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Fire Marshall Training for all Fire Marshalls in Lambeth Housing Offices

  1. FIRE MARSHAL TRAINING For all Fire Marshalls of Lambeth Housing Written by: James Vetch – Health & Safety Advisor
  2. Class Exercise 5 minute warm up Write down what you think cause fires, and what Fire is made up from? What causes a Fire
  3. Arson – this is a deliberate act of actually setting fire to something. Electrical fault – this can occur when there is a faulty piece of electrical equipment, and therefore shorts out and causes a fire, one of the main causes of this is due to electrical extension leads being overloaded, or even a plug socket being overloaded, shorting out and eventually catching fire. Process Fires – this is a fire which has actually been planned and basicaly rages out of control, Causes of fire
  4. Causes of fire - cont Fires caused by smoking materials - including cigarettes, roll-ups, cigars and pipe tobacco - result in more deaths than any other type of fire.  Last year around three fires a day in London were linked to smoking and half of accidental fire deaths were related to careless disposal of cigarettes.  See the next four slides of smoking in bed and what can happen in the four stages before fire is out of control and full flame
  5. Fire Training (what is covered in the Presentation)  What is Fire & the Fire Triangle and what is it made up from?  Statistics  Regulatory Reform Fire (Safety Order) 2005  How to prevent Fires  How Fires Spread  Different types of fire and how they are Categorised  Causes of fire: Arson / Electrical / Process Fires / Smoking Materials
  6. Fire Training (what is covered in the Presentation cont)  Typical Fire Safety Signs  Fire Action Notices and what do you do upon hearing the fire alarm  What is the Role of a Fire Marshal & Fire Marshals Fighting Fires  The Fire Risk Assessment?  5 Categories of fire  Fire Extinguisher chart  How to use a fire extinguisher correctly, and Identifying the right one
  7. Fire Training (what is covered in the Presentation cont)  Means of escape  Fire Drill?  Short film on Focus On Fire 11 Minutes  Fire Safety Quiz  Finish – Fill out Training Evaluation
  8. What is a Fire and the Fire Triangle Fire is the following:  Heat  Fuel  Oxygen  To start a fire you need these three elements, this is known as the Fire Triangle shown below. FuelHeat Oxygen
  9. Sources of fuel  Gas cylinders.  Oil and fuel containers.  Piles of waste materials, such as paper, cardboard, etc.  Stacks of timber.  Furniture and fittings.  Soft furnishings such as curtains, carpets, etc. The Fire Triangle
  10. The Fire Triangle - cont Sources of heat  Matches and smoking materials.  Sparks from faulty electrical equipment.  Overheated machinery and equipment.  Hot surfaces.  Sparks from abrasive wheels.  Welding and cutting torches.  Electric heaters.  Tungsten light bulbs.  Catering equipment.
  11. The Fire Triangle - cont Sources of oxygen  The air around us is 21% oxygen.  Oxygen cylinders.  Some chemical substances are oxidising by their nature, e.g. nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, etc.
  12. The Fire Triangle - cont Sources of oxygen  The air around us is 21% oxygen.  Oxygen cylinders.  Some chemical substances are oxidising by their nature, e.g. nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, etc.
  13. Fire Rescue Statistics in UK • Arson: On average 43% of all fires are caused by arson. • The other 57% are caused by accidents. This category includes fires caused by cooking and cooking appliances, hot work such as cutting and welding, smoking, faulty electrical circuits and appliances etc. • The Fire & Rescue Service receives 1.2 million calls of reported fires per annum.
  14. Fire Rescue Statistics in UK - cont • On average, 550 people are killed and over 15,000 are injured as a result of fires. • Losses due to fires is about £1.5 billion per annum. • 80% businesses that suffer a fire never recover.
  15. Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 What does the regulation state:  The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 ("the Order") came into force on 1 October 2006. It applies to all non-domestic premises in England and Wales.  The Order sets out the duties of the person responsible for premises (known in the Order as the "responsible person"). Other persons in control of premises are under duties parallel to those of a responsible person.  The responsible person is required to carry out a suitable and sufficient fire risk assessment and then implement the necessary fire precautions and management
  16. Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005  The main requirement of the (Fire Safety) Order 2005 is to have a responsible trained person to carry out Fire Risk assessment, and identify Risks and hazards., this is carried out by our Fire Risk Assessors for Lambeth Housing, there duties will consist of:  Consider who may be especially at risk from Fire within the workplace?  So far as reasonably practicable to eliminate the risk from fire. (make sure the place is clean and tidy and free from materials which could start a fire).  Review the findings of the Risk Assessment as necessary.  To be responsible for all aspects of Fire Safety within the workplace.
  17. Class Exercise 5 minutes Write down how you think how we can prevent fires from happening. How do we prevent fires from happening
  18. How to prevent Fires • Keep the workplace tidy - remove waste materials regularly. • Keep electrical equipment well maintained. • Obey smoking rules. • Don’t overload electrical sockets and check appliance cables for wear. • Prevent sparks from reaching flammable materials.
  19. How to prevent Fires - cont • Not allow the accumulation of large amounts of combustible materials around workplaces, escape routes or in lift lobbies. • Not obstruct fire escapes, fire exits or any fire-related equipment. • Familiarize themselves with their nearest means of escape in the event of a fire. • Not obstruct ventilation grills on electrical equipment. • Ensure that self-closing fire/smoke doors are not wedged in the open position. • Observe the smoking policy for the building.
  20. Class Exercise On your Exercise 1 Hand Out Write down the six ways in which you think fires might spread How do Fires Spread
  21. How Fires spread 1. Radiation – Radiated heat may be sufficient to cause some materials to ignite from quite a distance. 2. Direct Burning – Quite simply the act of setting fire to something. 3. Flashover – combination of all four methods as stated, fire starts in a small area with good supply of oxygen, causing high temps. The hot gases given off the materials will then ignite causing a fireball effect. 4. Conduction – transmitting of heat through certain materials. 5. Convection – this is where the temp of the gases which have been unable to escape will collect at the highest level and cause ignition of surrounding materials to burn.
  22. How Fires spread - cont 6) Back Draft – When a fire starts in enclosed space, with little or know oxygen as fire gets hold it starts to go out, however the fire is at Such a high temp that if more oxygen is allowed to enter into room then this will cause re-ignition, and cause the flames to spread at the point where oxygen has entered the room. Note: Escape from flashover is nearly impossible. Recognizing the warning signs and knowing how to prevent them will do more to ensure your safety. We know the warning signs, but you must be able to react to them. A flashover can occur in 10 seconds. This will allow the average firefighter the time to travel approximately five feet to an exit. If operating a hoseline is not an option, then go out a window or move to another room and close the door if possible. This will give you some protection.
  23. This building is an example as to what happens when you get a Back draft, as you can see by the picture the fire has got hold of the building, and where the oxygen has entered the room the fire has raged to a point of no return, and the fire has spread very quickly up into the roof and really got a hold, and basically burnt this building in minutes. Example of a backdraft
  24. Class Exercise On your Exercise 2 Hand Out 10 minutes Write down what control measures you would introduce on the fire prevention exercise Identifying and Controlling Risks Exercise
  25. Fire Prevention Exercise Fire Prevention At Work Exercise 1 Identifying and controlling risks The purpose of this exercise is to raise awareness of particular risks and how they can be controlled. What is the particular hazard in the case scenario and how can the risk be reduced. There is an emergency light which does not appear to have an LED light on it, also the smoke alarm up above appears to be covered with a piece of plastic. What are the risks and how might they be reduced. 
  26. Fire Prevention Exercise - Answers  This could be a faulty unit or it might have just gone out, whatever the case this unit would need investigating and replaced if necessary.  The unit could hinder an evacuation should there be a density of smoke.  The fact the light does not work could potentially put lives at risk.  Make sure the units are inspected at regular intervals so not to put lives in danger or risk.  The smoke alarm would be useless in the event of a fire as by the time the smoke had eventually penetrated the alarm, there would be a severe build up of smoke or even fire.  Dangerous to lives and as a result could put lives at risk.  Make sure that smoke detectors are regularly inspected and that if there has been some building work going on, that the cover is removed at the end of the working day.  Regular testing of the alarm system will help to reduce this type of problem, and identify potential problems with the alarm system.
  27. Typical Fire Safety Signs Fire door sign – when you see this sign you will know it is a fire door and will have 30 minutes before the door lets the fire through. Fire alarm call point sign
  28. Typical Fire Safety Signs - cont Fire escape route sign (Arrow indicates direction of exit) Position of fire assembly point
  29. Fire Alarm System Manual fire alarm break glass call point • On discovering a fire - break the glass. Manual door release point (if applicable) Emergency door release - break the glass. Operating the fire alarm system
  30. Fire Action Notice The Fire Action Notice will tell you what to do in the event of discovering a fire, and where to assemble, there should be several of these dotted around the Lambeth Housing offices. Make sure you know what to do in an emergency.
  31. What do you do when hearing the Fire Alarm  When hearing the alarm if it goes on for longer than a minute you need to stop what you are doing and leave the office building you are in by the nearest fire exit as quickly and safely as possible, switch off any electrical equipment that might be a danger if left, do not collect any personal belongings, close doors and windows behind you, and assemble at the designated assembly point, for your particular building.  If you have visitors you need to make sure they know where to assemble, likewise if you have persons with special needs or in a wheelchair then special arrangements will need to be made to make sure they leave the building safely. This will be coordinated by you as Fire Marshals for the Housing office’s.
  32. The Role Of A Fire Marshal  A Fire Marshal is very important to the Housing Office as they are very important when it come to fire evacuation, they are responsible for evacuating persons out of the building safely and calmly.  A Fire Marshal knows the appropriate action in the event of fire, such as closing doors and windows, making a thorough search of their area to make sure no one is still in the office, and making arrangements for persons who might be disabled or have special needs, to be evacuated safely.  A Fire Marshal is a trained person who can tackle small fires and use the correct fire extinguishers without endangering themselves or others.  The Fire Marshal regardless of Job Status overalls everyone else in an emergency situation unless they themselves are trained, e.g. The office manager or your line manager.
  33. Fire Marshal Fighting Fires How to remove the fire using the elements from the Fire Triangle As stated in the Fire Triangle, Heat, Fuel and oxygen are needed for a fire to start, and one ore more of these elements must be removed to extinguish it. Heat: can be removed by COOLING such as applying water. Oxygen: can be removed by SMOTHERING the fire, like applying foam or carbon dioxide. Fuel: removing the source means turning of the supply STARVING e.g turning off the gas or other fuel supply or switching the electricity off.
  34. Fire Marshal Fighting Fires (cont) Safety Procedures when using fire fighting equipment Personal safety is of paramount importance in any fire situation, only suitably trained persons should attempt to extinguish a fire, this is where you as fire marshals have an important role. When dealing with a fire however small the fire is as Fire Marshals it is important that you must observe the following:  Remain between the fire and the exit  Use the correct extinguisher for the fire, or the substance which is on fire  Keep low and out of the heat and smoke.  Call the fire service to check the fire is completely extinguished and has not spread.  If in doubt GET OUT
  35. Class Exercise On your Exercise 3 Hand Out Write down the Five stages of Fire Risk Assessment Name the Five stages of Fire Risk Assessment
  36. Fire Risk Assessment There are five stages of Fire Risk Assessment and they are:  To identify all potential fire hazards, and consider how Fire could start.  To identify everyone at risk, employers, employees, contractors, people who are vulnerable such as a disabled person.  Evaluation & Action consider the hazards and people identified in 1 and 2 and act to remove and reduce risk to protect people and premises.  To record, plan and train keep a record of the risks and action taken. Make a clear plan for fire safety and ensure that people understand what they need to do in the event of a fire.  To review the assessment regularly, or when new hazards identified.
  37. Categories of Fire There are 5 categories of Fire and these are the following: Class A: Fires involving solid materials usually organic nature such as wood, paper, natural fibres in clothing or furniture. Class B: Fires involving flammable liquids, such as petrol ,oil, grease, fat and paint. Class C: Fires involving gases or liquefies gases, such as mains gas, propane, butane or methane. Class D: Fires involving metals such as aluminium, sodium and magnesium. Class F: Fires involving cooking fats, such as chip pan fires.
  38. Class Exercise On your Exercise 4 Hand Out Fire Extinguisher Chart Write down what you think are the correct Fire Extinguishers to use on the 5 different categories of fire Based on the Five Categories of Fire
  39. Fire Extinguisher Chart – Exercise 4 Hand-Out Water Foam Dry Powder Carbon Dioxide Fire Blanket Wood Paper Textiles Flammable Liquids Gaseous Substances Live Electrical Hot Fat Confined Space
  40. Fire Extinguisher Chart Water Foam Dry Powder Carbon Dioxide Fire Blanket Wood Yes Yes Yes No No Paper Yes Yes Yes No No Textiles Yes Yes Yes No No Flammable Liquids No Yes Yes Yes Yes Gaseous Substances No No Yes No No Live Electrical No No Yes Yes No Hot Fat No No No No Yes Confined Space Yes Yes Yes No Yes
  42. What Is A Fire Extinguisher And Which One Do I Use  A Fire Extinguisher is Fire Fighting equipment to extinguish fires safely, and if used properly will save lives.  All Extinguishers are red in colour as per EU Directive and identified by colour band no more than 5% of extinguisher. For example Blue band = ABC Powder.  There are Five main types of extinguisher and they are the following: – Water – (paper, wood, textiles) – Solid Materials – Carbon Dioxide – (flammable liquids, live electrical) – Foam – (wood, paper, textiles, flammable liquids) – Powder – (textiles, paper, wood, gaseous substances, flammable liquids, live electrical) – Wet Chemical – (flammable Liquids & Cooking Oils)
  43. Lambeth Housing uses two types of Fire Extinguisher as shown 6Ltr Water Extinguisher 2Kg CO2 Extinguisher
  44. Class Exercise Would Anybody like to demonstrate at handling a fire extinguisher to see if they can adopt the correct method Practical Demonstration on Fire Extinguishers
  45. There is a special acronym known as PASS (shown below) when referring to Fire Extinguishers. This should always be adopted when using Extinguishers to fight any fire. • Pull – Pull out the pin • Aim – Aim at the fire • Squeeze – Squeeze the trigger • Sweep – use a sweeping method of extinguishing the fire. Note: Golden rule when fighting fires always phone the Fire Brigade 999 first before attempting to put out any fire. How To Use A Fire Extinguisher Safely
  46. How To Use A Fire Extinguisher Safely with PASS
  47. Means Of Escape This is the identified escape route from any part of the Housing office premises to a place of safety, where they are free from obstruction and all exits are clear at all times. Points to consider would be the following:  Corridors and main stairway  Fire self closing Auto doors  Fire Exit Doors  Fire Exit Door Signage  Emergency lighting  Safe evacuation procedures and assembly point
  48. Means Of Escape - Cont Emergency Lighting   Emergency Exit Break Glass 
  49. The Fire Drill The fire drill is a very important part of Lambeth Housing Office duty as an employer to ensure that all you as staff know how to react in the event of a fire. At least one drill every 6 months which is law. This can either be pre-planned and letting everyone know there is going to be a drill, at a certain time and a certain place, or the more effective way would be to have a completely unannounced drill. The purpose of the fire drill is to:  Ensure that you as staff know the correct procedure to follow in case of fire.  To ensure persons nominated as Fire Marshals carry out their duties effectively.  To underpin staff training.  To help identify any problems with the emergency plan.
  50. The Emergency Plan As the Fire Risk Assessment has now been carried out and implemented all the findings, it is a requirement of the Fire Regulations and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations, that Lambeth Housing Office prepares an emergency plan. This should cover the following:  The Fire Risk Assessment  On going hazard identification  Inspection and maintenance of fire precaution equipment  Designation and duties of the fire marshals.  Action employees should take in discovering a fire  How people will be warned if there is a fire  How the evacuation of the buildings will be carried out  Where people should assemble once they have left the building and the procedures for checking whether the building has been evacuated
  51. The Emergency Plan (cont)  Identification of key escape routes, and how people can gain access to them and escape from them to a place of safety.  Fire fighting equipment provided.  Arrangements for safe evacuation of people identified as being especially at risk, such as visitors , contractors, or any person with a disability.  Arrangements for power supplies which made need to be stopped.  Arrangements for high risk work areas  Who will be responsible for calling the fire rescue services  Procedures for liaising with the fire rescue services on their arrival and notifying them of any special risks e.g location of flammable materials.  What training that employees need, and arrangements to make sure that it is given, like todays training which you are receiving.
  52. Focus On Fire Sit back and relax and watch 11 minute Video and recap on all we have spoken about this morning, before you launch into the Fire Safety Quiz.
  53. The Fire Safety Quiz Test your knowledge and understanding of what you have learnt today in this presentation Good luck! 15 Minutes Can you then please fill out your Training Evaluation Sheets in front of you when you have finished and make sure you put your name clearly at the top and where you are from and any comments you would like to make, so that well there are parts of training which could be better this can be looked at for further training, or particular parts you enjoyed more.
  54. The Answers 1) a) Water & b)Foam 2) c) When the person in charge or the fire officer says so. 3) c) Regularly clearing rubbish and waste. 4) a) Ensure the precautions identified in the risk assessment are maintained. b) Taking the appropriate action in the event of fire. c) Ongoing fire Hazards Identification and reporting to Health & Safety Team so that immediate remedial action can be taken. d) Ensure so far as possible the safe evacuation of everyone from the premises.
  55. The Answers - cont 5) c) Green 6) c) Flammable Liquids 7) c) Operate the nearest Fire Alarm Call Point 8) Heat , Fuel , Oxygen 9) a) Fire Action notices 10) d) Evacuate immediately 11) b) Radiation, Convection, Conduction d) Direct Burning, Flashover, Backdraft 12) a) To Identify potential Fire Hazards b) To Identify everyone at risk c) To Eliminate, control or avoid the Hazard d) To consider whether the existing fire arrangements in place are adequate or need improving
  56. The Answers - cont 13) c) CO2 14) d) 30 minutes 15) c) The Regulatory (Fire Safety) Order 2005 16) a) Paper and waste in general b) Furniture Chairs & Fabrics 17) a) Flashover 18) a) Pull , Aim , Squeeze , Sweep 19) C) if the the fire is going out, close the door and evacuate the building. d) Always keep an exit behind you so that you can escape quickly if need be.
  57. THE END  Thank you for attending this training session today, I hope it has been helpful and will make you more aware of how important you are as staff, and now Fire Marshalls for Lambeth Housing, and more importantly know what you have to do do in an emergency situation, and that you could leave this session with a better understanding of Fire Awareness.