synthetic genomics o Test via subunit vaccine  viral vectored vaccine  recombinant protein There are no commercial vaccines Sanjay Vashee, J. Craig Venter Institute
  20. 20. Hypothesis: Domestic pigs are naturally infected with Ebola virus; they play a role in the epidemiology of the virus as an amplification host they are a possible zoonotic source for human infection.
  21. 21. ILRI foresight ‘risk assessment for Ebola in pig value chain in Uganda’ Hayman and Olival 2014
  22. 22. Pig keeping and pig disease ‘sick’ pigs: 25% (n=1,123 sampled)
  23. 23. Temporal relation between pork consumption and Ebola outbreaks Participatory Rural Appraisal in 24 villages
  24. 24. Pigott et al 2014 Wood et al 2014 Robinson et al 2014 Ecological niche for Ebola Poverty Pig density Maps of risk factors
  25. 25. Outbreaks associated pigs, poverty, ecology
  26. 26. 26 Rift Valley fever- valley origins Water associated- mosquitoes spread Depression Abortions at any age in sheep cattle Young animals (lambs calves) die Humans susceptible – 2%
  27. 27. RVF -- Background • Rift Valley fever – mosquito-borne viral zoonosis mainly affecting cattle, sheep, goats and camels • Epidemics -- associated with above- normal, persistent rainfall and flooding • Motivation: o Overlap select pathogen -- severe threat to human and animal health o Epidemics – severe socioeconomic impacts
  28. 28. Drivers • 2000, following heavy rainfall • About 2000 humans infected, 245 deaths • Thousands of sheep and goats affected • RVF virus introduction linked to livestock trade • Evidence of new transmissions 2004 • 1987, 93, 98, 2003 • Heavy rainfall, following a short rainless period • Ae. aegypti, C. nebulosus, A. gambiae, C. quinquefasciatus • Mar 1990 and Jan 2008 • Livestock movement from Comoros • Climate variables not clear • 1977 outbreak • Suspected to be due to livestock movement or wind- assisted migration of mosquitoes • Heavy, persistent rainfall
  29. 29. Mapping RVF in East Africa Mapping using outbreak data Predictors: o Cumulative rainfall o Soil types – clayey soils About 50 million people live in the high risk areas
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. You give a talk at a conference on epidemiology of a major disease. The govt. press mis-reports and mis-genders you. What do you do? 1. Insist you are a man and offer to prove it 2. Apologize profusely and resign from your high paid job 3. Keep your head down and hope it all blows over 4. Engage with relevant authorities to make a correction to the record
  33. 33. Middle eastern respiratory syndrome- Co-V 2012 Saudia Arabia Camels Corona virus Respiratory
  34. 34. First human case in Africa MERS in camels for decades
  35. 35. 36 Human health Societies, cultures, Economies, institutions, Policies Agroecosystem health Animal Health Vet Pub Health EcoHealth One medicine ONE HEALTH Wildlife health Wildlife health Plant health
  36. 36. Timely responses to reduce impacts • Surveillance and response in animal hosts can reduce costs by 90% Adapted from IOM 2009
  37. 37. 38
  38. 38. Strategic L&F CRP Cross-cutting Platforms • Technology Generation • Market Innovation • Targeting & Impact Consumers ILRI and partners are working to transform selected value chains in targeted commodities and countries. Value chain development team + research partners GLOBAL RESEARCH PUBLIC GOODS INTERVENTIONS TO SCALE OUT REGIONALLY Major intervention with development partners Leverage the livestock revolution for the poor What is ILRI doing?
  39. 39. Key messages Large gaps in livestock productivity keep people poor, hungry and at risk Livestock disease is a key barrier to using livestock as a ladder out of poverty Participatory, Demand-led, One Health research can leverage livestock for poor countries and safe-guard middle and high income countries
  40. 40. ILRI M.Hasan,c/oPhotoshare