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CdnContributionsEEJournal-WorkInProgress-JA

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  1. 1. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 1 Canadian Contributions to the Ecological Economics Journal The early foundation of ecological economics debuted with Georgescu-Rogen’s breakthrough analysis of thermodynamic laws in economics in the late 1960s and early 1970s (G-R, 1966 & 1971). It took over fifteen more years for this new school of thought to become institutionalized (Røpke, 2004)1. In 1988, the International Society of Ecological Economics (ISEE) was established and, a year later, the first volume of Ecological Economics was published. The Elsevier company published the 2014 journal metrics2 describing the impact of the journal in the academic sphere. For instance, in comparison to the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Ecological Economics has a greater general impact on other journals (Appendix A). Within ISEE there are 10 affiliated regional societies across the world3, including the Canadian Society of Ecological Economics (CANSEE)4. The Canadian society was first established in October 1993, during a conference at the University of Ottawa (CANSEE, March 1995). The society’s charter was written as follows, Recognizing that economies are embedded in and dependent upon the ecosphere, and that economic activities are the most evident and pervasive aspect of that dependence, the Mandate of CANSEE/SCANEE is to develop and promote understanding of the nature and implications of this dependence through research, education, policy analysis, communication, and other means (CANSEE, March 1995). The first CANSEE president was Peter Victor (York University, Toronto), who was then followed by William E. Rees (University of British Columbia, Vancouver), elected during the first meeting of the society. The very first biennial meeting of CANSEE, held at Simon Fraser University (Vancouver, British Columbia), in September 1995, brought around 40 students and ecological economists together to discuss about ‘Ecological Economics and Canadian Public Policy’ (CANSEE, Nov. 1996). This conference also included “several open space discussion, and a well-attended meeting on ecological 1 For a detailed historical description of early ecological economics, please refer to Inge Røpke(2004). 2 The journal metrics of Ecological Economics were retrieved online on August 20th , 2015, from http://www.journals.elsevier.com/ecological-economics/ 3 Information retrieved on August 20th , 2015, from http://www.isecoeco.org/about/regional-societies/ 4 CANSEE also has a french counterpart representing members from Québec and other francophone parts of Canada: Société Canadienne pour L’Écologie Économique (SCANÉÉ). For more information, please visit http://www.cansee.org/societe-canadienne-pour-leconomie-ecologique-scanee-invigorating-the-cansee-francophone-2/
  2. 2. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 2 economics research, education and curriculum issues in Canada” (CANSEE, Winter 1996). Twenty years later, CANSEE has organized 10 conferences, including the (upcoming) conference in October 2015. Moreover, since the first publication of the Ecological Economics journal in 1989, Canadian contributions to the journal have amounted to 198 articles, not including book reviews, which amounts to approximately 7 contributions per year, and represents about 3.82% of all 5’175 articles in the journal.5 In this paper, I conduct a statistical meta-analysis of Canadian contributions to the Ecological Economics (EE) journal, in order to understand the magnitude of ecological economics research produced in Canada since 1989. After collecting all the titles and keywords of the Canadian contributions, I produced quantified representations of the important themes for Canadian ecological economists (from October 1989 [Volume 1, issue 1] to October 2015 [Volume 118]). I have also created fourteen categories of EE major themes, in order to understand the general themes of Canadian ecological economics research. As a method of representation, I have used simple graphics like word clouds to illustrate the contributions. Methodologies For this research, a Canadian contribution to EE is determined by the origin of the authors’/author’s institution corresponding to the article published in the Ecological Economics journal. Hence, if an article has at least one author from an institution within Canada, the article will be counted as a Canadian contribution. The only set of Canadian contributions that I did not analyse was the book review articles, since the titles of the book reviews are the books’ titles as well. Also, there are no keywords available for these articles. Moreover, I did analyse the “Call for papers” articles, since they are useful descriptors of trends in journals. Therefore, I exclude the 33 book reviews of Canadian origin, which reduces the total number of Canadian articles to 198, instead of 231. 5 When you include Book Reviews the average is 11 contributions per year or about 4.5% of the article totalin Ecological Economics.
  3. 3. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 3 I encountered certain difficulties when gathering and analysing the data. For instance, Science Direct6 does not automatically categorize the origin(s) of the articles, and does not provide the absolute count of articles in the journal. Consequently, much of my time was spent on manually reviewing the origin of every single article, which increases the possibility of small errors in my data. Second, a small number of articles did not have keywords. Third, the 2015 data collection is not over yet. The November and December of 2015 volumes have not yet been published. Also, the 2015 October volume is not yet fully completed. Finally, not all (Canadian) EE articles are published within the Ecological Economics journal. In other words, my analysis does not capture all of the Canadian contributions to the discipline of EE. There are many instances where scientists and scholars write outside their specific sphere of interest in order to share and discuss their research with other researchers. Since EE is transdisciplinary, it may not be surprising that a large amount of its research is developed within other journals. For instance, the Canadian ecological economist William E. Rees has published many articles on EE for other journals and in books (Rees, 2013; Moore et al., 2013). Due to the aforementioned issues, this paper should not be taken as a complete inventory of Canadian contributions to the discipline of ecological economics. It is, however, a thorough account of Canadian contributions to the Ecological Economics journal. Title Words, Keywords, and Key Terms The most commonly used method to study titles is by collecting and studying the ‘substantive’ words in the titles (Yitzhaki, 1997). Hence, based on Yitzhaki (1997, p. 222) in order to correct for irrelevant, “trivial” and “non-significant” words, I deleted all conjunctions, articles, prepositions, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs. I also deleted all adverbs and numbers from the data. I used the same methodology for the keywords. The following bullet points describe three analytical categories of the words used by the Canadian articles, which I will later analyse.  Title words: every single term from the titles of every collected Canadian article from the EE journal. 6 I used the following website to collect the data: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09218009
  4. 4. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 4  Key terms: every single term from the keyword sections provided by the Canadian collected article.  Keywords: every single word from the keyword section. Keywords are defined as composite words between the semi-columns. For example, there are two key terms but only one keyword in “sustainable development”. This part demonstrates which words or terms are the most commonly used by Canadian ecological economists. Major Themes Since published articles in journals are not categorized with regards to their general respective topic, I produced a list of 15 major themes: Valuation; Policy; Conservation and environmental/resource management; Ecological economists and other academics; Sociology; Modelling; Business and finance; History and politics; Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC); Sustainability; Feminism; De/Growth; Indicators; Behaviour; Education. Although these themes were created from an attentive review of each Canadian EE abstract, this analysis is still subjective since the categories are solely based upon my understanding and knowledge of the articles. Appendix B provides a clearer description of each theme, by listing the important words depicting the themes in the Canadian articles. Canadian contributors to the Ecological Economics Journal Although some of the contributors in the data I collected are not necessarily Canadian, this research will consider all researchers related to a Canadian institution as a Canadian contributor. This section will depict the authors who have contributed the most to the Ecological Economics journal. Provincial, University & Institutional Contributions in Canadian Ecological Economics For each article that I have collected and analysed, there is at least one Canadian contributor. However, in many cases, certain articles have more than one Canadian contributor. Moreover, certain articles also have more than one provincially and/or institutionally represented contribution. Finally, there are more ecological economics
  5. 5. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 5 contributors (in terms of provincial and institutional origins) than ecological economics articles in the journal. Hence, I have kept and compiled the provincial and institutional origin for each Canadian article. If for one article there are two different provincial or institutional origins, then I will count that as two provincial or institutional contributors. The same goes if the province or institution is the same. If for one article there are two provincial or institutional origins that are the same, then there are two provincial or institutional contributors. By categorizing each Canadian provincial, university and institutional contribution, we can answer the following questions: Which Canadian provinces, universities and institutions have the most representation in the Ecological Economics journal? Publishing Years of the Canadian Contributions to Ecological Economics I have also calculated the number of Canadian articles published per year, from 1989 to 2015. In this manner, we can follow the 25-years old history of Canadian ecological economics. Findings and Discussion Researchers read articles in order to “formulate new ideas” and to stay “abreast of the latest developments in their field” (Gross, 2009, p.457). Titles are a very important feature for scientific and scholarly articles for grabbing the reader’s attention and providing a “short glimpse” of the article’s content (Yitzhaki, 1997). Based on Gross et al. (2009), most scientific titles either present the “major claim”, the “problem to be solved”, or the general theme of the paper. In the case of the collected Canadian titles, the variety of words used by the Canadian authors is quite large. In fact, there were 1526 substantive words7 used in the 198 Canadian ecological economics titles. Therefore, the Canadian titles have a good degree of ‘informativity’, at around 7.7 substantive words per article title, on average. 7 Between, 1989 and 2015, there were 877 different substantivewords used in Canadian ecological economics titles. This is about four substantivewords per Canadian article title, on average.
  6. 6. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 6 The average ‘informativity’ degree of leading sciences, social sciences and humanities journals, between 1980 and 1990, was respectively 8.15, 7.3, and 5.28 (Yitzhaki, 1997, p.226). The ‘Author Information Pack’ of the Ecological Economics journal informs the author that the title of their new submission should be “concise and informative” (ISEE, n/a, p.8). Hence, in comparison with Yitzhaki’s (1997) findings, the results from my research indicate that Canadian articles in the Ecological Economics journal inform the reader/researcher well, while staying concise. There are, however, issues when comparing one journal to a cluster of leading-journals of the 1980s. Based on the titles of the Canadian articles, the top three most utilized words are ‘environmental’, ‘ecological’, and ‘economics’. Although the words ‘economics’ and ‘economic’ have different definitions and usage, we can easily assume that both share similarities. If both words were taken as the same word, then ‘economic(s)’ would represent 2.3% of the Canadian title words (Table A). However, each title word collected represents a small share of the title words used by Canadian ecological economists. Word Cloud: Top Canadian Ecological Economics Title Words
  7. 7. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 7 Top Canadian Ecological Economics Title Words (Table A) Title Words Title Word Counts % Cumulative % 1. environmental 33 2.16% 2.16% 2. ecological 21 1.38% 3.54% 3. economics 19 1.25% 4.78% 4. ecosystem 18 1.18% 5.96% 5. economic 16 1.05% 7.01% 6. services 16 1.05% 8.06% 7. forest 14 0.92% 8.98% 8. management 14 0.92% 9.90% 9. analysis 13 0.85% 10.75% The International Society for Standardization (ISO, 1985, quoted in Alonso- Arroyo et al., 2007, p.1175) defines keyword(s) as “a word or group of words, possibly in lexicographically standardized form, taken out of a title or of the text of a document characterizing its content and enabling its retrieval”. The ‘keywords’ guideline of the Ecological Economics journal requires a “maximum of six keywords [for every submitted article], using British spelling and avoiding general or plural terms and multiple concepts” (ISEE, n/a, p.9). As mentioned in the methodology section, I have analysed the top terms and words of the keywords used in Canadian ecological economics keywords. As depicted by Table B and C, there are no dominant key terms and keywords. For every Canadian EE article, there are about 8.14 key terms and about 4.54 keywords, on average. However, since 22 different Canadian articles in the journal do not have keywords8, the latter results would be relatively larger if those articles were not accounted for. 8 There are no official indications as to why certain journal articles do not have keywords.
  8. 8. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 8 Word Cloud: Top Canadian Ecological Economics Key Terms Top Canadian Ecological Economics Key Terms (Table B) Key Terms Key Term Count % Cumulative % 1. environmental 50 3.10% 3.10% 2. valuation 29 1.80% 4.90% 3. management 21 1.30% 6.20% 4. ecosystem 21 1.30% 7.51% 5. economic 20 1.24% 8.75% 6. services 17 1.05% 9.80% 7. policy 16 0.99% 10.79% 8. conservation 16 0.99% 11.79% 9. ecological 15 0.93% 12.72% 10. change 15 0.93% 13.65%
  9. 9. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 9 Word Cloud: Top Canadian Ecological Economics Keywords Top Canadian Ecological Economics Keywords (Table C) Keywords Keyword Count % Cumulative % 1. Ecosystem services 10 1.11% 1.11% 2. Valuation 8 0.89% 2.00% 3. Conservation 8 0.89% 2.89% 4. Sustainability 8 0.89% 3.78% 5. Climate change 8 0.89% 4.67% 6. Environmental policy 5 0.56% 5.23% 7. Natural capital 5 0.56% 5.78% 8. Environmental kuznets curve 5 0.56% 6.34% 9. Evaluation 4 0.44% 6.79% 10. Indicators 4 0.44% 7.23% 11. Sustainable development 4 0.44% 7.68% 12. PES9 4 0.44% 8.12% 13. Environmental valuation 4 0.44% 8.57% 9 PES: Payments for EcosystemServices
  10. 10. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 10 While the previous title words and keywords demonstrate that there is diversity in Canadian ecological economics, the analysis of major Canadian themes suggests otherwise. Out of the 16 Canadian EE themes, Conservation, Environment/Resource Management (‘CERM’) and ‘Valuation’ encompasses about 57% of all Canadian EE articles. Table D demonstrates that Canadian ecological economics focuses on three topics, but barely discusses ‘Feminism’, ‘Education’, ‘Sociology’ and ‘Indigenous studies’. Word Cloud: Major Themes in Canadian Ecological Economics Major Themes in Canadian Ecological Economics (Table D) Themes Article Count % Cumulative % 1. CERM 60 30.30% 30.30% 2. Valuation 53 26.77% 57.07% 3. Policy 32 16.16% 73.23% 4. Modelling 10 5.05% 78.28% 5. Sustainability 7 3.54% 81.82% 6. Business and finance 7 3.54% 85.35% 7. EKC 6 3.03% 88.38% 8. De/Growth 4 2.02% 90.40% 9. Behaviour 3 1.52% 91.92% 10. History and politics 3 1.52% 93.43% 11. Ecological economists and others10 3 1.52% 94.95% 12. Indicators 3 1.52% 96.46% 13. Feminism 2 1.01% 97.47% 14. Education 2 1.01% 98.48% 10 The term ‘others’ refers to non-ecological economics academics.
  11. 11. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 11 15. Sociology 2 1.01% 99.49% 16. Indigenous studies 1 0.51% 100.00% Contributions to the Ecological Economics journal have come from all provinces, except Prince Edward Island and the three territories. However, Table E shows that more than 80% of all Canadian EE articles originate from three provinces, British Columbia, Ontario and Québec. British Columbia’s EE contribution represents almost half of all the Canadian EE articles. Moreover, British Columbia’s contributions amount to the total sum of Ontario and Québec’s contribution to the Ecological Economics journal. On the other hand, the four Canadian east coast provinces only represent around 6% of Canadian contributions to the journal. These numbers may be related to the relative number of residents per province, or even to the presence of top-tier research universities in the three most populous provinces. Table F below explores this possibility further.
  12. 12. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 12 Word Cloud: Provincial Representation in Ecological Economics Provincial Representation in Ecological Economics11 (Table E) Province Article Count % Cumulative % Is EE Taught in at least one University/College? (Nagy, 2013) 1. British Columbia 132 41.38% 41.38% Yes 2. Ontario 71 22.26% 63.64% Yes 3. Québec 61 19.12% 82.76% Yes 4. Alberta 21 6.58% 89.34% No 5. Nova Scotia 9 2.82% 92.16% Yes 6. Manitoba 7 2.19% 94.36% No 7. Saskatchewan 7 2.19% 96.55% Yes 8. New Brunswick 7 2.19% 98.75% No 9. Newfoundland 3 0.94% 99.69% Yes 10. Prince Edward Island12 0 0% - No CANSEE (Nagy, 2013) recently produced a report on Canadian universities and colleges that offer ‘Ecological Economics’ as a course. Based on the list available from the Association of Universities and Colleges across Canada (AUCC)13, “almost half of Canada’s provinces and territories […] do not have a university or university degree-level college offering an “ecological economics” course in any format” (Nagy, 2013, p.2). While six provinces in Canada have at least one university teaching an ‘ecological economics’ course, Alberta, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island do not (Nagy, 2013). The North West Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon do not have universities or college represented by the AUCC (Nagy, 2013). 11 There is also one unrecognizable province, which I did not include in Table E. In other words, there was one article that I could not recognize its provincial origin, but still accounts for 0.31% of all Canadian EE articles. 12 As mentioned earlier, there are no Canadian EE articles in the Ecological Economics journal originating from Prince Edward Island, or any of the three territories in Canada. 13 For more information, visit http://www.aucc.ca/
  13. 13. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 13 The results presented in Table F depict British Columbia as a major provincial center for Canadian EE. In fact, out of the 32 different Canadian universities, which have contributed to the journal, about 37% of the Canadian articles originate from universities in British Columbia. The heavy concentration of Canadian EE articles in British Columbia is a great strength for the province, and may be associated with B.C.’s environmentally progressive culture; for example, the province is the first to have established a revenue-neutral carbon tax. Word Cloud: Canadian University Representation in Ecological Economics Canadian University Representation in Ecological Economics (Table F) University Article Counts % Cumulative % Is there at least one EE course? (Nagy, 2013) 1. University of British Columbia 57 21.11% 21.11% Yes 2. McGill University 32 11.85% 32.96% Yes 3. Simon Fraser University 24 8.89% 41.85% Yes 4. University of Victoria 20 7.41% 49.26% No 5. York University 15 5.56% 54.81% Yes 6. University of New Brunswick 15 5.56% 60.37% No 7. University of Toronto 14 5.19% 65.56% No 8. University of Alberta 14 5.19% 70.74% No 9. University of Guelph 13 4.81% 75.56% No The EE contributions from Canadian institutions (and research groups) represent about 15% of all Canadian contributions to the journal, while Canadian universities share 75% of the contributions. Although the Group for Research in Decision Analysis (GERAD) has written the most Canadian EE articles, its contributions only represent 14% of all Canadian articles written by institutions in Canada (Table G). The share of Canadian EE written by Canadian institutions is well shared between the 23 different institutional contributors.
  14. 14. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 14 Canadian Institutional Representation in Ecological Economics (Table G) Institution Counts % Cumulative % 1. Group for Research in Decision Analysis 7 14.00% 14.00% 2. Ruitenbeek Resource Consulting Limited 6 12.00% 26.00% 3. Decision Research 6 12.00% 38.00% 4. Compass Resource Management 3 6.00% 44.00% 5. EcoPlan International Inc. 3 6.00% 50.00% 6. Natural Resources Canada 3 6.00% 56.00% 7. Environment Canada 3 6.00% 62.00% 8. Statistics Canada 2 4.00% 66.00% 9. 'Unrecognizable institution' 2 4.00% 70.00% Based on the 226 different contributors (whose article originates from Canada), William E. Rees has written the most Canadian EE articles but still represents less than 3% of all Canadian contributions. This ratio demonstrates that although most Canadian EE articles are written in British Columbia, the contributions spring from a multitude of researchers and academics. As a matter of fact, the average number of articles written in the journal by each EE contributor in Canada is about 1.43, while the median is 1. Hence, there is a certainly a good deal of diversity of authorship within the Canadian EE articles. Word Cloud: Individual Researcher Representation in Ecological Economics
  15. 15. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 15 Individual Researcher Representation in Ecological Economics (Table H) Name Counts % Cumulative % 1. William E. Rees 8 2.47% 2.47% 2. Kai M.A. Chan 7 2.16% 4.63% 3. Jack H. Ruitenbeek 7 2.16% 6.79% 4. G. Cornelis van Kooten 6 1.85% 8.64% 5. Ussif Rashid Sumaila 6 1.85% 10.49% 6. Peter A. Victor 5 1.54% 12.04% 7. Robin Gregory 5 1.54% 13.58% 8. Shashi Kant 5 1.54% 15.12% 9. Jie He 5 1.54% 16.67% 10. Oliver T. Coomes 4 1.23% 17.90% 11. Terre A. Satterfield 4 1.23% 19.14% 12. Meidad Kissinger 3 0.93% 20.06% 13. Sarah C. Klain 3 0.93% 20.99% 14. Robert D. Cairns 3 0.93% 21.91% 15. B. James Deaton 3 0.93% 22.84% 16. Qi Feng Lin 3 0.93% 23.77% 17. Denis Cormier 3 0.93% 24.69% Canadian contributions to the Ecological Economics journal grew in the past decade relative to the first fifteen years of the journal. For instance, at the debut of the Ecological Economics journal in 1989, only one Canadian EE article was published, but at the peak of Canadian contributions in 2011, 18 Canadian-connected EE articles were published. Moreover, while about 28% of Canadian EE articles were written between 1989 and 2003 around 71% were written in the following 12 years (Table I).
  16. 16. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 16 Number of Canadian EE Articles per Year (Graphic A) * The 2015 list of Canadian contributions that I have collected is from January to October. Hence, the data collected for 2015 is not completed yet, and may not fully represent all Canadian contributions to EE. Cumulative Percentages of Yearly Canadian Ecological Economics Articles (Table I) Cumulative % ‘89-03 Cumulative % ‘04-present 28.79% 71.21% Canadian contributions have grown with the Ecological Economics journal and on average Canadian articles represented about 3.75% of articles per year in the Ecological Economics journal from 1989-present. Conclusion and Next Steps We investigated Canadian contributions to the Ecological Economics journal, from 1989 to October December of 2015. We have analysed different characteristics of Canadian EE articles in order to qualitatively and quantitatively understand Canadian contributions to the journal. For instance, there are common words that EE articles usually use in their titles and keywords, such as ‘environmental’, ‘ecological’, ‘valuation’, ‘economics’, and 1 0 3 2 4 3 1 4 6 6 7 7 4 6 3 9 11 13 14 13 7 8 18 17 8 12 11 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  17. 17. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 17 ‘ecosystem services’. However, there are no heavily-used words for the case of Canadian articles, which contain a good degree of ‘informativity’ with regards to the article titles. Our analysis also shows that about 78% of all Canadian EE articles fit within four major themes: CERM, Valuation, Policy, and Modelling. To make this fact more interesting, we should further examine how these popular Canadian themes fit within the important themes in the EE literature, such as value pluralism, methodological pluralism, and multi-criteria policy assessment (Erickson & Gowdy, 2005). From the west to the east coast of Canada, EE articles are disproportionately sourced, with more than half of all Canadian EE articles coming from 20% of Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Ontario, and Québec). There are certainly many factors that should be controlled, such as population and the location of the top research universities, before determining the significance of the latter statistics. In the case of British Columbia, 37% of all Canadian EE articles are sourced from four of its universities. This leads us to wonder whether the province is the intellectual core of EE in Canada. In terms of individual researcher representation, the contributions are more evenly distributed. In fact, the 226 different contributors (whose articles originate from Canada) have written on average close to one article each. Hence, it demonstrates that the academic space for young and new ecological economists is very open. Finally, six years after the first and only Canadian EE article of 1989, the number of Canadian articles in the journal has reached the double digits each year. The next step for this research is to interview Canadian ecological economists about the present and future of EE in Canada, and the world as well. In this manner, we hope to inform the direction of Canadian ecological economics research into the future.
  18. 18. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 18 Appendices Appendix A Metric Ecological Economics Journal14 Journal of Environmental Economics and Management15 Description Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 1.599 2.261 This SNIP unit represents “the number of citations given in [2014] to publications in the past three years divided by the total number of publications in the past three years.” “SNIP citations are normalized in order to correct for differences in citation practices between scientific fields.“16 SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 1.616 2.636 SJR is referred to as a prestigious ranking that works in the manner as SNIP. The difference is that it accounts for both the quantitative and qualitative impact of the journal.17 Impact Factor 2.720 2.394 This Impact Factor unit “is calculated by dividing the number of citations [in 2014] to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years”18 . 5-Year Impact Factor 3.929 2.923 This 5-Year Impact Factor unit is calculated in the same manner as the Impact Factor. However, its five year-range extension instead indicates “the average number of times articles from a journal published in the past five years have been cited“19 . Appendix B Major Themes Descriptors Environmental Kuznets Curve Environmental Kuznets Curve; EKC (Environmental) Valuation Wildlife valuation; Stated preference methods; National accounting; Stakeholder valuation; Contingent valuation; Social valuation; Compensation; Gender; Ecosystem services; WTP-WTA; Recycling; Diversity; Agriculture; Discounting; Data; Impact assessment; Shadow prices Conservation, Environmental/Resource Management Protected areas; Wildlife; Auctions; Tourism; Fishery management; Co-management; Agriculture; Ecosystem services; Forestry; Fossil fuels; Bioeconomy; Food; Public awareness; Climate change; Carbon sequestration; Scarcity; 14 Data retrieved online on August 20th , 2015, from http://www.journals.elsevier.com/ecological-economics/ 15 Data retrieved online on August 20th , 2015, from http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-environmental- economics-and-management/ 16 Citation retrieved online on August 20th , 2015, from http://www.journalindicators.com/methodology 17 For more information, please refer to http://www.scimagojr.com 18 Citation retrieved online on August 20th , 2015, from http://wokinfo.com/essays/impact-factor/ 19 Citation retrieved online on August 20th , 2015, from http://blogs.rsc.org/rscpublishing/category/impact-factor/
  19. 19. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 19 Pest invasion; Property; Gift economy; Environmental care (Environmental) Policy International agreements; Pollution control; Developing countries; Investment in natural capital; Carbon credits; Kyoto protocol Fisheries; (Re)distribution; Behaviourism; Property rights/law; Clean Development Mechanism; Politics Ecological Economists and other Academics Aldo Leopold; William Vogt; Kenneth E. Boulding Modelling Transportation; GIS modelling; Regulated resource systems; Neighbour effect; Negotiation/Mediation; Homo Economicus; Game theory Business and Finance Insurance; Financial crisis and forest management; Financial markets; Environment and firms History and Politics History of ecological economics; Political ecology Sustainability Sustainability Feminism Feminism; Gender; Sex De/Growth De/Growth; Low growth; No Growth (Environmental and Economic) Indicators Atkinson index of inequality and GINI coefficient ; Ecological footprint; Sustainable development; Measures of diversity; Index of Captured Ecosystem Value; Water Behaviour Ego; Empathy; Households Education Sustainability; Climate change; (Modern) Prophecy Sociology Sociology Indigenous studies Indigenous Bibliography Alonso-Arroyo, A. & Gil-Leiva, I. (2007). Keywords Given by Authors of Scientific Articles in Database Descriptors. Journal of American Society for Information Science and Technology,Vol. 58 (8), pp. 1175-1187. CANSEE (March 1995). CANSEE/SCANEE NEWS. Vol. 1 (1). Retrieved from an email correspondence on November 18th , 2014. CANSEE (November 1996). Ecological Economicsand Canadian Public Policy: Report on the Second Biennial Conference of the Canadian Society of Ecological Economics.Retrieved from an email correspondence on November 18th , 2014. Erickson, J.D. & Gowdy, J. (2005). The Approach of Ecological Economics. Cambridge Journal of Economics,Vol. 29, pp. 207-222. Georgescu-Roegen, N. (G-R) (1966). Analytical Economics: Issues and Problems. Harvard University Press,Cambridge, MA. Georgescu-Roegen, N. (G-R) (1971). The Entropy Law and the Economic Process.Harvard University Press,Cambridge, MA. Gross, A.G. & Harmon, J.E. (December 2009). The Structure of Scientific Titles. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication,Vol. 39 (4), pp. 455-465.
  20. 20. James Arruda, York University Brett Dolter, York University 20 International Association for Standardization (ISO) (1985). Documentation. Methods for Examining Documents, Determining their Subjects, and Selecting Indexing Terms (ISO 5963:1985). Geneva, Switzerland. International Society of Ecological Economics (ISEE) (n/a). Author Information Pack. Retrieved online on August 23rd , 2015, from http://www.elsevier.com/journals/ecological- economics/0921-8009?generatepdf=true Moore, J. & Rees,W.E. (2013). Getting to One-Planet Living. In The World Watch Institute (Ed.), State of the World 2013 – Is Sustainability Still Possible (Chapter 4). Retrieved online on August 27th , 2015, from http://blogs.worldwatch.org/sustainabilitypossible/wp- content/uploads/2013/05/SOW2013-04-Moore-and-Rees-.pdf Nagy, L. (Spring 2013). Canadian Universities and University Degree-Level Colleges Offering an “Ecological Economics” Course in English (Lecture ClassroomBased and Distance Education). Retrieved online on August 23rd , 2015, from http://www.cansee.org/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/EE-Courses-Across-Canada-25-06-13.pdf Rees,W.E. (2013). The Shoe Fits, but the Footprint is Larger than Earth. PLoS Biology,Vol. 11, p. e1001701. Røpke, I. (2004). The Early History of Modern Ecological Economics. Ecological Economics, Vol. 50, pp. 293-314. Yitzhaki, M. (1997). Variation in Informativity of Titles of Research Papersin Selected Humanities Journals: A Comparative Study. Scientometrics,Vol. 38 (2), pp. 219-229.

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