What is Excel ?
Excel 2013 is a spreadsheet program that allows you to store, organize,
and analyze information.
It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro
programming language called Visual Basic for Applications.
The Excel Cell
Every worksheet is made up of thousands of rectangles, which are called cells.
A cell is the intersection of a row and a column.
Columns are identified by letters (A, B, C), while rows are identified by numbers (1, 2, 3).
Each cell has its own name—or cell address—based on its column and row.
Cell can contain different types of content, including text, formatting,
formulas and functions.
Text: Cells can contain text, such as letters,
numbers, and dates.
Formatting: Formatting attributes can change
the way letters, numbers, and dates are
Formulas and Functions: Cells can contain
formulas and functions that calculate cell values.
Excel 2013 has a variety of viewing options.
You can choose to view any workbook in Normal view, Page Layout view, or Page Break
To change worksheet views, locate and select the desired worksheet view command in
the bottom-right corner of the Excel window.
Formatting Text and Numbers in Cells
Example: Change the number format for cells to modify the way dates are displayed.
Excel uses standard operators for formula such as plus, minus multiplication, division,
Cell Reference: Creating simple formulas in Excel manually, you will use cell addresses to
create a formula. This is known as making a cell reference.
By combining a mathematical operator with cell references, a variety of simple formulas can
A complex formula has more than one mathematical operator.
When performing mathematical operations in Excel, keep in mind that the standard
order of operations applies.
Standard order of operations:
Insert Function Tool
Insert function tool is used to ensure a formula is entered with the correct syntax.
you can select the function that most matches your needs. When the function is highlighted, a
description is shown underneath the function list.
Select the cell that will contain the function.
Click the Formulas tab on the Ribbon, then select the Insert Function command.
The Insert Function dialog box will appear, type a few keywords, then click GO.
Review the results to find the desired function, then click OK.
The Function Arguments dialog box will appear, select the field, then enter the desired cell.
Click OK, the function will be calculated, and the result will appear in the cell.
Start Insert Function Tool on cell where we want the total:
Select the SUM function:
Select the first cell of the set to add in the first box on the sum function screen.
Enter subsequent cell values in each box on the sum dialog
Select them individually, or drag the entire range(A1:A5)
Press OK for Total cell
Relative and Absolute Cell References
There are two types of cell references: Relative and Absolute.
Relative references: change when a formula is copied to another cell.
Example: Copy the formula =A1+B1 from row 1 to row 2, the formula will become
Absolute References: Absolute references do not change when copied or filled.
An absolute reference is designated in a formula by the addition of a dollar sign ($).
In Track Changes feature, every cell you edit will be highlighted with a unique border and
To turn on Track Changes:
From the Review tab, click the Track Changes command, then select Highlight Changes from the
The dialog box will appear, click OK to save your workbook.
Track Changes will be turned on. A triangle and border color will appear in any cell you edit.
Sometimes you may want to add a comment to provide feedback instead of editing the
contents of a cell.
To add a comment:
Select the cell where you want the comment to appear
From the Review tab, click the New Comment command.
A comment box will appear. Type your comment, then click anywhere outside the box to close
The comment will be added to the cell.
What is Macro?
A macro is an action or a set of actions that you can run as many times as you
want. If you have tasks in Microsoft Excel that you do repeatedly, you can
record a macro to automate those tasks. When you create a macro, you are
recording your mouse clicks and keystrokes. After you create a macro, you can
edit it to make minor changes to the way it works.
Before recording the Macro make sure Developer tab is visible on ribbon.
By default, the Developer tab is not visible, so do the following:
Click the File tab, click Options and then click the Customize Ribbon category.
Under Customize the Ribbon, in the Main Tabs list, click Developer, and then click
The developer tab will be visible.
In the developer tab click Record Micro.
Enter the Macro name in Macro name box, shortcut key in shortcut key
box and description in description box, click OK to start recording.
Perform the actions you want to automate, such as filling the data.
When you are done, on developer tab click on Stop Recording.
You can quickly reorganize a worksheet by sorting your
Types of Sorting:
Sort Sheet: Organizes all of the data in your worksheet by one
Sort Range: sorts the data in a range of cells, which can be helpful
when working with a sheet that contains several tables.
To sort a Sheet:
Select a cell in the column you want to sort by.
Select the Data tab on the Ribbon, then click the Ascending command or the
The worksheet will be sorted by the selected column.
To sort a Range:
Select the cell range you want to sort.
Select the Data tab on the Ribbon, then click the Sort command.
The Sort dialog box will appear. Choose the column you want to sort by.
Decide the sorting order and then click OK.
The cell range will be sorted by the selected column.
Filters can be used to narrow down the data in your worksheet.
In order for filtering to work correctly, your worksheet should include a
A drop-down arrow will appear in each header cell, then click to the drop
down arrow for the selected column.
The filter menu will appear.
Check the boxes next to the data you want to filter, uncheck all the other box
and then click OK.
The data will be filtered.
Excel includes several tools and predefined table styles, allowing you to
create tables quickly and easily.
To format data as a table:
Select the cells you want to format as a table.
From the Home tab, click the Format as Table command in the Styles group.
Select a table style from the drop-down menu.
A dialog box will appear, confirming the selected cell range for the table, click OK.
The cell range will be formatted in the selected table style.
PivotTables can help make your worksheets more manageable
by summarizing data and allowing you to manipulate it in
They allow users to manipulate data and see it change based
on the way the data is grouped.
To add or remove data, simply add or remove the field from
To create a PivotTable:
Select the table or cells containing the data you want to use.
From the Insert tab, click the PivotTable command.
Create PivotTable dialog box will appear. Choose your settings, then click OK.
A blank PivotTable and Field List will appear.
In the PivotTable Field List, check the box for each field you want to add.
The selected fields will be added to one of the four areas below the Field List.
The PivotTable will calculate and summarize the selected fields
The advantage of a pivot table
is in the manipulation of data.
Fields in a pivot table can be hidden, added, and
rearranged by any user on the fly using the field list.
Other data related items are found on the Options tab.
The Design tab helps with style formatting.
Charts allow you to illustrate your workbook data graphically,
which makes it easy to visualize comparisons and trends.
Excel has several different types of charts
To Insert Chart
Select the cells you want to chart, including the column titles
and row labels.
From the Insert tab, click the desired Chart command.
Choose the desired chart type from the drop-down menu.
The selected chart will be inserted in the worksheet.
While creating and editing charts, you can also move a chart to a
new worksheet .
Select the chart on the worksheet and select the Move Chart object on the
Design tab of the ribbon.
Choose a new location for the chart.
The ability to change the chart type is also available from the ribbon.
Select the chart and choose Change Chart Type from the ribbons Design tab.
Select the new chart type you wish to use.
Charts can also be saved as templates.
Instead of displaying all cell content in exactly the same way, you can use formatting to change the appearance of dates, times, decimals, percentages (%), currency ($), and much more.
To modify the date:
1.Select the cells(s) you want to modify.
2.Click the drop-down arrow next to the Number Format command on the Home tab. The Number Formatting drop-down menu will appear.
3.Select the desired formatting option. In the Example we chose Long Date.
4. The selected cells will change to the new formatting style.
**You can also press CTRL+1 on your keyboard for quick access.
Excel uses standard operators for formulas, such as a plus sign for addition (+), a minus sign for subtraction (-), an asterisk for multiplication (*), a forward slash for division (/), and a caret (^) for exponents.
**All formulas in Excel must begin with an equals sign (=). This is because the cell contains, or is equal to, the formula and the value it calculates
When performing mathematical operations in Excel, keep in mind that the standard order of operations applies.
**When writing a formula, you can press the F4 key on your keyboard to switch between relative and absolute cell references. This is an easy way to quickly insert an absolute reference.
**Filtering options can also be accessed from the Sort & Filter command on the Home tab.
**If your table has headers, check the box next to My table has headers.
**Filtering options can also be accessed from the Sort & Filter command on the Home tab.
**If you change any of the data in your source worksheet, the PivotTable will not update automatically. To manually update it, select the PivotTable and then go to Analyze -> Refresh.
There are four areas at the bottom of the field list which allow you to further filter and manipulate your data:
Report Filter: Allows the entire report to be filtered by this column. If you wish to filter your pivot data by a particular item, set the column for that item in the report filter area.
Column Labels: This area is where items are placed by default when checked. It contains the columns of the pivot table.
Row Labels: This area can be used to add meaning to the data on the pivot table. Adding a field here will show the data for each item contained in the columns displayed, rather than a summary.
Values: This area contains the summaries and totals for the numeric data are kept here.
To move a chart to a new sheet:
Click on the chart to select it.
Select the Move chart object on the ribbon’s Design tab.
To move the chart to a new sheet, select the New Sheet option and name the worksheet, or move the chart to a different existing worksheet by selecting the Object In option and choose the sheet from the drop-down menu.
**You can also use the chart formatting shortcut buttons to quickly add chart elements, change the chart style, and filter the chart data.